Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
Bill O'Reilly (cricketer)
William Joseph "Tiger" O'Reilly was an Australian cricketer, rated as one of the greatest bowlers in the history of the game. Following his retirement from playing, he became broadcaster. O'Reilly was one of the best spin bowlers to play cricket, he delivered the ball from a two-fingered grip at close to medium pace with great accuracy, could produce leg breaks and top spinners, with no discernible change in his action. A tall man for a spinner, he whirled his arms to an unusual extent and had a low point of delivery that meant it was difficult for the batsman to read the flight of the ball out of his hand; when O'Reilly died, Sir Donald Bradman said that he was the greatest bowler he had faced or watched. In 1935, Wisden wrote of him: "O'Reilly was one of the best examples in modern cricket of what could be described as a'hostile' bowler." In 1939, Wisden reflected on Bill O'Reilly's successful 1938 Ashes tour of England: "He is emphatically one of the greatest bowlers of all time."As a batsman, O'Reilly was a competent right-hander batting well down the order.
O'Reilly's citation as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1935 said: "He had no pretensions to grace of style or any particular merit, but he could hit tremendously hard and was always a menace to tired bowlers."As well as his skill, O'Reilly was known for his competitiveness, bowled with the aggression of a paceman. In a short biographical essay on O'Reilly for the Barclays World of Cricket book, his contemporary, the England cricketer Ian Peebles, wrote that "any scoring-stroke was greeted by a testy demand for the immediate return of the ball rather than a congratulatory word. Full well did he deserve his sobriquet of'Tiger'." Of Irish descent, O'Reilly's paternal grandfather Peter emigrated from County Cavan, Ulster in 1865. Arriving in Sydney, he had been a policeman for four years in Ireland and continued in this line of work in New South Wales, he was sent to Deniliquin in the Riverina, where he settled and married another Irish immigrant Bridget O'Donoghue from Ballinasloe, County Galway.
O'Reilly's father, was a school teacher and moved around the areas surrounding the Murray River to study and teach. O'Reilly's mother Mina was of mixed Irish and English descent, of a third generation family from Adelaide. O'Reilly was born in the opal mining town of New South Wales. Ernest had been appointed to open the first school in the town, had helped to build the school and its furniture himself. Bill was the fourth child in the family, with a sister. O'Reilly's cricket skills were self-taught, he learned to play with his brothers, playing with a "gum-wood bat and a piece of banksia root chiselled down to make a ball." He learned to bowl. His bowling action was far from the classic leg spin bowler's run-up and delivery, according to Wisden, "he was asked to make up the numbers in a Sydney junior match and, with a method that at first made everyone giggle, whipped out the opposition". From a young age, O'Reilly was a gangly player. In January 1908, shortly after Bill had turned two, the family moved to Murringo, after Ernest was appointed the headmaster.
O'Reilly said in his autobiography Tiger that the move played no vital part in his cricket education. The area had much more vegetation than the desolate White Cliffs, an Irish Australian majority. O'Reilly described the period as the happiest of his life. There the children took up cricket. During this time, O'Reilly's mother gave birth to two more daughters. In 1917, at the age of 12, the family moved to the town of Wingello. Ernest made the decision because there were no high schools near Murringo and his older children were about to finish primary school. There was no high school in Wingello where Ernest had been appointed headmaster, so O'Reilly had to catch a train to Goulburn—50 km away—to study at the local public secondary school, where his elder brother Tom had been awarded a scholarship. Wingello was a cricket town and "everyone was a cricket crank" according to O'Reilly, it was here. O'Reilly played in the town's team and won the regional tennis championships. O'Reilly bowled with an action reminiscent of the windmill.
However, school life was difficult in the winter, as the Southern Tablelands were harsh and cold. The O'Reilly children had to leave Wingello at 7.45 am by rail and caught a slow goods train that delivered them home at 7 pm. In the early 1920s, O'Reilly's eldest brother Jack moved to Sydney. One afternoon, Jack watched spin bowler Arthur Mailey in the North Sydney practice nets and managed to describe the famous bowler's'Bosie' action in a letter to Bill. O'Reilly claims to have perfected the action of changing the spin from anticlockwise to clockwise without any discernible hand movement within a couple of days. O'Reilly said. I practised day in, day out". Ernest decided that the train journeys and frozen limbs were too much for his son, so he sent Bill to St Patrick's College, Goulburn as a boarder in 1921, where he showed his athletic flair by becoming a member of the school's rugby league, tennis and cricket teams, he held
Australia national cricket team
The Australia national cricket team is the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, having played in the first Test match in 1877. The team plays One-Day International and Twenty20 International cricket, participating in both the first ODI, against England in the 1970–71 season and the first T20I, against New Zealand in the 2004–05 season, winning both games; the team draws its players from teams playing in the Australian domestic competitions – the Sheffield Shield, the Australian domestic limited-overs cricket tournament and the Big Bash League. The national team has played 820 Test matches, winning 386, losing 222, drawing 210 and tying 2; as of March 2019, Australia is ranked fourth in the ICC Test Championship on 104 rating points. Australia is the most successful team in Test cricket history, in terms of overall wins, win-loss ratio and wins percentage; the Australian cricket team has played 932 ODI matches, winning 566, losing 323, tying 9 and with 34 ending in a no-result. As of March 2019, Australia is ranked fifth in the ICC ODI Championship on 102 rating points, though have been ranked first for 141 of 185 months since its introduction in 2002.
Australia have made a record seven World Cup final appearances and have won the World Cup a record five times in total. Australia is the first team to appear in four consecutive World Cup finals, surpassing the old record of three consecutive World Cup appearances by the West Indies and the first team to win 3 consecutive World Cups; the team was undefeated in 34 consecutive World Cup matches until 19 March at the 2011 Cricket World Cup where Pakistan beat them by 4 wickets. It is the second team to win a World Cup on home soil, after India. Australia have won the ICC Champions Trophy twice making them the first and the only team to become back to back winners in the Champions Trophy tournaments; the national team has played 116 Twenty20 International matches, winning 60, losing 52, tying 2 and with 2 ending in a no-result. As of March 2019, Australia is ranked third in the ICC T20I Championship on 120 rating points. Additionally, the team made the final of the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. On 12 January 2019, Australia won the first ODI against India at the Sydney Cricket Ground by 34 runs, to record their 1,000th win in international cricket.
The Australian cricket team participated in the first Test match at the MCG in 1877, defeating an English team by 45 runs, with Charles Bannerman making the first Test century, a score of 165 retired hurt. Test cricket, which only occurred between Australia and England at the time, was limited by the long distance between the two countries, which would take several months by sea. Despite Australia's much smaller population, the team was competitive in early games, producing stars such as Jack Blackham, Billy Murdoch, Fred "The Demon" Spofforth, George Bonnor, Percy McDonnell, George Giffen and Charles "The Terror" Turner. Most cricketers at the time were either from New South Wales or Victoria, with the notable exception of George Giffen, the star South Australian all-rounder. A highlight of Australia's early history was the 1882 Test match against England at The Oval. In this match, Fred Spofforth took 7/44 in the game's fourth innings to save the match by preventing England from making their 85-run target.
After this match The Sporting Times, a major newspaper in London at the time, printed a mock obituary in which the death of English cricket was proclaimed and the announcement made that "the body was cremated and the ashes taken to Australia." This was the start of the famous Ashes series in which Australia and England play a series of Test matches to decide the holder of the Ashes. To this day, the contest is one of the fiercest rivalries in sport; the so-called'Golden Age' of Australian Test cricket occurred around the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, with the team under the captaincy of Joe Darling, Monty Noble and Clem Hill winning eight of ten tours. It is considered to have lasted from the 1897–98 English tour of Australia and the 1910–11 South African tour of Australia. Outstanding batsmen such as Joe Darling, Clem Hill, Reggie Duff, Syd Gregory, Warren Bardsley and Victor Trumper, brilliant all-rounders including Monty Noble, George Giffen, Harry Trott and Warwick Armstrong and excellent bowlers including Ernie Jones, Hugh Trumble, Tibby Cotter, Bill Howell, Jack Saunders and Bill Whitty, all helped Australia to become the dominant cricketing nation for most of this period.
Victor Trumper became one of Australia's first sporting heroes, was considered Australia's greatest batsman before Bradman and one of the most popular players. He played a record number of Tests at 49 and scored 3163 runs at a high for the time average of 39.04. His early death in 1915 at the age of 37 from kidney disease caused national mourning; the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, in its obituary for him, called him Australia's greatest batsman: "Of all the great Australian batsmen Victor Trumper was by general consent the best and most brilliant."The years leading up to the start of World War I were marred by conflict between the players, led by Clem Hill, Victor Trumper and Frank Laver, the Australian Board of Control for International Cricket, led by Peter McAlister, attempting to gain more control of tours from the players. This led to six leading players walking out on the 1912 Triangular Tournament in England, with Australia fielding what was considered a second-rate side; this was the last series before the war, no more cricket was played by A
Kent County Cricket Club
Kent County Cricket Club is one of the eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Kent; the club was first founded in 1842 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Kent have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club's limited overs team is called the Kent Spitfires after the Supermarine Spitfire. The county has won the County Championship seven times, including one shared victory. Four wins came in the period between 1906 and 1913 with the other three coming during the 1970s when Kent dominated one-day cricket cup competitions. A total of eleven one-day cricket cup victories include eight between 1967 and 1978, with the last trophy won by the club coming in the 2007 Twenty20 Cup.
The club plays most of its home matches at the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury, which hosts Canterbury Cricket Week, the oldest cricket festival in England. It plays some home matches at the County Cricket Ground and the Nevill Ground, Royal Tunbridge Wells which hosts Tunbridge Wells Cricket Week. Kent field a women's team in the Women's County Championship; the team has won the Championship a record seven times, most in 2016, the Women's T20 title three times, most also in 2016. It has traditionally played matches at the Polo Farm in Canterbury, but since 2016 has moved to be based at Beckenham. Cricket is believed to have originated out of children's bat and ball games in the areas of the Weald and North and South Downs in Kent and Sussex; the two counties and Surrey were the first centres of the game and the earliest known organised match involving adult players took place in Kent in about 1610 at Chevening, with village cricket developing in the area during the 17th century. A newspaper report recorded an 11-a-side match played for a wager of 11 guineas a man at Town Malling, between West Kent and Chatham in 1705, the first properly recorded cricket match in the county.
Four years the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent. Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century, it came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team began to become rather more representative of Kent as a county playing against teams from Sussex. There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead's team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as "the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex"; this proclamation of Kent's superiority is the first time that the concept of a "Champion County" can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by comments made in other newspaper reports in the next two years. In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation for the first time of an All-England team to play against them. Kent drew the second. In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times including the famous encounter on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground, commemorated in a poem by James Love.
Under the 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field strong teams through the last quarter of the 18th century, were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club. Teams, which were not always wholly representative of the county itself, played numerous inter-county matches through the 1770s and 1780s against Hampshire and Surrey. Inter-county cricket ceased during the Napoleonic Wars due to a lack of investment, although Kent teams played a few matches and club cricket continued. County matches were not resurrected until 1825. By the 1830s Kent sides began to dominate English cricket, winning 98 matches during the period and being declared the leading county side for six seasons out of the seven between 1837 and 1843. During this period the formation of county sides was focussed on Town Malling Cricket Club, backed by lawyers Thomas Selby and Silas Norton alongside William Harris, 2nd Baron Harris. Selby and Norton recruited "the best batsman in England", Fuller Pilch from Norfolk, to play at Town Malling, maintain the cricket ground and run the connected public house.
Alongside other players such as Alfred Mynn, Nicholas Felix, Ned Wenman and William Hillyer, Kent teams selected by Selby played eleven matches at Town Malling between 1836 and 1841. The expense of running county games meant that Town Malling proved too small to support a county club, despite the large attendances that games attracted, in 1842 Pilch moved to the Beverley club at Canterbury; the Beverley Cricket Club was formed in 1835 at the Canterbury estate of brothers John and William Baker playing in the St Stephen's district of the city before moving to the Beverley Ground in 1839 when they organised the first annual Cricket Week. After the failure of the Town Malling club, the Bakers stepped in to organise Kent teams, the newest patrons of cricket in the county, Pilch moving to Canterbury to be the groundsman; the Beverley club became the Kent Cricket Club on 6 August 1842, when it reconstituted itself during the annual cricket festival. The club was the first formal incarnation of Kent County Cricket Club and the 1842 cricket festival is seen by Kent as being the first Canterbury Cricket Week.
The new Kent club played its initial first-class cricket match against A
Bill Voce was an English cricketer who played for Nottinghamshire and England. As a fast bowler, he was an instrumental part of England's infamous Bodyline strategy in their tour of Australia in 1932–1933 under Douglas Jardine, he was born near Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. He died at Nottingham. Voce came from a working-class background in the coal mining districts around Nottingham. In the late 1920s he was living at a colliery town, he walked from Hucknall to Trent Bridge in the hope of a trial and his natural talent was recognised. In Voce's "Daily Telegraph" obituary, the writer E. W. Swanton recalled his "long, loose arm and natural flowing action". Bowling over the wicket, Voce could perform both the outswinger. Depending on the pitch conditions, he could switch from pace to slow-medium spin. Voce made his first-class debut for Nottinghamshire against Gloucestershire in 1927. A few good performances saw him keep his place despite the strength and variety of Nottinghamshire's bowling.
At this stage, he was a classical left-arm spinner and some critics viewed him as a successor to Colin Blythe. Thus, when he changed to a faster pace the following year there was a good deal of criticism, but, in 1929, Voce returned to his slower style with great success in a number of games on sticky wickets, notably against Northamptonshire when he took fourteen wickets for 43 runs, he was selected for the English tour of the West Indies and made his Test debut in the first Test at Bridgetown, Barbados, on 11 January 1930. However, the hard wicket encouraged him to move to a faster style, he had so much success that he persisted with the faster method when he returned to England, except on wet pitches, he did not do well as a pace bowler in 1930, but following Australia's tour of England in that summer, when Don Bradman scored against the English bowling, Voce was part of a meeting convened between the future English captain, Douglas Jardine, Nottinghamshire captain, Arthur Carr, to come up with a tactic to defeat Bradman and the Australians.
Voce, his fellow Nottinghamshire fast bowler, Harold Larwood, agreed to a suggestion by Jardine that bowling fast rising balls into the batsmen's bodies, with several catching fielders on the leg side would be an effective tactic. Over the next two years and Larwood practised this modified form of leg theory for Nottinghamshire, causing severe problems for opposing batsmen. Although Voce was somewhat slower than Larwood, his line, from left-arm over the wicket, the steeper bounce that he obtained from his height, made him formidable enough and the batsmen got no relief when facing him. Voce took 123 wickets for 19.29 each in 1931, with 136 for 16.87 each in 1932, he was chosen as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year for 1933. His bowling was so good that he regained his Test place and, with Larwood, was named for the 1932–1933 English tour of Australia, to be captained by Jardine; the bowlers implemented Jardine's tactic, bowling fast and short at the Australian batsmen, with Voce inflicting several bruising injuries.
The Australian media dubbed the tactic'Bodyline'. This resulted in severe ill-feeling between the cricket teams, the countries. Following the Bodyline series, Voce declined as a bowler, but advanced as a hard-hitting batsman, to such an extent that he scored 1,020 runs for an average of over 35 in 1933 – though from Nottinghamshire's perspective, this advance was nothing in comparison to the loss of 140 wickets from Larwood, a cut of half in Voce's tally. Voce was to remain a dangerous hitter for the rest of his career, still holds the record for having played in the greatest number – five – of tenth wicket century stands in first-class cricket; the political fallout resulting from Bodyline ensured that Voce, despite taking eight wickets against the Australians in 1934, was not chosen for any of the Tests, before the 1935 season started, Voce asked Marylebone Cricket Club not to choose him. However, in county cricket, Voce was as good a bowler as and may have taken over 150 wickets in both 1935 and 1936, but for faulty catching in the slips.
He declared himself available again during the latter year, became party to the 1936/1937 tour under Gubby Allen. Bowling this time to an off-side field, after a disappointing beginning, bowled superbly in the first Test at the Gabba with six for 41 on a perfect pitch, crushed Australia with four for sixteen, after rain, on the fifth day. England won by 322 runs, Voce again utilised a rain-affected pitch in the second Test with match figures of seven for 76, including three wickets in four balls. After taking seventeen wickets in the inaugural two Tests, Voce did not keep up his form in the last three due to a back problem, he still finished with 26 wickets to be the leading bowler for the series.1937, was wiped out by a serious injury mid-season, when fit again in the following two years, Voce was troubled by illness and had lost the venom of earlier in the decade. He failed to reach 100 wickets in either season, joined the armed forces during World War II. In 1946, at the age of thirty-seven, Voce played little cricket, but one excellent performance in a Test trial led him to be picked for his third tour of Australia for the 1946-47 Ashes series.
Having arrived from a country that had had seven years of rationing Australia was a'land flowing with milk and honey' and he soon put on two stone in weight. Whilst his classic action remained, he had none of the venom of old, was overweight and medium-paced, in a controversial umpiring decision Bradman was given not out after being caught for 28 off his bowling in the First Test. Voce failed to take a Test wicket on the tou
Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Lancashire. The club has held first-class status since it was founded in 1864. Lancashire's home is Old Trafford Cricket Ground, although the team play matches at other grounds around the county. Lancashire was a founder member of the County Championship in 1890 and have won the competition nine times, most in 2011; the club's limited overs team is called Lancashire Lightning. Lancashire were recognised as the Champion County four times between 1879 and 1889, they won their first two County Championship titles in the 1904 seasons. Between 1926 and 1934, they won the championship five times. Throughout most of the inter-war period and their neighbours Yorkshire had the best two teams in England and the Roses Matches between them were the highlight of the domestic season. In 1950, Lancashire shared the title with Surrey; the County Championship was restructured in 2000 with Lancashire in the first division. They won the 2011 County Championship, a gap of 77 years since the club's last outright title in 1934.
In 1895, Archie MacLaren scored 424 in an innings for Lancashire, which remains the highest score by an Englishman in first-class cricket. Johnny Briggs, whose career lasted from 1879 to 1900, was the first player to score 10,000 runs and take 1,000 wickets for Lancashire. Ernest Tyldesley, younger brother of Johnny Tyldesley, is the club's leading run-scorer with 34,222 runs in 573 matches for Lancashire between 1909 and 1936. Fast bowler Brian Statham took a club record 1,816 wickets in 430 first-class matches between 1950 and 1968. England batsman Cyril Washbrook became Lancashire's first professional captain in 1954; the Lancashire side of the late 1960s and early 1970s, captained by Jack Bond and featuring the West Indian batsman Clive Lloyd, was successful in limited overs cricket, winning the Sunday League in 1969 and 1970 and the Gillette Cup four times between 1970 and 1975. Lancashire won the Benson and Hedges Cup in 1984, three times between 1990 and 1996, the Sunday League in 1989, 1998 and 1999.
They won the Twenty20 Cup for the first time in 2015. First XI honoursChampion County – 1881; as advised by the Association of Cricket Statisticians, the earliest known reference to the sport being played in the county has been found in the Manchester Journal dated Saturday, 1 September 1781. It concerned an eleven-a-side match played the previous Monday, 27 August, at Brinnington Moor between a team of printers and one representing the villages of Haughton and Bredbury, who were the winners; as Bredbury was in Cheshire, the match is the earliest reference for that county too. In 1816, the Manchester Cricket Club was founded and soon became the main north country rivals of Nottingham Cricket Club and Sheffield Cricket Club. On 23–25 July 1849, the Sheffield and Manchester clubs played each other at Hyde Park in Sheffield but the fixture was styled Yorkshire v Lancashire, it was the first match to involve a team using Lancashire as its name and is sometimes reckoned to have been the first Roses Match.
Yorkshire won by five wickets. Teams called Yorkshire, though based on the Sheffield club, had been active since 1833; the Roses Match is one of cricket's most famous rivalries. In 1857, the Manchester club moved to Old Trafford, the home of Lancashire cricket since. On Tuesday, 12 January 1864, Manchester Cricket Club organised a meeting at the Queen's Hotel in Manchester for the purpose of forming a club to represent the county. Thirteen local clubs were represented: Broughton, Longsight and Western from the Manchester area. Lancashire County Cricket Club was founded with the object of, it was said, "spreading a thorough knowledge and appreciation of the game throughout Lancashire", it was intended to stage home matches alternately at Old Trafford, Preston, Blackburn and at "other places to help introduce good cricket throughout the county". The new county club played its first-ever official game at Warrington against Birkenhead Park on Wednesday, 15 June 1864 but, not a first-class match; the first inter-county match, first-class, was played in 1865 at Old Trafford against Middlesex.
The early Lancashire side was reliant upon amateurs. During the early 1870s, the team was dominated by A. N. Hornby’s batting; the team's standard of cricket improved with the arrival of two professional players, Dick Barlow and Alex Watson. The impact of Barlow and Hornby was such that their batting partnership was immortalised in the poem At Lord’s by Francis Thompson; the team was further enhanced by A. G. Stee
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's cricket ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood, England. The club was the governing body of cricket in England and Wales and, as the sport's legislator, held considerable global influence. In 1788, the MCC took responsibility for the Laws of Cricket. Although changes to the Laws are now determined by the International Cricket Council, the copyright is still owned by MCC. For much of the 20th century, commencing with the 1903–04 tour of Australia and ending with the 1976–77 tour of India, MCC organised international tours in which the England cricket team played Test matches. On these tours, the England team was called MCC in non-international matches. In 1993, its administrative and governance functions were transferred to the ICC and the Test and County Cricket Board; the club's own teams are ad hoc because they have never taken part in any formal competition. MCC teams have always held first-class status depending on the quality of the opposition.
To mark the beginning of each English season, MCC plays the reigning County Champions. The origin of MCC was as a gentlemen's club that had flourished through most of the 18th century, including, at least in part, an existence as the original London Cricket Club, which had played at the Artillery Ground through the middle years of the century. Many of its members became involved with the Hambledon Club through the 1770s and in the early 1780s, had returned to the London area where the White Conduit Club had begun in Islington, it is not known for certain when the White Conduit was founded but it seems to have been after 1780 and by 1785. According to Pelham Warner, it was formed in 1782 as an offshoot from a West End convivial club called the Je-ne-sais-quoi, some of whose members frequented the White Conduit House in Islington and played matches on the neighbouring White Conduit Fields, a prominent venue for cricket in the 1720s. Arthur Haygarth said in Scores and Biographies that "the Marylebone Club was founded in 1787 from the White Conduit's members" but the date of the formation of the White Conduit "could not be found".
This gentlemen's club, multi-purpose, had a social meeting place at the Star and Garter on Pall Mall. It was the same club, responsible for drafting the Laws of Cricket at various times, most notably in 1744 and 1774, this lawgiving responsibility was soon to be vested in the MCC as the final repose of these cricketing gentlemen; when the White Conduit began, its leading lights were George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea and the Hon. Colonel Charles Lennox, who became the 4th Duke of Richmond. White Conduit was nominally an exclusive club that only "gentlemen" might play for, but the club did employ professionals and one of these was the bowler Thomas Lord, a man, recognised for his business acumen as well as his bowling ability; the new club might have continued except that White Conduit Fields was an open area allowing members of the public, including the rowdier elements, to watch the matches and to voice their opinions on the play and the players. The White Conduit gentlemen were not amused by such interruptions and decided to look for a more private venue of their own.
Winchilsea and Lennox asked Lord to find a new ground and offered him a guarantee against any losses he may suffer in the venture. Lord took a lease from the Portman Estate on some land at Dorset Fields where Dorset Square is now sited, it was called the New Cricket Ground because it was off what was called "the New Road" in Marylebone, when the first known match was played there on 21 May but, by the end of July, it was known as Lord's. As it was in Marylebone, the White Conduit members who relocated to it soon decided to call themselves the "Mary-le-bone Club"; the exact date of MCC's foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787. On 10 & 11 July 1837, a South v North match was staged at Lord's to commemorate the MCC's Golden Jubilee. Warner described it as "a Grand Match to celebrate the Jubilee of the Club" and reproduced the full scorecard. On Wednesday, 25 April 1787, the London Morning Herald newspaper carried a notice: "The Members of the Cricket Club are desired to meet at the Star and Garter, Pall Mall, on Mon.
April 30. Dinner on table at half past five o'clock. N. B; the favour of an answer is desired". The agenda is unknown but, only three weeks on Saturday, 19 May, the Morning Herald advertised: "A grand match will be played on Monday, 21 May in the New Cricket Ground, the New Road, Mary-le-bone, between eleven Noblemen of the White Conduit Club and eleven Gentlemen of the County of Middlesex with two men given, for 500 guineas a side; the wickets to be pitched at ten o'clock, the match to be played out". No post-match report has been found but, as G. B. Buckley said, it was "apparently the first match to be played on Lord's new ground". A total of eight matches are known to have been played at Lord's in 1787, one of them a single wicket event; the only one which featured the Mary-le-bone Club took place on 30 July. It was advertised in The World on Friday, 27 July 1787: "On Monday, 30 July will be played a match between 11 gentlemen of the Mary-le-bone Club and 11 gentlemen of the Islington Club".
Buckley stated that "this is the earliest notice of the Marylebone Club". As with the inaugural match at Lord's, no post-match report of the inaugural MCC match has been found. There have been three Lord's grounds: the original on the Portman Estate and two on the Eyre Estate