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English in the Commonwealth of Nations

The use of the English language in most current and former member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation. Mozambique is an exception – although English is spoken there, it is a former Portuguese colony which joined the Commonwealth in 1996. English is spoken as a second language in most of the Commonwealth. In a few countries, such as Cyprus and Malaysia, it does not have official status, but is used as a lingua franca. Many regions, notably Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the Caribbean, have developed their own native varieties of the language. Written English as used in the current and former Commonwealth favours British spelling as opposed to American, with some exceptions in Canada, where there is a strong influence from neighbouring American English. Few said countries besides Canada and Australia have produced their own dictionaries and style guides from major publishers, rely on those produced in the United Kingdom for formal writing.

The report of the Inter-Governmental Group on Criteria for Commonwealth Membership states that English is a symbol of Commonwealth heritage and unity. Southern Hemisphere native varieties of English began to develop during the 18th century, with the colonisation of Australasia and South Africa. Australian English and New Zealand English are related to each other, share some similarities with South African English; the vocabularies of these dialects draw from both British English and American English, as well as numerous native peculiarities. Canadian English contains elements of British English and American English, as well as many Canadianisms and some French influences, it is the product of several waves of immigration and settlement, from Britain, France, the United States, around the world, over a period of two centuries. Modern Canadian English has taken significant vocabulary and spelling from the shared political and social institutions of Commonwealth countries. Caribbean English is influenced by the English-based Creole varieties spoken, but they are not one and the same.

There is a great deal of variation in the way English is spoken, with a "Standard English" at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum and Creole languages at the other. These dialects have roots in 17th-century British and Irish English, African languages, plus localised influences from other colonial languages including French and Dutch. Second-language varieties of English in Africa and Asia have undergone "indigenisation"; these dialects are sometimes referred to as New Englishes. Several dialects of West African English exist, with a lot of regional variation and some influence from indigenous languages. West African English tends to be syllable-timed, its phoneme inventory is much simpler than that of received pronunciation. A distinctive East African English with significant influences from Bantu languages such as Swahili, is spoken in countries such as Kenya or Tanzania in Nairobi and other cities where there is an expanding middle class, for whom English is being used in the home as the first language.

Small communities of native English speakers can be found in Zimbabwe and Namibia. India has the largest English-speaking population in the Commonwealth, although comparatively few speakers of Indian English are first-language speakers; the same is true of English spoken in other parts of South Asia, e.g. Pakistani English, Bangladeshi English. South Asian English phonology is variable. There are several peculiarities at the levels of morphology and usage, some of which can be found among educated speakers. Southeast Asian English comprises Singapore English, Malaysian English, Brunei English. Hong Kong ceased to be part of the Commonwealth in 1997. Nonetheless, the English language there still enjoys status as an official language. British English North American English EF English Proficiency Index English-speaking worldOther languages: Community of Portuguese Language Countries Dutch Language Union La Francophonie Latin Union List of countries by spoken languages McArthur, Tom; the Oxford Guide to World English.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866248-3. Peters, Pam; the Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X. Trudgill and Jean Hannah. International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 4th ed. London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-80834-9. Specific

Kevin Patterson (writer)

Kevin Patterson is a Canadian medical doctor and writer. His short story collection, Country of Cold, won the Rogers Writers' Trust Fiction Prize in 2003, his latest book, Outside the Wire: The War in Afghanistan in the Words of its Participants, published in 2008, is a collection of first-hand accounts written by soldiers and aid workers on the front lines of Canada's war in Afghanistan. Kevin Patterson was born on December 27, 1964 in Kapuskasing and raised in Selkirk, Manitoba, he put himself through medical school at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg by enlisting in the Canadian army. When his service was up, he worked as a doctor in the Arctic and on the coast of British Columbia while pursuing his MFA in creative writing at the University of British Columbia. In 1999, Patterson published The Water in Between, a travel memoir of his sailing expedition in the Pacific Ocean; the book was nominated for the 2000 Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction. His first novel, was published in September 2006 in Canada.

He co-edited Outside the Wire: The War in Afghanistan in the Words of its Participants, released in January 2008. Talk to Me Like My Father, Patterson's account of spending six weeks as a doctor with NATO forces in Afghanistan in the winter of 2007, was published in the July–August issue of Mother Jones magazine in the U. S; the article created news headlines in Canada because of Patterson's graphic description of the dying moments of Nova Scotia-born soldier Kevin Megeney. Although Megeney's name had been published in Canadian media, the Canadian Department of National Defence initiated a military police investigation into Patterson's conduct to determine whether or not he breached doctor-patient confidentiality, he was cleared when the DND received confirmation from Megeney's mother that she had consented to the publication of the article. However, in January 2009 he was censured by the B. C. College of Physicians and Surgeons and ordered to pay $5,000 in costs. 2003 Rogers Writers' Trust Fiction Prize 2003 City of Victoria Butler Book Prize Consumption Vintage Canada News from the Red Desert Country of Cold Anchor The Water in Between: A Journey at Sea Vintage Canada co-editor, Outside the Wire: The War in Afghanistan in the Words of its Participants Vintage Canada Kevin Patterson author spotlight at Random House Canada Kevin Patterson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 5 catalogue records

Hans Thiele

Hans Paul Franz T. Thiele is a Filipino professional basketball player for the Zamboanga Family's Brand Sardines of the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League. Thiele was signed by the Barako Bull Energy Boosters in 2010 as a free agent after going undrafted, he was traded to the Meralco Bolts for Dennis Daa. Before the 2011 PBA Commissioner's Cup, he and Paolo Bugia were traded to the Alaska Aces for Reynel Hugnatan. In August 2012, Thiele was traded to the Petron Blaze Boosters in a five-team trade. In early 2013, Thiele was sent down by Petron Blaze to the San Miguel Beermen of the ASEAN Basketball League for the 2013 ABL season. After the 2013 ABL season, he was signed by GlobalPort Batang Pier. In November 4, 2013, Thiele was traded with Willie Miller to the Barako Bull Energy for Enrico Villanueva. In 2014, Thiele was released by Barako Bull to the 2014 PBA Expansion Draft, where he was picked sixth by Kia Sorento. On November 2014, Thiele was released by Kia. However, he was signed again by the team a couple of weeks after being released.

In the end of the 2014–15 PBA season, he was released again by the team. Correct as of September 27, 2015

Gertrude of Comburg

Gertrude of Comburg was the first queen consort of Conrad III of Germany. She was a daughter of Henry, Count of Rothenburg, Gepa of Mergentheim, her marriage to Conrad of Swabia is estimated to have occurred c. 1115. Her new husband was Duke of Swabia and Agnes of Germany, he was a younger brother of Duke of Swabia. In 1115, Conrad was appointed Duke of Franconia by Holy Roman Emperor. Henry V died on 23 May 1125 and Conrad was an eligible candidate for the throne. However, Conrad supported his older brother Frederick II in the election for the new King of the Romans; the election was instead won by Lothair III. Conrad and Frederick II had inherited the private lands of their deceased maternal uncle Henry V but pressed a claim to lands gained by the crown during his reign. Lothair III claimed the lands as the new King, their conflict resulted in Conrad being elected King of Germany in opposition to Lothair in 1127. Gertrud became his Queen consort; the conflict was still ongoing at the time of her death.

Gertrud and Conrad III had at least two daughters whose names are known: Gertrud. Another daughter, who died in 1151, married Iziaslav II of Kiev. Conrad III had other children: two by his second wife Gertrude of Sulzbach and five with a mistress called Gerberga

Craig-Cefn-Parc television relay station

The Craig-Cefn-Parc television relay station is sited on Mynydd Gelliwastad to the west of Clydach in the Swansea Valley. It was built in the 1980s as a fill-in relay for UHF analogue colour television, it consists of a 17 m self-supporting lattice mast standing on land, itself about 160 m above sea level. The transmissions are beamed to the northwest to avoid cross-channel interference with the Alltwen transmitter, about 4 km to the northeast and which uses the same frequencies; the Craig-Cefn-Parc transmitter is operated by Arqiva. Craig-Cefn-Parc transmitter re-radiates the signal received off-air from Kilvey Hill about 10 km to the south; when it came, the digital switchover process for Craig-Cefn-Parc duplicated the timing at the parent station, with the first stage taking place on Wednesday 12 August 2009 and the second stage was completed on Wednesday 9 September 2009, with the Kilvey Hill transmitter-group becoming the first in Wales to complete digital switchover. After the switchover process, analogue channels had ceased broadcasting permanently and the Freeview digital TV services were radiated at an ERP of 2W each.

Craig-Cefn-Parc transmitted the S4C variant of Channel 4. The UK's Digital Switchover commenced at Kilvey Hill on 12 August 2009. Analogue BBC Two Wales on channel 40 was first to close, ITV Wales was moved from channel 43 to channel 40 for its last month of service. Channel 43 was replaced by the new digital BBC A mux which started up at full power; the remaining analogue TV services were closed down and the digital multiplexes took over on the original analogue channels' frequencies. As a side-effect of frequency-changes elsewhere in the region to do with clearance of the 800 MHz band for 4G mobile phone use, Craig Cefn Parc's "BBC B" multiplex will have to be moved from channel 50 to channel 40; the Transmission Gallery: Craig-Cefn-Parc

2007–08 Crewe Alexandra F.C. season

The 2007–08 season of Crewe Alexandra Football Club's 84th competitive season. They competed in Football League One; this is a list of the significant events to occur at the club during the 2007–08 season, presented in chronological order. This list does not include match results or awards. 20 April: Dario Gradi announces that as from 1 July, would take up a new role as the club's Technical Director whilst allowing first-team coach Steve Holland control of the team. 18 June: Crewe win the Bobby Moore Fair Play award for their outstanding conduct and discipline throughout the 2006/07 season. 11 August: The opening day of the season sees. He was diagnosed to be out for 3–4 months. Maynard returned as a 46th-minute substitute 112 days in the FA Cup.11 August: Crewe end the day top of the league after their 2−1 win over Brighton and Hove Albion. 15 August: Crewe are eliminated from the Carling Cup by Championship side Hull City after a 3-0 loss at home. 25 August: Crewe drop out of the play-off zone after a 2−0 loss to Leyton Orient.

4 September: Crewe are eliminated from the Johnstone's Paint Trophy by Cheshire-neighbours Chester City after a penalty shootout defeat in the First round 1 December: Crewe are eliminated from the FA Cup by League One side Oldham Athletic away from home. This result means. 3 December: Sky Sports confirm that Crewe's home tie with Leeds United will be shown live on TV. Ths kickoff was changed to 19:45 GMT on Monday 14 January 2008. Crewe lost the match 1-0. 29 January: Crewe enter the relegation zone in League One after a 1−1 draw with Bristol Rovers. 9 February: Crewe climb out the relegation zone to 20th after a 2−2 draw with top-of-the-table Swansea City. 26 March: Michael O'Connor makes his senior international debut for Northern Ireland in a 4-1 win against Georgia. Appearances and goals include those in the League One, FA Cup, League Cup and Football League Trophy. Last updated: 24 Mar 2008Source: Crewe AlexandraOnly competitive matches = Number of bookings. Crewe have the best disciplinary record in The Football League Last updated: 8 Mar 2008EU = if holds or not a European Union passport.

^ Initial fee of £500,000, plus clauses: £62,500 for 15, 30 and 45 appearances for Preston North End 20% sell-on clause £250,000 should Jones achieve promotion whilst at Preston North End. Updated to match played 26 Aug 2007Source: Crewe Alexandra Staff Updated to match played 24 Mar 2008Source: Competitions Last updated: 24 Mar 2008Source: Crewe AlexandraNotes: League One fixtures not listed due to copyright. Results will be shown. Gillingham's Chris Dickson scored the winning goal against Crewe on 5 December at Gresty Road after spending one month on loan for the Railwaymen. Walsall's goalkeeper Clayton Ince received the November Powerade Player of the Month award just four days before playing against his former club. Ince, who spent six years at Crewe, said of the occasion, " feelings for the club will be put to one side for 90 minutes on Saturday." Ince kept a clean sheet in the match. On 12 February, Crewe signed Ipswich Town midfielder Gary Roberts. Unusually, he is the second player with the name Gary Roberts at Crewe.

He was assigned the shirt number 32, whilst the other Gary Roberts has the number 4 shirt. Ex-Crewe striker Luke Rodgers scored the final goal in the local derby against Port Vale, just as he did last season. Official Website Sky Sports BBC Football