English landscape garden

The English landscape garden called English landscape park or the English garden, is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature, it drew inspiration from paintings of landscapes by Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, from the classic Chinese gardens of the East, described by European travellers and were realized in the Anglo-Chinese garden. The English garden included a lake, sweeps of rolling lawns set against groves of trees, recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape; the work of Lancelot "Capability" Brown was influential. By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul.

It had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century. The English landscape garden was centred on the English country house; the predecessors of the landscape garden in England were the great parks created by Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor at Castle Howard, Blenheim Palace, the Claremont Landscape Garden at Claremont House. These parks featured vast lawns and pieces of architecture, such as the classical mausoleum designed by Hawksmoor at Castle Howard. At the center of the composition was the house, behind which were formal and symmetrical gardens in the style of the garden à la française, with ornate carpets of floral designs and walls of hedges, decorated with statues and fountains; these gardens, modelled after the gardens of Versailles, were designed to impress visitors with their size and grandeur. The royal gardens at the private residence of Charles, Prince of Wales, Highgrove House, have been open to the public for 25 years.

The gardens of the late 18th century home were overgrown and untended when Charles first moved in but have since flourished and now include rare trees and heirloom seeds. Current organic gardening techniques have allowed the gardens to serve as a sustainable habitat for birds and wildlife; the gardens were designed by Charles in consultation with regarded gardeners like Rosemary Verey and noted naturalist Miriam Rothschild. The new style that became known as the English garden was invented by landscape designers William Kent and Charles Bridgeman, working for wealthy patrons, including Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, banker Henry Hoare. William Kent was an architect and furniture designer who introduced Palladian style architecture to England. Kent's inspiration came from Palladio's buildings in the Veneto and the landscapes and ruins around Rome—he lived in Italy from 1709 to 1719, brought back many drawings of antique architecture and landscapes.

His gardens were designed to complement the Palladian architecture of the houses he built. Charles Bridgeman was the son of a gardener and an experienced horticulturist, who became the Royal Gardener for Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark, responsible for tending and redesigning the royal gardens at Windsor, Kensington Palace, Hampton Court, St. James's Park and Hyde Park, he collaborated with Kent on several major gardens, providing the botanical expertise which allowed Kent to realize his architectural visions. Kent created one of the first true English landscape gardens at Chiswick House for Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; the first gardens that he laid out between 1724 and 1733 had many formal elements of a garden à la française, including alleys forming a patte d'oie and canals, but they featured a folly, a picturesque recreation of an Ionic temple set in a theatre of trees. Between 1733 and 1736, he redesigned the garden, adding lawns sloping down to the edge of the river and a small cascade.

For the first time the form of a garden was inspired not by architecture, but by an idealized version of nature. Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most accomplished and significant of William Kent's work; the patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin the garden in 1727 brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737. Bridgeman had built a series of garden features including a grotto of Venus on the slope along the river Cherwell, connected by straight alleys. Kent turned the alleys into winding paths, built a turning stream, used the natural landscape features and slopes, created a series of views and tableaux decorated with allegorical statues of Apollo, a wounded gladiator, a lion attacking a horse, other subjects, he placed eyecatchers, pieces of classical architecture, to decorate the landscape, made use of the ha-ha, a concealed ditch that kept grazing animals out of the garden while giving an uninterrupted vista from within. He added cascades modelled on those of the garden of Aldobrandini and Pratolino in Italy, to add movement and drama.

Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, was an more radical departure from the formal French garden. In the

Bradwell, Derbyshire

Bradwell is a village and civil parish in the Derbyshire Peak District of England. The population of the civil parish taken at the 2011 Census was 1,416, it lies south of the main body of the Hope Valley but is included among its settlements. Hazlebadge Hall lies south of the village in the adjacent parish of Hazlebadge; the name Bradwell is thought to be a corruption of a reference to the Grey Ditch. A Mesolithic pebble mace-head was found in Smalldale and a Mesolithic lithic working site was discovered when a site near Bradwell Moor Barn was excavated. A number of Neolithic axes have been found in the village. A Bronze Age barrow and the remains of a cist with a skeleton was found in 1891. A possible Bronze age round barrow 19m in diameter has been found near to Minchlow lane. A Late Bronze Age socketed bronze axehead was found at a property in Hungry Lane in 1940, it is now held by Buxton Museum. A few Roman remains have been found in the village, associated with the nearby Navio fort near Brough-on-Noe, including a Roman bath.

Coins from the reign of Vespasian and Constantine the Great have been discovered and a Roman pig of lead has been found in the village. The Roman road Batham Gate runs through the village. Grey Ditch is a Scheduled Monument. Ceramic finds and the fact that the feature overlays the Roman road Batham Gate indicate that Grey Ditch is post-Roman. No firm date has been established for the earthwork with speculation that the feature might have been designed to halt the advance of the Angels or Anglo-Saxons in the 5th to 7th centuries. Other suggestions are the Grey Ditch might have formed the boundary between the Kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia during the Heptarchy or that it was constructed in the Viking period; the Domesday Book records that in 1066 Bradwell was held by Leofing, Owine of Bradwell and Sprot of Bradwell. By 1086 William Peverel is listed as both Tenant-in-chief; the population in 1086 was 8 villagers. The oldest surviving public house in Bradwell is the White Hart, it was constructed in 1676.

Nonconformism was popular in Bradwell. In 1747 John Wesley preached in Towngate. In 1754 a Presbyterian chapel was built in the village; this is now used as a local scout headquarters. A General Baptist chapel opened in 1790; this was used by Primitive Methodists as a Sunday school in the 20th century. A Wesleyan Methodist chapel opened in 1807, it was restored and extended 1891. It is now a Methodist church. A Primitive Methodist chapel was constructed in 1845, extended in 1878, closed in 1972. Bradwell was part of Hope ecclesiastical parish until 1868 when the Anglican Church of St. Barnabas opened. Samuel Fox, inventor of the Paragon umbrella frame, donated £100 towards the cost of constructing the church; the village grew again in the eighteenth century around lead mining. As with many Peak District villages, Bradwell has become a settlement for retirees; the other sources of income are the landmark local cement factory in the adjacent parish of Hope, pubs, B&Bs, an eponymous locally made ice cream, some subsidised farming.

The Bagshaw Cavern former show cave is now only open by appointment. In November 2017 plans to build 43 three to five-bedroomed houses for the open market and 12 two-bedroomed affordable homes to meet local needs as well as 6 small industrial units on a former industrial estate were announced; the village is known for its well dressing and holds a carnival each year in August. Bradwell has a number of green spaces including Beggars Plot Playing Field, Town Bottom Playing Field and the Rose Garden. Bradwell Surgery is open weekdays with another surgery at nearby Tideswell; the B6049 Bradwell to Tideswell road runs though the village. It connects with the A6187 and the A623; the village is served by a number of bus routes. An hourly bus service runs Monday to Saturday with a two hourly service on Sundays on the Sheffield to Castleton route, operated by First, Hulleys of Baslow and TM Travel. Four buses a day every day of the week run on the Castleton to Bakewell route, operated by Hulleys of Baslow.

One bus runs Monday to Saturday on the Baslow to Castleton route, operated by Hulleys of Baslow. One bus every day of the week runs on the Chesterfield to Buxton route, operated by Hulleys of Baslow; the nearest railway station is at Hope on the Sheffield to Manchester line with services provided by the rail company Northern. Bradwell has both Bradwell CE Infant School and Bradwell Junior School. Bradwell Sports Club offers facilities for football and multi sports; the club was founded in 1947. Denis Avey, British Hero of the Holocaust. Samuel Fox, umbrella frame designer, was born here in 1815. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb".. Cressbrook Multimedia: Bradwell BRADWELL Ancient and Modern. By SETH EVANS, published 1912, G4TIFF page images, plus a badly OCRed HTML attempt. Bradwell Village Website

Jane King (journalist)

Jane Kingseed, better known as Jane King, is an American Journalist. King is the founder and CEO of LilaMax Media, which provides daily TV broadcast reports from the NASDAQ Marketsite. LilaMax Media launched January 21, 2014. King had been doing syndicated business and financial reports for Bloomberg News from the floor of the New York Stock Exchange; those reports were discontinued on December 31, 2013. Before that, King covered local Business News for CNN Marketsource. Before joining CNN, King worked as a business reporter for WPVI-TV in Philadelphia and as an anchor and reporter at both WAND-TV in Decatur, Illinois. King began as a reporter for WLFI-TV in Indiana. King launched LilaMax Media on January 13, 2014 in which she now does syndicated reports from the NASDAQ exchange. Outside of journalism King has served as member and floor trader for the Chicago Board of Trade and as an adjunct professor of broadcast journalism at Purdue University. King, who grew up in Greentown and Kokomo, lives in New York City, is married, with one son and one daughter.

She was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in Telecommunications from Purdue University in 1991. Jane King at LilaMax Media Jane King on Bloomberg's Web site Description of Jane King on Bloomberg Affiliate's Page: KCRA Purdue Alumna Describes Time of "Complete Hopelessness" Krannert School of Management Executive Forum Fall 2007 bio CNN Newsource to Bolster Newsgathering Resources