Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations. Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is not covered in this article. Engraving was a important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines, it has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been replaced by etching and other techniques. "Engraving" is loosely but incorrectly used for any old black and white print. Many old master prints combine techniques on the same plate, further confusing matters.

Line engraving and steel engraving cover use for reproductive prints, illustrations in books and magazines, similar uses in the 19th century, not using engraving. Traditional engraving, by burin or with the use of machines, continues to be practised by goldsmiths, glass engravers and others, while modern industrial techniques such as photoengraving and laser engraving have many important applications. Engraved gems were an important art in the ancient world, revived at the Renaissance, although the term traditionally covers relief as well as intaglio carvings, is a branch of sculpture rather than engraving, as drills were the usual tools. Other terms used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Steel engraving is the same technique, on steel or steel-faced plates, was used for banknotes, illustrations for books and reproductive prints and similar uses from about 1790 to the early 20th century, when the technique became less popular, except for banknotes and other forms of security printing.

In the past, "engraving" was used loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by different techniques, such as etching or mezzotint. "Hand engraving" is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate; each graver has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. However, modern hand engraving artists use burins or gravers to cut a variety of metals such as silver, steel, gold and more, in applications from weaponry to jewellery to motorcycles to found objects. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.

In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces; such machines are used for inscriptions on rings and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip, used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas or to create uniform shade lines that are fast to execute. Ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for fill work on letters, as well as "wriggle" cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background, or create bright cuts.

Knife gravers are for line engraving and deep cuts. Round gravers, flat gravers with a radius, are used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Square or V-point gravers are square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. V-point can be anywhere depending on purpose and effect; these gravers have small cutting points. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for certain stone setting techniques. Musical instrument engraving on American-made brass instruments flourished in the 1920s and utilizes a specialized engraving technique where a flat graver is "walked" across the surface of the instrument to make zig-zag lines and patterns; the method for "walking" the graver may be referred to as "wriggle" or "wiggle" cuts. This technique is necessary due to the thinness of metal used to make musical instruments versus firearms or jewelry. Wriggle cuts are found on

Catch (The Cure song)

"Catch" is the name of a 1987 single by The Cure from their album Kiss Me, Kiss Me, Kiss Me. The single was not released in the US, it charted at #27 in the UK. As "Catch" wasn't released in the US market, the b-sides were used for the US release of "Just Like Heaven"; the song was covered by Art Brut for the NME CD, Pictures of You – a tribute to Godlike Geniuses The Cure. "I first heard'Catch' when I was quite young," remarked the group's Eddie Argos in an accompanying feature. "It was only when got older and started going out with girls that I realized how romantic it was." It was covered by Dashboard Confessional. The song's lyrics, as written by Robert Smith, were inspired when Smith caught a broadcast of the Sylvester Stallone written film'Rocky 2' in which Rocky's wife Adrian falls into a coma during childbirth. In a desperate hope to revive his wife, Rocky writes a poem for Adrian which at one point reads ".....and you kept trying to slip so I could catch you...." This moment moved Smith and years when Stallone caught wind of this, he asked The Cure to write the theme song for his 1995 movie'Judge Dredd'.

Smith, a lifelong fan of the British comic book series began work on'Dredd Song'. This began a friendship and in 1998 both were to lend their respective voices to an episode of South Park that would serve as a sequel to the episode Smith appeared in; the episode never came to fruition due to the actor's strike but Trey Parker claimed, "We were going to have Rambo go on a crazy rampage in South Park and the boys would be forced to once again call upon the amazing Robert Smith but it got scrapped." "Catch" "Breathe" "Catch" "Breathe" "A Chain of Flowers" "Catch" "Breathe" "Kyoto Song " "A Night Like This " "Catch" "Breathe" "A Chain of Flowers" "Icing sugar " "Catch" Robert Smith - vocals, guitars Lol Tolhurst - keyboards Porl Thompson - guitars Simon Gallup - basses Boris Williams - drums, percussion Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Takayo Hashi

Takayo Hashi is a Japanese female mixed martial artist. Hashi observed her brother grappling and competing in mixed martial arts and this inspired her to compete as well, she worked as an office worker during the day. Hashi held the title of Smackgirl Grappling Queen in the promotion's Open-Weight division, she won her division. On May 6 and 7 of that year, she took third place in the official ADCC Submission Wrestling World Championship in Trenton, New Jersey. Hashi suffered her first defeat in MMA in 2005, she won eight straight fights and avenged the loss to Akano in their 2007 rematch. Hashi faced Amanda Buckner at FFF 4 - Call of the Wild on April 3, 2008, she won the fight by unanimous decision. She defeated Chisa Yonezawa at Valkyrie 2 on April 25, 2009. Hashi was set to make her Strikeforce debut against Sarah Kaufman at Strikeforce Challengers: Kaufman vs. Hashi on November 20, 2009, but the fight was removed from the card, it was first rescheduled for January 2010, but took place on February 26, 2010.

The fight crowned the first Strikeforce Women's Bantamweight Champion at 135 lbs. However, Hashi lost the fight by Unanimous Decision after five rounds. Hashi faced Tara LaRosa at DaMMAge Fight League 1 on November 24, 2010 in New Jersey, she was defeated by Unanimous Decision after five rounds. Hashi challenged Cat Zingano in a women's title bout at Fight To Win: Outlaws on May 14, 2011 in Denver, Colorado, she was defeated by knockout from a slam late in the third round. On February 10, 2012, it was announced that Hashi would face Roxanne Modafferi at Jewels 18th Ring on March 3 in Tokyo, she defeated Modafferi by unanimous decision. Deep Jewels Bantamweight Champion Final Smackgirl Middleweight Champion List of current mixed martial arts champions List of female mixed martial artists Takayo Hashi Awakening Profile Professional MMA record for Takayo Hashi from Sherdog