The Enigma machine is an encryption device developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial and military communication. It was employed extensively by Nazi Germany during World War II, in all branches of the German military. Enigma has an electromechanical rotor mechanism. In typical use, one person enters text on the Enigma's keyboard and another person writes down which of 26 lights above the keyboard lights up at each key press. If plain text is entered, the lit-up letters are the encoded ciphertext. Entering ciphertext transforms it back into readable plaintext; the rotor mechanism changes the electrical connections between the keys and the lights with each keypress. The security of the system depends on Enigma machine settings that were changed daily, based on secret key lists distributed in advance, on other settings that change for each message; the receiving station has to know and use the exact settings employed by the transmitting station to decrypt a message.
As used in practice, the Enigma encryption was broken from 1932 by cryptanalytic attacks from the Polish Cipher Bureau, which passed its techniques to their French and British allies in 1939. Subsequently, a dedicated decryption centre was established by the United Kingdom at Bletchley Park as part of the Ultra program for the rest of the war. While Germany introduced a series of improvements to Enigma, these hampered decryption efforts to varying degrees, they did not prevent Britain and its allies from exploiting Enigma-encoded messages as a major source of intelligence during the war. Many commentators say the flow of communications intelligence from Ultra's decryption of Enigma and other ciphers shortened the war and may have altered its outcome. Enigma was invented by the German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I; the German firm Scherbius & Ritter, co-founded by Arthur Scherbius, patented ideas for a cipher machine in 1918 and began marketing the finished product under the brand name Enigma in 1923 targeted at commercial markets.
Early models were used commercially from the early 1920s, adopted by military and government services of several countries, most notably Nazi Germany before and during World War II. Several different Enigma models were produced, but the German military models, having a plugboard, were the most complex. Japanese and Italian models were in use. With its adoption by the German Navy in 1926 and the German Army and Air Force soon after, the name Enigma became known in military circles. Pre-war German military planning emphasized fast, mobile forces and tactics known as blitzkrieg, which depend on radio communication for command and coordination. Since adversaries would intercept radio signals, messages would have to be protected with secure encoding. Compact and portable, the Enigma machine filled that need. Around December 1932, Marian Rejewski, a Polish mathematician and cryptanalyst, while working at the Polish Cipher Bureau, used the theory of permutations and flaws in the German military message encipherment procedures to break the message keys of the plugboard Enigma machine.
Rejewski achieved this result without knowledge of the wiring of the machine, so the result did not allow the Poles to decrypt actual messages. The French spy Hans-Thilo Schmidt obtained access to German cipher materials that included the daily keys used in September and October 1932; those keys included the plugboard settings. The French passed the material to the Poles, Rejewski used some of that material and the message traffic in September and October to solve for the unknown rotor wiring; the Polish mathematicians were able to build their own Enigma machines, which were called Enigma doubles. Rejewski was aided by cryptanalysts Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski, both of whom had been recruited with Rejewski from Poznań University; the Polish Cipher Bureau developed techniques to defeat the plugboard and find all components of the daily key, which enabled the Cipher Bureau to read the German Enigma messages starting from January 1933. Over time, the German cryptographic procedures improved, the Cipher Bureau developed techniques and designed mechanical devices to continue reading the Enigma traffic.
As part of that effort, the Poles exploited quirks of the rotors, compiled catalogues, built a cyclometer to help make a catalogue with 100,000 entries, made Zygalski sheets and built the electro-mechanical cryptologic bomb to search for rotor settings. In 1938, the Germans added complexity to the Enigma machines that became too expensive for the Poles to counter; the Poles had six bomby, but when the Germans added two more rotors, ten times as many bomby were needed, the Poles did not have the resources. On 26 and 27 July 1939, in Pyry near Warsaw, the Poles initiated French and British military intelligence representatives into their Enigma-decryption techniques and equipment, including Zygalski sheets and the cryptologic bomb, promised each delegation a Polish-reconstructed Enigma; the demonstration represented a vital basis for the British continuation and effort. In September 1939, British Military Mission 4, which included Colin Gubbins and Vera Atkins, went to Poland to evacuate code-breakers Gwido Langer, Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski out of the country with their replica Enigma machines.
The Poles were taken across the border into Atkins' native Romania, at the time a neutral country where some of them were interned. Atkins arranged for their release and onward travel to Western Europe to advise the French and British, who at the time were still unable to decrypt German messages. Gordon Welchman, who became head of
Kamikuishiki was a village located in Nishiyatsushiro District, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. As of 2006, the village had an estimated population of 1,501 and a density of 17 persons per km²; the total area was 86.59 km². On March 1, 2006: The northern part of Kamikuishiki, along with the town of Nakamichi, was merged into the expanded city of Kōfu; the southern part of Kamikuishiki was merged into the expanded town of Fujikawaguchiko. Kamikuishiki was dissolved as an independent municipality. According to the last mayor Makoto Kobayashi, "financial reasons" made the decision inevitable. Economic decline made the villagers leave for larger areas where jobs are more available. Reduced tax collections and aging population played their role. Kamikuishiki achieved nationwide fame in Japan as a major center of the notorious cult religion Aum Shinrikyo which built its religious center and several facilities there; this included a production center named Satyan 7, located in the Fujigamine district for nerve gases which were used in attacks on the Tokyo subway and in Matsumoto.
It was in one of these buildings that the leader of the cult Shoko Asahara was arrested on May 16, 1995. Lake Shōji and Lake Motosu, two of the famous Fuji Five Lakes, are in Kamikuishiki; the place is known for beautiful views, unspoiled by byproducts of advancing industrial civilization and calm, traditionally relaxed general attitude of inhabitants towards life, typical for Japan's countryside. Fujikawaguchiko official website Kōfu official website
The katablepharids, a group of heterotrophic flagellates, have been considered as part of the Cryptista since katablepharids were described in 1939. Although they differ from other cryptophytes and have been proposed to be alveolates, early 21st century research suggests they are related to cryptophytes; as of 2009, only five genera and ten species have been formally described. Dozens of other DNA sequences seem to represent further katablepharids which have not been cultured or formally described. Based on studies done by Cavalier-Smith, Chao & Lewis 2015 Super Class Leucocrypta Cavalier-Smith 2015 stat. n. Class Leucocryptea Cavalier-Smith 2004 Order Katablepharida Cavalier-Smith 1993 Family Katablepharidae Vors 1992 Genus Roombia Okamoto et al. 2009 Species R. truncata Okamoto et al. 2009 Genus Leucocryptos Butcher 1967 Species L. marina Butcher 1967 Genus Platychilomonas Larsen & Patterson 1990 Species P. psammobia Larsen & Patterson 1990 Genus Hatena Okamoto & Inouye 2006 Species H. arenicola Okamoto & Inouye 2006 Genus Katablepharis Skuja 1939 Species K. japonica Okamoto & Inouye 2005 Species K. obesa Barlow & Kugrens 2002 Species K. tenuis Barlow & Kugrens 2002 Species K. hyalurus Skuja 1939 Species K. notonectoides Skuja 1948 Species K. oblonga Skuja 1939 Species K. ovalis Skuja 1948 Species K. phoenikoston Skuja 1939 Species K. remigera Clay & Kugrens 1999 Tree of Life: Katablepharids
The REYL Group is an independent banking group founded in Geneva in 1973 providing financial advisory services and investment solutions to private and institutional clients. With a presence in Switzerland and the rest of the world; the Group focuses on five distinct business lines: Wealth Management, Corporate & Family Governance, Corporate Advisory & Structuring, Asset Services and Asset Management. The REYL Group employs more than 200 professionals. REYL & Cie Ltd is licensed as a bank in Switzerland and as such performs its activities under the direct control of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority and the Swiss National Bank; the REYL Group's affiliates are regulated by the LPCC in Switzerland, the FCA in the UK, the CSSF in Luxembourg, the MFSA in Malta, the MAS in Singapore, the SEC in the United States and the DFSA in Dubai. Dominique Reyl founded the Compagnie Financière d'Etudes et de Gestion, a portfolio management company in Geneva in 1973. In January 1988 CFEG's activities were transferred into REYL & Cie and in 1999, REYL & Cie was granted the authorised securities dealer status.
François Reyl, son of Dominique, joined REYL in 2002. In 2003 the Asset Management business line was launched, followed by the Corporate & Family Governance business line in 2006. In 2008, François Reyl was appointed Chief Executive Officer and REYL moved its headquarter to upscale rue du Rhône, in Geneva. A year REYL opened an office in Luxemburg and an independent subsidiary in Singapore. After having been granted a banking licence in 2010, REYL & Cie continued its expansion by opening a first Swiss branch in Zurich and founding REYL Overseas Ltd. a licensed Registered Investment Advisor with the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, enabling the Group to provide investment advisory services to US tax-compliant individuals; the affiliate opened its first branch in Dallas in 2016. The fourth business line Corporate Advisory & Structuring, widening the scope of services provided, was launched in 2012, the same year as the opening of a second Swiss branch in Lugano. In 2013, REYL established a UK presence with the incorporation of REYL & CO LLP.
The same year, the Group's name was associated with the Cahuzac Affair involving former French Finance Minister Jérôme Cahuzac: though charges were dropped in Switzerland in 2014, the Bank was sentenced to a fine in France in 2017. In 2015 REYL expanded into its fifth business line, Asset Services, as part of its diversification strategy, obtained a fund custodian license in Malta and opened REYL Finance Ltd, awarded with a commercial license from the Dubai Financial Services Authority. REYL was awarded Most Innovative Business Model by Private Banker International and Best Client Initiative by Wealth Briefing Swiss Awards in 2016. In 2017, REYL made a minority investment in Aspiration, an online banking platform based in Los Angeles, awarded as one of the most innovative companies of the world by Fast Company; the same year REYL was awarded Outstanding Boutique Private Bank in Switzerland. In 2018, REYL was again awarded Best Private Bank - Client Service, Outstanding Mid-Tier Private Bank Western Europe Region and Outstanding Private Bank for UHNW Clients made a partnership with Hermance Capital Partner, an investment fund platform fucused on non-listed assets and sold a material stade in RAM Active Investments to Mediobanca.
The Bank operates under the direction of five partners who are owner managers: Dominique Reyl, François Reyl, Pasha Bakhtiar, Nicolas Duchêne, Christian Fringhian and Lorenzo Rocco di Torrpadula. Their activity is overseen by a Board of Directors comprising Dominique Reyl, Michel Broch, Yves Claude Aubert, Maurice de Preux and Ruth Metzler-Arnold. In 2014, REYL founded Research for Life, a Swiss non-profit foundation dedicated to supporting and funding medical research projects in the fields of adult and pediatric oncology. Since 2014, REYL supports the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande. REYL supports mountain climber Sophie Lavaud, the first Franco-Swiss woman to conquer 8 of the 14 highest summits in the Himalayas
Stephen Nichols is an American actor, most notable for his roles on American daytime soap operas. He played the part of Steve Johnson on NBCs Days of Our Lives from 1985-1990, he returned to the role of Patch on Days of Our Lives in June 2006 after 16 years, remaining through February 2009, returning to the role again in 2015. He played the role of Tucker McCall on The Young and the Restless. After turning down an art scholarship to Ohio State University, he traveled west, studied yoga and lived as a monk while preparing vegetarian meals for the monks and nuns in a Hollywood ashram. After three years of celibacy, a steady diet of ice cream and the films of Truffaut and Bergman, he landed at the Theater Academy of Los Angeles City College where he studied for two years. Nichols went on to study with Jack Colvin and Harry Mastrorgeorge. For his stage work, Nichols has been honored with three Drama-Logue Awards and two LA Weekly Theater Awards for his performances in such notable productions as Pieces of Time, for Delirious, as Jim Morrison in the last thirty-six hours of his life in The Lizard King.
Nichols appeared at LATC in Rick Clutchey's The Cage, in the award winning production of Michael Cristofer's The Shadow Box at Theater East and Love Letters, during its initial run at the Canon Theater. Most Nichols appeared in He Hunts at the Geffen Playhouse and was seen in the U. S. première of Joe Pintaro's The Dead Boy. Nichols returned to the role of Steve Johnson on Days of our Lives, his original portrayal earned him an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Actor in a Leading Role and five Soap Opera Digest Best Actor Awards. Steve and Kayla remain one of the most popular couples, the most-covered, on Days of our Lives ever. In fact, Nichols talked about one of their favorite storylines and shared, “Mary Beth likes Emily and Gideon, it was a fantasy, it wasn’t us, but we were reading this beautiful diary, in the old mansion, it would flash to the characters.” Stephen portrayed Stefan Cassadine on the soap General Hospital. This role reunited him with Evans, while his character was paired with Laura Spencer, played by Genie Francis.
Other TV appearances have included Matlock, L. A. Law, Diagnosis: Murder, The Nanny, Second Chances, Sisters, a recurring role on Empty Nest, playing Jesse James opposite Pierce Brosnan in the NBC mini-series Around the World in 80 Days, to name a few. Nichols has appeared in first co-starring with Demi Moore in Choices, he was in Witchboard. Nichols has directed several stage productions including, Sixty Minutes from L. A. a presentation pilot for television, Wild Horses and, most wrote and directed the dramatic short film Get the Dime, starring Daniel Bess and Robert Picardo. Get the Dime was a director's pick at the Palm Springs International Festival of Short Films. Upcoming, Nichols will direct the feature films, Eau de L. A. and Fear of Falling. He is developing mobile phone content. On December 17, 2009, it was reported on stephennichols.net and cbs.com that Nichols joined the cast of CBS's The Young and the Restless as Tucker McCall, replacing William Russ. Nichols's first air date was January 27, 2010.
On Y&R, he would be reunited with General Hospital counterpart Genie Francis, who played Genevieve Atkinson on the show. Nichols's last day on the Y & R was January 29, 2013. Nichols married Lisa Gordon in 1985, together they have three children: two daughters and Dylan, a son, Aaron. Supercouple The official website for Stephen Nichols' fans Stephen Nichols' industry website "Get the Dime" film website Stephen Nichols on IMDb
The Caledonia Corvairs were a Canadian junior hockey team based in Caledonia, Canada. They were playing in the District Junior C Hockey League. On May 23, 2012, the Brantford Eagles became the Junior B Caledonia Corvairs; the Junior C team went on hiatus to make room for them. Founded in 1961, the Corvairs first played in the Southern Ontario Junior Hockey League. In 1969, they won the OHA Cup as provincial champions. In 1972, the team moved to the Western Junior C Hockey League; that year they won the Clarence Schmalz Cup as OHA Jr. C champions. In 1973, they were promoted to the Midwestern Junior B Hockey League. A year they were moved to the Golden Horseshoe Junior B Hockey League. Early in the 1972-73 season, the club's first year as a Junior C club, a second year player for the team named Tom Spratt was killed after a game in an automobile accident; the team had focus after losing their teammate and friend and won first-place finish in the Central Junior C Hockey League with a record of 23 wins, six losses, three ties.
They entered the playoffs against successful Simcoe Jets squad in the league quarter-finals. The Corvairs defeating them three-games-to-two. In the second round, the Corvairs drew the Listowel Cyclones; the Cyclones started winning 3-2 in the first game and 9-2 in the second. The Corvairs won the next three games to win the semi-final series. In the finals, the Corvairs met the New Hamburg Hahns; the Hans took game one 2-1, the Corvairs won the next two games 4-2 and 3-2 in overtime. Game four was won by the Hahns 4-3; the Corvairs won the game, the series, the Central league championship. In the provincial semi-final, the Corvairs drew the Leamington Flyers of the Great Lakes Junior C Hockey League; the Corvairs won game one 4-3 but lost games two and three to go down 2-games-to-1. They won game four 7-2, but lost the game five 5-2; the Corvairs won games seven to gain entry into the provincial final. In the final they drew the Lindsay Mercurys. Caledonia won game one and two by scores of 4-3 and 10-3.
They won games four and five to take the series and OHA championship. In the end they dedicated the victory to Tom Spratt; the Corvairs were defeated in the 2005-06 playoffs by the Glanbrook Rangers 4-games-to-3 in the preliminary round. 1973: Caledonia Corvairs defeated Lindsay Muskies 4-games-to-1 Corvairs Homepage