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Enlightenment in Spain

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the 18th century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. This period in Spanish history is referred to as Bourbon Spain. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity." The period of reform and'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca. In the political and economic sphere, the crown implemented a series of changes, collectively known as the Bourbon reforms, which were aimed at making the overseas empire more prosperous to the benefit of Spain; the Bourbon monarchs sought the expansion of scientific knowledge, urged by Benedictine monk Benito Feijóo. From 1777 to 1816, the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the potential botanical wealth of the empire.

When Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt proposed a self-funded scientific expedition to Spanish America, the Spanish crown accorded him not only permission, but the instructions to crown officials to aid him. Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire from its earlier glory days, with the aim of reclaiming its former prestige. In Spanish America, the Enlightenment had an impact in the intellectual and scientific sphere, with elite American-born Spanish men involved in these projects; the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula was enormously destabilizing for Spain and the Spanish overseas empire. The ideas of the Hispanic Enlightenment have been seen as a major contributor to the Spanish American wars of independence, although the situation is more complex; the French Bourbons had a strong claim on the Spanish throne following the 1700 death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, who died without an heir. France lost the War of the Spanish Succession but the victors, due to their claimant inheriting the Holy Roman Empire, allowed the Bourbon monarchy to in turn inherit the Spanish crown, on the condition that the Spanish and French crowns were never merged.

Once it consolidated rule in Spain, the Bourbon monarchs embarked upon a series of reforms to revitalize the Spanish empire, which had declined in power in the late Habsburg era. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment had a strong impact in Spain and a ripple effect in Spanish American Enlightenment Spain's overseas empire; when French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Iberian peninsula and placed Napoleon's brother Joseph on the throne of Spain, there was a crisis of legitimacy in both Spain and its overseas empire. A cortes was convened in Cádiz, which ratified a liberal constitution in 1812, limiting the power of the monarchy constitutionally as well as the power of the Catholic Church. Ferdinand VII claimed he supported the liberal constitutions, but once restored to power in 1814, he renounced it and reverted to unfettered absolutist rule. In most parts of Spanish America during the Napoleonic period in Spain, wars of independence broke out, so that by the time Bourbon Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne in 1814, much of Spanish America had achieved independence and established constitutional republics.

New Spain and Peru were the exceptions, becoming independent in 1821 and 1824. Mexico had a monarchy under royalist military officer turned insurgent Agustín de Iturbide, overthrown in favor of a federated republic under the Constitution of 1824; the last few years of the rule of the mentally challenged and childless Charles II, were dominated by the politics of who would succeed the unfortunate monarch, the last Spanish king of the Habsburg dynasty. Spain was at the center of this political crisis, but it was the "object not the arbiter." Economic troubles, the decay of the Spanish bureaucracy, a series of defeats in wars against France, the erosion of imperial institutions in the seventeenth century had left Charles the king of a declining empire, his physical and mental weakness provided him with little ability to reverse the course of his country. The vastness of the Spanish Empire in the New World, along with her naval resources, had made Spain a vital part of European power politics. If the throne of Spain was to go to a relative of the king of France, or if the two countries were to be united, the balance of power in Europe might shift in France's favor.

If it remained in the hands of another member of the anti-French, Austrian Habsburg dynasty, the status quo would remain. European politics during the seventeenth century became dominated by establishing an orderly succession in Spain that would not alter the balance between Europe's great powers. Charles II, the unfortunate result of generations of Habsburg inbreeding, decreed in one of his last official acts that his crown would pass to his nephew, Philip of Anjou, the grandson of King Louis XIV of France of the House of Bourbon, the heir to the French throne. Castilian legitimists, who valued the succession of the closest heir of the king over the continuation of Habsburg rule, supported the king's plan. Spanish officials were concerned with Spain remaining an independent country, rather than another part of the French or Austrian empires. So, on hearing the news that his grandson had become King of Spain, Louis XIV proclaimed, "The Pyrenees are no more." At age 17, Philip V arrived in Madrid in early 1701 without visible opposition.

Philip confirmed the fueros of Catalunya and Aragon, to all appearances the Bourbon successi

Mototsugu Shimizu

Mototsugu Shimizu is a Japanese wrestler. He works in Secret Base, he began his career with the T2P group of students and had a promising career until he was sidelined with a shoulder injury in September, 2000. He became a ring announcer and other staff duties during his rehab time. In November 2003 he returned to the ring in exhibition matches for Toryumon Japan, but after Ultimo Dragon left Toryumon Japan in 2004 he did not make the jump to newly formed Dragon Gate. He returned by going back to ring announcing when he joined Dragondoor which showcased some of his former T2P mates, he returned to the ring full-time in January 2006 and began wrestling in Michinoku Pro and El Dorado. He began a violent feud with Manjimaru which ended with them having to collectively pay off the debts they accumulated in damages that occurred in their hardcore matches, he was recruited into the Sukiyaki stable by Shuji Kondo, but after the stable dissolved, he went off on his own again. On 29 February 2008, Shimizu competed in Chikara's 2nd annual King of Trios tournament, representing El Dorado alongside fellow Japanese Indy wrestlers Michael Nakazawa and Go.

The team was eliminated in the first round by The Colony. On 2 March, the third night of Shimizu and Go entered a tag team gauntlet match. Shimizu managed to eliminate Las Chivas Rayadas with the Marshmallow Hedgehog, before the team was eliminated by The Sweet'n' Sour Incorporated. Guts World Pro WrestlingGWC Tag Team Championship – with Bear FukudaNew Year's Eve Toshikoshi Pro Wrestling3 Organisation Cinderella Championship Captain of the Secret Base Openweight Championship

M. Jaishankar

M. Jaishankar, nicknamed Psycho Shankar, was an Indian criminal notorious for a series of rapes and murders during 2008–2011, it is believed that he was involved in about 30 rape and robbery cases across Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. At the time of his death, he had been accused of murdering at least nineteen women. Having been apprehended by Indian authorities, Jaishankar was imprisoned in Bangalore, where he was diagnosed as mentally ill, he subsequently committed suicide following an unsuccessful prison escape attempt in February 2018. Jaishankar, a son of Maarimuttu, came from the Kanniyanpatti village of Tamil Nadu. In May 2011, he was reported to be a married man with three daughters, he started his career as a truck driver. Jaishankar started his criminal activities around 2008, his first crime to be reported happened on 3 July 2009, when he attempted to rape and murder 45-year-old P. Shyamala in Perandahalli. By August 2009, he had raped and murdered 12 women, raped another six women, he always carried a black hand bag with him.

He kept a machete in this bag, killed whoever resisted him. He used to rape them and kill them brutally, he targeted women in farm houses, in rural areas. On 23 August 2009, Jaishankar murdered a 39-year-old police constable, M. Jayamani. Stationed at the Kangeyam all-women police station, Jayamani was on temporary duty at Perumanallur, during the visit of deputy chief minister M. K. Stalin. Jaishankar kidnapped her, raped her several times before killing her; the police recovered Jayamani's body a month on 19 September. Jaishankar and his partner in crime P Mohan Selvam were charged with the murder of 50-year-old K. Thangammal Ponnaya in Namakkal on 10 September 2009; the Tiruppur police launched a manhunt for Jaishankar, arrested him on 19 October 2009. He was jailed at the Coimbatore Central Prison. By this time, he had been charged with 13 separate counts of rape and murder in Tiruppur and Dharmapuri, he revealed, while remanded in custody, that he enjoyed torturing women before he raped and killed them.

On 17 March 2011, the police took Jaishankar to a fast-track court in Dharmapuri, for a murder case trial. The next day, armed reserve police constables M. Chinnasamy and Rajavelu were assigned to escort him back to Coimbatore. On the way, Jaishankar managed to escape at the Salem bus stand, around 9:30 p.m. On 19 March, Chinnasamy shot himself. Jaishankar escaped to Karnataka, where he raped and murdered six women in Bellary over the next month, he killed a man and a child in Dharmapuri. In the last week of April 2011, the police traced his mobile phone to Delhi; the police believed that he had discarded his mobile phone in Delhi. However, in May 2011, the police traced his mobile calls to Mumbai, but he stopped using his mobile phone. A special team, comprising two sub-inspectors and 15 other police personnel, was assigned to find and arrest him. By May 2011, the police had put up wanted posters seeking information about Jaishankar, in public places across Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. On the night of 4 May 2011, Jaishankar reached Elagi village on a stolen motorcycle.

He approached a woman, Chandrakala Hotagi, working alone in a field, asked her for water and food. He tried to rape her, but Chandrakala raised the alarm, her husband, Prakash Hotagi, a friend came to her rescue. Jaishankar was caught by Prakash and other villagers; the locals brought him to the Zalaki police station. He was handed over to the Chitradurga police on 5 May 2011. After his 2011 arrest, Jaishankar was kept at the Parappana Agrahara Central Jail in Bangalore, he was sentenced to 27 years in prison. At the Bangalore jail, he underwent treatment for psychiatric problems. On 31 August 2013, the police took Jaishankar to the court in Tumkur near Bangalore. After returning, Jaishankar feigned uneasiness and was admitted to the hospital within the prison premises, he managed to secure a duplicate key and used it at 2 a.m. on 1 September 2013, when the daily change of guards took place. The police suspected, he scaled a 20-foot wall walked atop a 15-foot wall and scaled the 30-foot high compound wall.

He managed to cross the electric fence safely. He carried with him a bamboo pole balancing on the walls and a bedsheet to serve as a cushion over the glass pieces on the wall top, he was injured during the escape, drops of blood were found outside the outer wall. He was wearing a police uniform during his escape. 11 jail staff, including three wardens, two jailors and six security guards, were suspended following his escape to reprimand them for allowing the escape. The police issued a red alert to all police stations in Karnataka, urged women to be careful in isolated places, they announced a reward of ₹ 500,000 for any information leading to his arrest. They analyzed his psychology and life history to predict his next actions. Besides this, the police printed 10,000 wanted posters and 75,000 pamphlets with different photographic profiles of Jaishankar, in five languages — Hindi, Marathi and Telugu. Besides Karnataka, these posters and pamphlets were distributed across Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

During his escape, Jaishankar had fractured his leg while jumping from the 30-foot high wall of the prison compound. He did not contact his family in Tamil Nadu. Soon after his escape, a police informant managed to g