It is the main city of the Salentine Peninsula, a sub-peninsula at the heel of the Italian Peninsula and is over 2,000 years old. Because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, the city has a long traditional affinity with Greek culture going back to its foundation, the Messapii who founded the city are said to have been Cretans in Greek records. To this day, in the Grecìa Salentina, a group of towns not far from Lecce, in terms of industry, the Lecce stone—a particular kind of limestone—is one of the citys main exports, because it is very soft and workable, thus suitable for sculptures. Lecce is an important agricultural centre, chiefly for its oil and wine production. According to legend, a city called Sybar existed at the time of the Trojan War and it was conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, receiving the new name of Lupiae. Under the emperor Hadrian the city was moved 3 kilometres to the northeast, Lecce had a theater and an amphitheater and was connected to the Hadrian Port.
Orontius of Lecce, locally called SantOronzo, is considered to have served as the citys first Christian bishop and is Lecces patron saint, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Lecce was sacked by the Ostrogoth king Totila in the Gothic Wars. It was restored to Roman rule in 549, and remained part of the Eastern Empire for five centuries, with brief conquests by Saracens, Lombards and Slavs. After the Norman conquest in the 11th century, Lecce regained commercial importance, flourishing in the subsequent Hohenstaufen, the County of Lecce was one of the largest and most important fiefs in the Kingdom of Sicily from 1053 to 1463, when it was annexed directly to the crown. From the 15th century, Lecce was one of the most important cities of southern Italy, to avert invasion by the Ottomans, a new line of walls and a castle were built by Charles V, in the first part of the 16th century. In 1656, a plague broke out in the city, killing a thousand inhabitants, in 1943, fighter aircraft based in Lecce helped support isolated Italian garrisons in the Aegean Sea during World War 2.
Because they were delayed by the Allies, they couldnt prevent a defeat, church of the Holy Cross, Construction of the Chiesa di Santa Croce) was begun in 1353, but work halted until 1549, and it was completed only by 1695. The church has a richly decorated façade with animals, grotesque figures and vegetables, next to the church is the Government Palace, a former convent. San Niccolò and Cataldo The church is an example of Italo-Norman architecture and it was founded by Tancred of Sicily in 1180. In 1716 the façade was rebuilt, with the addition of numerous statues, the walls were frescoed during the 15th-17th centuries. Celestine Convent, Built in Baroque-style by Giuseppe Zimbalo, the courtyard was designed by Gabriele Riccardi. Santa Irene, This church was commissioned in 1591 by the Theatines and it has a large façade showing different styles in the upper and lower parts. Above the portal stands a statue of Ste Irene by Mauro Manieri, the interior is on the Latin cross plan and is rather sober
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as a discipline, typically in universities, seminaries. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity, the term can, however, be used for a variety of different disciplines or fields of study. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, the English equivalent theology had evolved by 1362. Greek theologia was used with the discourse on god in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii. Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of discourse, mythical and civil. Theologos, closely related to theologia, appears once in some manuscripts, in the heading to the book of Revelation, apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of study, dealing with the motionless. Boethius definition influenced medieval Latin usage, Theology can now be used in a derived sense to mean a system of theoretical principles, an ideology.
They suggest the term is appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently. Kalam. does not hold the place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for theology in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of theology is appropriate, can only do so, he says, I take theology not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course atheological, rejecting as it does the notion of God, within Hindu philosophy, there is a solid and ancient tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God and of the Atman. The Sanskrit word for the schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana. Nevertheless, Jewish theology historically has been active and highly significant for Christian. It is sometimes claimed, that the Jewish analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law, the history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves.
Modern Western universities evolved from the institutions and cathedral schools of Western Europe during the High Middle Ages
Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotles Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on such as repetition, verse form and rhyme. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism and other elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived.
Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, in todays increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing. The oldest surviving poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe, other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in poetics—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Some ancient societies, such as Chinas through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance, Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Later aestheticians identified three major genres, epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry, Aristotles work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic Negative Capability and this romantic approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic
Latin literature includes the essays, poems and other writings written in the Latin language. Latin literature was in ways a continuation of Greek literature. Formal Latin literature began in 240 BC, when a Roman audience saw a Latin version of a Greek play, the adaptor was Livius Andronicus, a Greek who had been brought to Rome as a prisoner of war in 272 BC. Andronicus translated Homers Greek epic the Odyssey into an old type of Latin verse called Saturnian, the first Latin poet to write on a Roman theme was Gnaeus Naevius during the 3rd century BC. He composed a poem about the first Punic War, in which he had fought. Naeviuss dramas were mainly reworkings of Greek originals, but he created based on Roman myths. Quintus Ennius wrote an epic, the Annals, describing Roman history from the founding of Rome to his own time. He adopted Greek dactylic hexameter, which became the verse form for Roman epics. He became famous for his tragic dramas, in this field, his most distinguished successors were Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius.
These three writers rarely used episodes from Roman history, they wrote Latin versions of tragic themes that the Greeks had already handled. But even when they copied the Greeks, they did not translate slavishly, only fragments of their plays have survived. Considerably more is known about early Latin comedy, as 26 Early Latin comedies are extant –20 of which Plautus wrote, and these men modeled their comedies on Greek plays known as New Comedy. But they treated the plots and wording of the originals freely, Plautus scattered songs through his plays and increased the humor with puns and wisecracks, plus comic actions by the actors. Terences plays were more polite in tone, dealing with domestic situations and his works provided the chief inspiration for French and English comedies of the 17th century AD, and even for modern American comedy. The prose of the period is best known through On Agriculture by Cato the Elder, Cato wrote the first Latin history of Rome and of other Italian cities. He was the first Roman statesman to put his political speeches in writing as a means of influencing public opinion, Early Latin literature ended with Gaius Lucilius, who created a new kind of poetry in his 30 books of Satires.
He wrote in an easy, conversational tone about books, food and this period is usually said to have begun with the first known speech of Cicero and ended with the death of Ovid. Cicero has traditionally been considered the master of Latin prose, Ciceros many works can be divided into four groups, rhetorical treatises, philosophical works, and orations
Battle of Zama
The Battle of Zama, fought around October 19,202 BC, marked the end of the Second Punic War. This was because many in his army were recent conscripts, Scipio had conceived of a strategy to confuse and defeat Hannibals war elephants, and his force routed the Carthaginian infantry, thanks in part to superior Roman cavalry. Defeated on their ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms. Crossing the Alps, Hannibal reached the Italian peninsula in 218 BC, the Romans failed to defeat Hannibal or drive him from Italy, but following Scipios decisive victory at the Battle of Ilipa in Spain in 206 BC, Iberia had been secured by the Romans. In 205 BC, Scipio returned to Rome, where he was elected consul with a unanimous vote, now powerful enough, proposed to end the war by directly invading the Carthaginian home land. The Senate initially opposed this ambitious design of Scipio, persuaded by Quintus Fabius Maximus that the enterprise was far too hazardous, however and his supporters eventually convinced the Senate to ratify the plan, and Scipio was given the requisite authority to attempt the invasion.
Initially Scipio received no levy troops, and he sailed to Sicily with a group of 7,000 heterogeneous volunteers, Scipio continued to reinforce his troops with local defectors. He landed at Utica, and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of the Great Plains in 203 BC. The panicked Carthaginians felt that they had no alternative but to offer peace to Scipio, and Scipio, under the treaty, Carthage could keep its African territory, but would lose its overseas empire, by that time a fait-accompli. Masinissa was to be allowed to expand Numidia into parts of Africa, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. The Roman senate ratified the treaty, the Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal, who was still in Italy when Scipio landed in Africa, in 203 BC. Meanwhile, the Carthaginians breached the agreement by capturing a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis. The Carthaginians no longer believed a treaty advantageous, and rebuffed it under much Roman protest, Hannibal led an army composed of mercenaries, local citizens, and veterans and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns.
Scipio led a pre-Marian Roman army quincunx, along with a body of Numidian cavalry, the battle took place at Zama Regia, near Siliana 130 km south-west of the capital Tunis. Hannibal was first to march and reach the plains of Zama Regia and this gave an upper edge in turn to Scipio who relied heavily on his Roman heavy cavalry and Numidian light cavalry. Hannibal deployed his troops facing northwest, while Scipio deployed his troops in front of the Carthaginian army facing southeast. Hannibals army consisted of 36,000 infantry,4,000 cavalry, the first line consisted of mixed infantry of mercenaries from Gaul and the Balearic Islands. In his second line he placed the Carthaginian and Libyan citizen levies, livy states that Hannibal deployed 4000 Macedonians in the second line
The Aventine Hill is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built. It belongs to Ripa, the rione, or ward. The Aventine Hill is the southernmost of Romes seven hills and it has two distinct heights, one greater to the northwest and one lesser to the southeast, divided by a steep cleft that provides the base for an ancient roadway between the heights. During the Republican era, the two hills may have recognized as a single entity. Most Roman sources trace the name of the hill to a legendary king Aventinus, Servius identifies two kings of that name, one ancient Italic, and one Alban, both said to have been buried on the hill in remote antiquity. Servius believes that the hill was named after the ancient Italic king Aventinus, the Aventine was a significant site in Roman mythology. In Virgils Aeneid, a cave on the Aventines rocky slope next the river is home to the monstrous Cacus, killed by Hercules for stealing Geryons cattle. In Romes founding myth, the divinely fathered twins Romulus and Remus hold a contest of augury, whose outcome determines the right to found and lead a new city, and to determine its site.
In most versions of the story, Remus sets up his tent on the Aventine. Each sees a number of birds that signify divine approval. Romulus goes on to found the city of Rome at the site of his successful augury, an earlier variant, found in Ennius and some sources, has Romulus perform his augury on one of the Aventine Hills. Remus performs his elsewhere, perhaps on the height, the lesser of the Aventines two hills, which has been tentatively identified with Ennius Mons Murcus. The less fortunate Remus, who lost not only the contest but later, his life, remained on the Aventine, according to Roman tradition, the Aventine was not included within Romes original foundation, and lay outside the citys ancient sacred boundary. The Roman historian Livy reports that Ancus Marcius, Romes fourth king, defeated the Latins of Politorium, the Roman geographer Strabo credits Ancus with the building of a city wall to incorporate the Aventine. Others credit the same wall to Romes sixth king, Servius Tullius, the remains known as the Servian Wall used stone quarried at Veii, which was not conquered by Rome until c.393 BC, so the Aventine might have been part-walled, or an extramural suburb.
The Aventine appears to have functioned as some kind of staging post for the legitimate ingress of foreign peoples, during the late regal era, Servius Tullius built a temple to Diana on the Aventine, as a Roman focus for the new-founded Latin League. The Aventines outlying position, its association with Latins and plebeians. The temple overlooked the Circus Maximus and the Temple of Vesta and it became an important repository for plebeian and senatorial records
Aulus Gellius was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome. He was educated in Athens, after which he returned to Rome, the only source for the life of Aulus Gellius is the details recorded in his writings. He was of good family and connections, possibly of African origin and he traveled much, especially in Greece, and resided for a considerable period in Athens. He returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office and he was appointed by the praetor to act as an umpire in civil causes, and much of the time which he would gladly have devoted to literary pursuits was consequently occupied by judicial duties. The precise date of his birth, as of his death, is unknown, but from the names of his teachers and companions, he must have lived under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. His only known work, the Attic Nights, takes its name from having been begun during the nights of a winter which he spent in Attica. He afterwards continued it in Rome, one story is the fable of Androcles, which is often included in compilations of Aesops fables, but was not originally from that source.
The work, deliberately devoid of sequence or arrangement, is divided into twenty books, all these have come down to us except the eighth, of which nothing remains but the index. The Attic Nights are valuable for the insight they afford into the nature of the society and pursuits of those times, the Attic Nights found many readers in Antiquity. The editio princeps appeared at Rome in 1469, the earliest critical edition is that of Jakob Gronovius. A edition is that of M. Hertz, revised by C, a volume of selections, with notes and vocabulary, was published by Nall. There is an English translation by W. Beloe, and a French translation, a more recent English translation is by John Carew Rolfe for the Loeb Classical Library. Gellia Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, george Herbert Nall, ed. Stories from Aulus Gellius. John Carew Rolfe, The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, ISBN0674992156, ISBN0674992202, ISBN0674992342 G.
Anderson, Aulus Gellius, a Miscellanist and His World, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, vol. Marie-Luise Lakmann, Der Platoniker Tauros in der Darstellung des Aulus Gellius Leofranc Holford-Strevens, an Antonine Scholar and his Achievement Leofranc Holford-Strevens and Amiel Vardi, eds. The Worlds of Aulus Gellius Wytse Keulen, Gellius the Satirist, Works by Aulus Gellius at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Aulus Gellius at Internet Archive The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius,1795 translation, Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III
It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military.
Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.
The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control
Apotheosis is the glorification of a subject to divine level. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, and in art, in theology, apotheosis refers to the idea that an individual has been raised to godlike stature. In art, the term refers to the treatment of any subject in a grand or exalted manner. Before the Hellenistic period, imperial cults were known in Ancient Egypt, from the New Kingdom, all deceased pharaohs were deified as Osiris. From at least the Geometric period of the ninth century BC, in the Greek world, the first leader who accorded himself divine honours was Philip II of Macedon. Such Hellenistic state leaders might be raised to an equal to the gods before death or afterwards. A heroic cult status similar to apotheosis was a given to a few revered artists of the distant past. For this reason hero cults were chthonic in nature, and their rituals more closely resembled those for Hecate and Persephone than those for Zeus and Apollo. Two exceptions were Heracles and Asclepius, who might be honoured as either gods or heroes, sometimes by chthonic night-time rites and sacrifice on the following day.
Apotheosis in ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized as having been divine by his successor, usually by a decree of the Senate and popular consent. In addition to showing respect, often the present ruler deified a popular predecessor to legitimize himself, at the height of the imperial cult during the Roman Empire, sometimes the emperors deceased loved ones—heirs, empresses, or lovers, as Hadrians Antinous—were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously the title Divus to their names to signify their divinity, traditional Roman religion distinguished between a deus and a divus, though not consistently. Temples and columns were erected to provide a space for worship. The Ming dynasty epic Investiture of the Gods deals heavily with deification legends, numerous mortals have been deified into the Daoist pantheon, such as Guan Yu, Iron-crutch Li and Fan Kuai. Song Dynasty General Yue Fei was deified during the Ming Dynasty and is considered by practitioners to be one of the three highest ranking heavenly generals.
Various Hindu and Buddhist rulers in the past have been represented as deities, especially after death, even several Sultans of Yogyakarta were semi-deified, posthumously. Instead of the apotheosis, Christian theology uses in English the words deification or divinization or the Greek word theosis. Traditional mainstream theology, both East and West, views Jesus Christ as the preexisting God who undertook mortal existence, for He was made man that we might be made God
The present-day location is known as Hisarlik. It was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, a new capital called Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually in the Byzantine era and these excavations revealed several cities built in succession. Troy VII has been identified with the city that the Hittites called Wilusa, the origin of the Greek Ἴλιον. Today, the hill at Hisarlık has given its name to a village near the ruins. It lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital, the map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998, Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC, Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC.
Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII, in the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander, where they had beached their ships. The city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, and the results largely confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. In November 2001, the geologist John C, kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region. Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the major work attributed to Homer. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid, the Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus.
After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, with the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest. The Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location, leChavaliers location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most commonly accepted theory for almost a century. In 1822, the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren was the first to identify with confidence the position of the city as it is now known, the hill, near the city of Çanakkale, was known as Hisarlık. In 1868, Heinrich Schliemann visited Calvert and secured permission to excavate Hisarlık, in 1871–73 and 1878–79, he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period