The Malay Archipelago is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia. It has called the Malay World, Indo-Australian Archipelago, East Indies, Spices Archipelago. The name was taken from the 19th-century European concept of a Malay race, situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area, and fourth by number of islands in the world. It includes Brunei, East Malaysia, the Philippines, the island of New Guinea is usually excluded from definitions of the Malay Archipelago, although the Indonesian western portion of the island may be included. The term is synonymous with maritime Southeast Asia. The term was derived from the European concept of a Malay race, which referred to the people who inhabited what is now Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and East Timor. The racial concept was proposed by European explorers based on their observations of the influence of the ethnic Malay empire, the 19th-century naturalist Alfred Wallace used the term Malay Archipelago as the title of his influential book documenting his studies in the region.
Wallace referred to the area as the Indian Archipelago and the Indo-Australian Archipelago and he included within the region the Solomon Islands and the Malay Peninsula due to physiographic similarities. The archipelago was called the East Indies from the late 16th century and it is still sometimes referred to as such, but broader usages of the East Indies term had included Indochina and the Indian subcontinent. The area is called Nusantara in the Indonesian and Malaysian languages, the area is referred to as the Indonesian archipelago. The term maritime Southeast Asia is largely synonymous, covering both the islands in Southeast Asia and nearby communities, such as those found on the Malay Peninsula. The land and sea area of the archipelago exceeds 2 million km2, the more than 25,000 islands of the archipelago comprise many smaller archipelagoes. Geologically the archipelago is one of the most active regions in the world. Tectonic uplifts have produced large mountains, including the highest in Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with a height of 4,095.2 m and Puncak Jaya on Papua, Indonesia at 4,884 m.
Other high mountains in the archipelago include Puncak Mandala, Indonesia at 4,760 m and Puncak Trikora, the climate throughout the archipelago is tropical, owing to its position on the equator. Wallace used the term Malay Archipelago as the title of his influential book documenting his studies in the region and he proposed what would come to be known as the Wallace Line, a boundary that separated the flora and fauna of Asia and Australia. The ice age boundary was formed by the deep water straits between Borneo and Sulawesi, and through the Lombok Strait between Bali and Lombok and this is now considered the western border of the Wallacea transition zone between the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australia. The zone has a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin, over 380 million people live in the region, with the most populated islands being Java, Sumatra, Taiwan and Sri Lanka
Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas
He was Chief Chronicler of Castile and the Americas during the reigns of Philip II and Philip III. Cristóbal Pérez Pastor called him the prince of the historians of the Americas and he is considered the most prolific historian of his era, and his works include a general history of the world, a history of Portugal, and a description of the Americas. His output features translations of works from Italian and Latin into Spanish, Herrera is not given much value by modern historians. A standard Spanish reference work describes him as an official historian, an opportunist, a schemer, and greedy. He plagiarized entire works which were unpublished at the time and he had no interest in Native American civilization and therefore never dealt with it. He was born in Cuéllar, Province of Segovia, into a noble family. He himself placed his mothers surname before his fathers in opposition to convention and his education, perhaps pursued at the University of Salamanca, reached its pinnacle in Italy. In 1570 he traveled to Italy in the service of Prince Vespasiano I Gonzaga and his knowledge of Latin increased as he learned Italian.
In 1572 Gonzaga was named Viceroy of Navarre, Herrera accompanied him and established a residence in Pamplona. Meanwhile, Herrera expanded his circle of friends and established contact with people as, little by little. In the last years of Gonzagas life, he introduced Herrera to King Philip II as one learned in historical matters and it was the starting point of a relationship which Herrera was able to maintain, beginning by doing the self-interested courtesy of dedicating his historical works to important people. To get his acquaintance with the King started on the right foot, while living in Pamplona he met the woman who would become his first wife, Juana de Esparza y Artieda. Their only child, died in 1587 at a young age, in 1601 he moved to Valladolid with the Court, and there pursued his tireless historiographical activity, along with that related to Court and the inevitable tasks of a financial nature. In 1607 he returned to Madrid, living in a house on the Puerta del Sol and devoted to his literary tasks, the economic intrigues in which he was involved led to his being placed under house arrest from 1609 to 1611.
He continued his historiographical and literary activity until his death, Herrera died in Madrid on 28 March 1626 or 27 March 1625. The tradition which began with Columbuss first voyage culminated with Herreras Descripción, Herrera drew upon all these sources to compose the text of his Descripción and its fourteen maps of the Americas and the Far East. It was common in editions of his Décadas to include his Descripción as a supplement and it was translated into English, by Captain John Stevens in 1725, as well as German and Latin. These portraits constitute a collection of the most famous of the conquistadors, and many of them are unique
Antonio Pigafetta was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice. He traveled with the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his crew by order of the King Charles I of Spain on their voyage around the world, during the expedition, he served as Magellans assistant and kept an accurate journal which assisted him in translating the Cebuano language. It is the first recorded document concerning the language, Pigafetta was one of the 18 men who returned to Spain in 1522, out of the approximately 240 who set out three years earlier. The voyage completed the first circumnavigation of the world, Juan Sebastián Elcano served as captain after Magellans death, Pigafettas journal is the source for much of what we know about Magellan and Elcanos voyage. At least one warship of the Italian Navy, a destroyer of the Navigatori class, was named after him in 1931, Pigafetta belonged to a rich family of Vicenza. In his youth he studied astronomy and cartography and he served on board the ships of the Knights of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century.
Until 1519, he accompanied the papal nuncio, Monsignor Chieregati, in Seville, Antonio Pigafetta heard of Magellans planned expedition and elected to embark, accepting the title of sobresaliente and a modest salary of 1,000 maravedís. During the trip, Pigafetta collected extensive data concerning the geography, flora, the only other sailor to maintain a journal during the voyage was Francisco Albo, Victorias last pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Pigafetta was wounded on Mactan in the Philippines, where Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in April 1521 by the local ruler Lapu-Lapu, nevertheless, he recovered and was among the 18 who accompanied Juan Sebastián Elcano on board the Victoria on the return voyage to Spain. Upon reaching port in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in the modern Province of Cadiz in September 1522, the original document was not preserved. However, it was not through Pigafettas writings that Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation of the globe, rather, it was through an account written by a Flanders-based writer Maximilianus Transylvanus, which was published in 1523.
After Magellan and Elcanos voyage, Pigafetta utilized the connections he had prior to the voyage with the Knights of Rhodes to achieve membership in the order. Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by Magellan, The Hakluyt Society - includes Pigefettas journal, Works by Antonio Pigafetta at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Antonio Pigafetta at Internet Archive
Portuguese Malacca was the territory of Malacca that, for 130 years, was a Portuguese colony. The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China, eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri the first King of Malacca in 1411. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509, although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble however quickly ensued. The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat, Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships, the Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city.
The Sultan refused all the demands, conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad weighed down the Malaccan side. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca, as the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy and they endured years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital and he rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist.
Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless, the Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks, frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched and he was remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed to North. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the sultans forces must be silenced
Mindanao is the second largest and southernmost major island in the Philippines. It is the name of one of the three groups in the country, consisting of the island of Mindanao and smaller outlying islands. As of the 2010 census, the population itself is 20,281,545 people, while the Mindanao island group has 21,968,174 inhabitants. Davao City is the most populous city in Mindanao hosting 1,632,991 people, followed by Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro City, the island has seen a communist insurgency as well as armed Moro separatist movements. Mindanao is considered the food basket of the Philippines, eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines come from here. Mindanao is dubbed with the monikers The Philippines Land of Promise, although many attempts made, it was never occupied by Spain for their 333 years of stay in Luzon and Visayas. Yet during Spains defeat and Treaty of Paris in 1898, they illegally included by coordinates Mindanao, evidence of human occupation dates back tens of thousands of years.
In prehistoric times the Negrito people arrived, sometime around 1500 BC, Austronesian peoples spread throughout the Philippines and far beyond. Native people of the Maluku Islands refer the island as Maluku Besar, the evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence. Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have found in caves, together with shell bracelets, beads. Many of the objects are from the Yuan and Ming periods. Evidently, there was a history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter’s contact with Islam. In the Classic epoch of Philippine history, the people of Mindanao were heavily exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia, artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, and the Ganesh pendant. These cultural traits passed through Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, in coastal areas, the Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest, whereas in interior parts, influences were indigenized into local animist beliefs and customs and appeared more subtly.
The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most compete local version of the Ramayana. The Maguindanao at this had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana epic saga that survives to the modern day. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan. The coming of Islam happened in the 14th century, the first mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the peaceful sea. Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the reached the Spice Islands in 1521. Magellan did not complete the voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east, by visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, in March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D.
Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India, although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa and Quilon. He participated in battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu and he sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to an ending in retreat. Magellan had a role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, after the conquest their ways parted, Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the Spice Islands in the Moluccas and he married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah.
His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories, after taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp and he was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a member on a Portuguese ship
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa
Rajah Humabon, baptized as Don Carlos, was the Rajah of Cebu at the time of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellans arrival in the Philippines in 1521. There is none official record on the origins of Rajah Humabon prior to the arrival of Magellan, according to tradition, Sri Hamabar was the son of Sri Bantug, and the grandson of Sri Lumay. Specifically, one of the kings was Sri Lumay, a native from Sumatra. Sri Alho, who ruled a land known as Sialo which included the towns of Carcar. Sri Ukob ruled a kingdom known as Nahalin in the north included the present-day towns of Consolación, Compostela, Carmen. He died in battle, fighting with the group known as magalos from Mindanao. Sri Bantug had a brother called Sri Parang the Limp, Sri Parang handed his throne to his nephew Humabon as regent, and he became the Rajah of Cebu. Parang he had a son, who succeeded Humabon as king of Cebu. The phrase Cata Raya Chita was documented by historian Antonio Pigafetta to be a warning in the Malay language, following Pigafettas inscription, the phrase is creole Malay for Kata-katanya adalah raya cita-cita.
The phrase may mean What they say is mainly ambitious, kata-kata, –nya, raya, according to historical accounts, Rajah Humabon was among the first indigenous converts to Roman Catholicism after he, his wives, and his subjects were baptised by the expeditions priest. On 14 April 1521, Humabon was christened Carlos in honour of King Charles I of Spain, while his consort, Hara Humamay was given the name Juana, after Charles mother. Several men were killed including the then-leaders of the expedition, Duarte Barbosa, the account that the cause of the massacre of the Europeans was because some of the local women were raped by the Spaniards, was from an entry in the Aginid. History of the Philippines RAJAH HUMABON King of Cebu Cebu eskrima The official website of Boholchronicle
Mactan or Maktan is a densely populated island located a few kilometres from Cebu Island in the Philippines. The island is part of Cebu Province and it is divided into Lapu-Lapu City, the island is separated from Cebu by the Mactan Channel which is crossed by two bridges, the Marcelo Fernan Bridge and the Mactan-Mandaue Bridge. The island covers some 65 square kilometres and is home to some 430,000 people, along with Olango Island Group, the isles are administered as 1 city and a municipality covering 75.25 square kilometres. Mactan-Cebu International Airport is located on the island, the island was already a thriving settlement before it was colonized by Spain in the 16th century. By 1730, the Catholic Augustinian friars established the town of Opon, carlos P. Garcia on June 17,1961. Congressman Manuel A. Zosa, the representative of the Sixth District of Cebu, apart from the airport, today the island is known for its industrial factories, which are some of the most successful industrial ventures in the Philippines.
Many of them are located at the Mactan Export Processing Zone, important to the island is its high-class tourism industry and the production of furniture, as well as guitars and other musical instruments. Being one of the major tourist Islands of Cebu, Mactan Island boasts of a collection of tourist spots. Being a coral island, Mactan offers some of the best diving, island hopping, jet ski, the only aquarium attraction in the Visayas is located on the island. Geographic data related to Mactan at OpenStreetMap Mactan International Airport Lapu-Lapu City Government