Enron Corporation was an American energy and services company based in Houston, Texas. It was founded in 1985 as a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, both small regional companies. Before its bankruptcy on December 3, 2001, Enron employed 29,000 staff and was a major electricity, natural gas and pulp and paper company, with claimed revenues of nearly $101 billion during 2000. Fortune named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years. At the end of 2001, it was revealed that Enron's reported financial condition was sustained by institutionalized and creatively planned accounting fraud, known since as the Enron scandal. Enron has since become a well-known example of corruption; the scandal brought into question the accounting practices and activities of many corporations in the United States and was a factor in the enactment of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002. The scandal affected the greater business world by causing the dissolution of the Arthur Andersen accounting firm, Enron's main auditor for years.
Enron filed for bankruptcy in the Southern District of New York in late 2001 and selected Weil, Gotshal & Manges as its bankruptcy counsel. It ended its bankruptcy during November 2004, pursuant to a court-approved plan of reorganization. A new board of directors changed the name of Enron to Enron Creditors Recovery Corp. and emphasized reorganizing and liquidating certain operations and assets of the pre-bankruptcy Enron. On September 7, 2006, Enron sold Prisma Energy International Inc. its last remaining business, to Ashmore Energy International Ltd.. One of Enron's primary predecessors was the Northern Natural Gas Company, formed in 1930, in Omaha, Nebraska just a few months after Black Tuesday; the low cost of natural gas and cheap labor supply during the Great Depression helped to fuel the company's early beginnings. The company was able to bring the first natural gas to Minnesota. Over the next 50 years, Northern expanded more as it acquired many energy companies, it was reorganized in 1979 as the main subsidiary of a holding company, InterNorth, a diversified energy and energy-related products company.
Although most of the acquisitions conducted were successful, some ended poorly. InterNorth competed with Cooper Industries over a hostile takeover of Crouse-Hinds Company, an electrical products manufacturer. InterNorth was unsuccessful as Cooper bought out Crouse-Hinds. Cooper and InterNorth feuded over numerous suits during the course of the takeover that were settled after the transaction was completed; the subsidiary Northern Natural Gas operated the largest natural gas pipeline company in North America. By the 1980s, InterNorth became a major force for natural gas production and marketing as well as for natural gas liquids, was an innovator in the plastics industry. In 1983, InterNorth merged with the Belco Petroleum Company, a Fortune 500 oil exploration and development company founded by Arthur Belfer; the Houston Natural Gas corporation was formed from the Houston Oil Co. in 1925 to provide gas to customers in the Houston market through the building of gas pipelines. Under the leadership of CEO Robert Herring from 1967 to 1981, the company became a large dominant force in the energy industry with a large pipeline network as a result from a prosperous period of growth in the early to mid-1970s.
This growth was a result of the exploitation of the unregulated Texas natural gas market and the commodity surge in the early 1970s. Toward the end of the 1970s, HNG's luck began to run out with rising gas prices forcing clients to switch to oil. In addition, with the passing of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, the Texas market was more difficult to profit from and as a result, HNG's profits fell. After Herring's death in 1981, M. D. Matthews took over as CEO in a 3-year stint with initial success, but a big dip in earnings led to his exit. In 1984, Kenneth Lay succeeded Matthews and inherited the troubled, but large diversified energy conglomerate. InterNorth, in its conservative success, became a target of corporate takeovers, the most prominent being corporate raider Irwin Jacobs. InterNorth CEO Sam Segnar, in searching for a company to merge with to fend off takeover attempts as a poison pill, discovered HNG. In May 1985, Internorth acquired HNG for $2.3 billion, 40% higher than the current market price, in order to avoid the corporate takeover attempt.
The combined assets of the two companies would create the second largest gas pipeline system at the time in the United States. Internorth’s north-south pipelines that served Iowa and Minnesota complemented HNG’s Florida and California east-west pipelines well; the company was named "HNG/InterNorth Inc." though InterNorth was technically the parent. At the outset, Segnar was CEO for a short time, before he was fired by the Board of Directors whereupon Lay was tapped to be the new CEO. Lay moved the headquarters of the new company back to energy capital Houston; the company set out to find a new name, spent upwards of $100,000 in focus groups and consulting before "Enteron" was suggested. The name was dismissed over its apparent likening to an intestine and shortened to "Enron". Enron still had some lingering problems left over from its merger, however; the company had to pay Jacobs, still a threat, over $350 million and reorganize the company. Lay sold off any parts of the company that he believed didn't belong in the long-term future of Enron.
Lay consolidated all the
Jagadeesha Suchith known as J Suchith, is an Indian cricketer who plays for Karnataka cricket team. A left-handed batsman and slow left-arm orthodox bowler, Suchith has played in the Indian Premier League. Suchith played for various age-group teams for Karnataka such as Under-15s, Under-16s, Under-19s, Under-22s, Under-23s and Under-25s, as well as the South Zone Under-19 team, he made his senior cricket debut for Karnataka in the final of the 2014–15 Vijay Hazare Trophy against Punjab at Ahmedabad. Suchith was bought by the IPL franchise Mumbai Indians at the auction before the 2015 Indian Premier League, he made his IPL debut for Mumbai against Kings XI Punjab. Jagadeesha Suchith at ESPNcricinfo
Melissa S. Kearney is the Neil Moskowitz Professor of Economics at the University of Maryland, College Park and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, she is director of the Aspen Economic Strategy Group. She has been an editorial board member of the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy since 2019 and of the Journal of Economic Literature since 2017. Kearney served as director of the Hamilton Project at Brookings from 2013 to 2015 and as co-chair of the JPAL State and Local Innovation Initiative from 2015 to 2018, she holds a BA in economics from Princeton University and a PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she studied on a National Science Foundation graduate student fellowship. Kearney was a 1995 Truman Scholar. Kearney's research focuses on issues related to social policy and inequality. In work with Phillip B. Levine, receiving attention in the popular media, she found that greater access to Sesame Street in the show's early days led to improved early educational outcomes for children.
Kearney and Levine found that MTV’s 16 and Pregnant and Teen Mom programs led to a sizable reduction in teen births, accounting for as much as one-third of the overall decline in teen births in the year and a half following the show’s introduction in 2009. She has written extensively about income inequality and has testified before the Congress on the topic of U. S. income inequality. She co-authored a 2013 proposal for a Secondary Earner Tax Deduction that formed the basis for a tax proposal included in proposed legislation and in Obama's proposed 2015 budget. MS Kearney, R Wilson, 2018 "Male Earnings, Marriageable Men, Non-Marital Fertility: Evidence from the Fracking Boom," Review of Economics and Statistics 100: 678-690. MS Kearney, PB Levine, 2017 "The Economics of Non-Marital Childbearing and the Marriage Premium for Children," Annual Review of Economics. MS Kearney, 2016 "Should we be concerned about income inequality?" in Ed. Michael Strain, The U. S. Labor Market: Questions and Challenges for U.
S. Policy. Washington D. C.: American Enterprise Institute. MS Kearney, PB Levine, 2016 "Income Inequality, Social Mobility, the Decision to Drop-Out of High School." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. MS Kearney, L Turner, 2013 "Giving Secondary Earners a Tax Break: A Proposal to Help Low- and Middle-Income Families." The Hamilton Project. DH Autor, LF Katz, MS Kearney, 2008 "Trends in US wage inequality: Revising the revisionists" The Review of economics and statistics 90, 300-323 H David, LF Katz, MS Kearney, 2008 "The polarization of the US labor market" American economic review 96, 189-194 J Guryan, E Hurst, M Kearney, 2008 "Parental education and parental time with children" Journal of Economic perspectives 22, 23-46 MS Kearney, PB Levine, 2012 "Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 26, 141-63 MS Kearney, 2005 "State lotteries and consumer behavior" Journal of Public Economics 89, 2269-2299
Joseph Vladimirovich Trumpeldor was an early Zionist activist who helped to organize the Zion Mule Corps and bring Jewish immigrants to Palestine. Trumpeldor died defending the settlement of Tel Hai in 1920 and subsequently became a Zionist national hero. According to a standard account, his last words were "It does not matter, it is good to die for our country", but that he said these words has been challenged. Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk in the North Caucasus of the Russian Empire, his father, Wulf Trumpeldor, served as a cantonist in the Caucasian War, as a "useful Jew", was allowed to live outside the Pale of Settlement. Though proudly Jewish, Trumpeldor's upbringing was more Russian than traditionally Jewish. In training as a dentist, Joseph Trumpeldor volunteered for the Russian army in 1902. During the Russo-Japanese War, he participated in the siege of Port Arthur, where he lost his left arm to shrapnel, he elected to complete his service. When he was questioned about his decisions and told that he was advised not to continue fighting given his handicap, he responded "but I still have another arm to give to the motherland."
When Port Arthur surrendered, Trumpeldor went into Japanese captivity. He spent his time printing a newspaper on Jewish affairs and organized history and literature classes, he befriended several prisoners who shared his desire of founding a communal farm in Palestine. On return from captivity, he moved to St. Petersburg. Trumpeldor subsequently received four decorations for bravery including the Cross of St. George, which made him the most decorated Jewish soldier in Russia. In 1906 he became the first Jew in the army to receive an officer's commission. Due to his handicap he began to study law, he gathered a group of young Zionists around him and in 1911 they emigrated to Palestine part of the Ottoman Empire. At first he joined a farm on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, worked for a time at Kibbutz Degania; when World War I broke out, he was, as a Russian subject in the Ottoman empire, an enemy alien. He went to Egypt, where together with Ze'ev Jabotinsky he developed the idea of the Jewish Legion to fight with the British against common enemies and the Zion Mule Corps was formed in 1915, considered to be the first all-Jewish military unit organized in close to two thousand years, the ideological beginning of the Israel Defense Forces.
He saw action in the Battle of Gallipoli with the Zion Mule Corps, where he was wounded in the shoulder. The Zion Mule Corps remained in Gallipoli through the entire campaign and was disbanded shortly after being transferred to Britain. Upon his return to Petrograd, Russia in 1918, he organised Jews to defend themselves and established the HeHalutz, a youth organization that prepared immigrants for aliyah, returned to the British Mandate of Palestine himself. On 1 March 1920, several hundred Shiites, from the village of Jabal Amel in southern Lebanon, gathered at the gate of Tel Hai, one of four Jewish farming villages in an isolated bloc at the northern end of the Upper Galilee's Hulah Valley. Gangs of clan-based border peasants, combining politics and banditry, were active in the area of the loosely defined border between the soon to be established British Mandate of Palestine, French Mandate of Lebanon and of Syria; the Shiites believed that some French troops had taken refuge with the Jews and demanded to search the premises.
The Jews tried to maintain neutrality in the chaos sheltering both Arabs and French. On this day there were no French soldiers, the Jews assented to a search. One of the farmers fired a shot into the air, a signal for reinforcements from nearby Kfar Giladi, which brought ten men led by Trumpeldor, posted by Hashomer to organize defense, it is unclear what happened once Trumpeldor assumed command, but an early report speaks of'misunderstanding on both sides'. A major firefight raged in which seven Jews and five Arabs were killed outright; the eight Jews were buried in two common graves in Kfar Giladi, both locations were abandoned for a time. The last words attributed to him, "Never mind, it is good to die for our country", became famous in the pre-state Zionist movement and in Israel of the 1950s and 1960s. According to Aviel Roshwald, the authenticity of Trumpeldor's final utterance is well-attested and not questioned by historians despite a widespread belief that they are apocryphal. Other historians state.
In the wake of popular scepticism in the 1970s, a counter-version to the official glorified legend starting as a joke, suggested that his last words were in fact a pungent curse in his mother-tongue Russian, reflecting frustration with his bad luck. Trumpeldor spoke only broken Hebrew; these words, which spread throughout the Jewish immigrant community in Palestine, are rather atypical for Jews on their deathbed. They are the equivalent in Hebrew of the Latin apophthegm Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, the famous line from the Roman lyric poet Horace's Odes, which can be rendered in English as "It is sw
Events of 1531 in the Habsburg Netherlands and Prince-bishopric of Liège. Monarch - Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, Duke of Brabant, of Luxembourg, etc. Regent - Mary of Hungary, from 26 September Prince-Bishop - Érard de La Marck September26 September – Mary of Hungary appointed regent over the Habsburg Netherlands. October1 October – Charles V reorganises the governing institutions of the Habsburg Netherlands, establishing three "collateral councils" as the highest government bodies: the Brussels Privy Council, Council of State, Council of Finances. 7 October – Edicts issued on coins, monopolies and poor relief, on the printing of heretical books. November19 November – Charles V issues decree reorganizing the Council of Luxembourg. Bernard van Orley and William Dermoyen – The Battle of Pavia October25 October – Matthew Wesenbeck, jurist DecemberHendrick van Brederode, rebel commander
In April 2019 in Sheremetyevo International Airport, Russian authorities arrested Israeli-American Naama Issachar, a transit passenger flying from India to Israel, for alleged drug smuggling. On 11 October 2019 a Russian court sentenced her to seven and a half years in prison on drug possession and smuggling charges. Issachar's family and Israeli officials said that Russia told them she would be released if Aleksey Burkov, a Russian national pending extradition from Israel to the United States on suspicion of committing cyber crimes, was released to Russia. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu subsequently requested from Russian President Vladimir Putin a pardon for Issachar, which Putin said he would consider. Israel's High Court rejected Burkov's appeal against his extradition, leading Russia to condemn the decision as "a breach... of Israel's international obligations", stating that the decision "does not contribute to the development of relations". On 19 October 2019 rallies were held in Tel Aviv and in New York City calling for Issachar's release.
Billboards have been put up in Israel calling on Putin to "please bring Naama home."In December 2019, Israeli Justice Ministry transferred historical Alexander courtyard in Jerusalem to Russian Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, which many commenters linked to negotiating Issachar’s release. On 29 January 2020 President Putin signed her pardon, her attorney noted that no convicted foreigner was pardoned by a Russian President before. Israel–Russia relations Ilan Grapel affair The official site of the headquarter for Naama's liberation