Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species, its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria. Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or "enteric bacteria", as several members live in the intestines of animals. In fact, the etymology of the family is enterobacterium with the suffix to designate a family —not after the genus Enterobacter —and the type genus is Escherichia. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae are bacilli, are 1–5 μm in length, they appear as medium to large-sized grey colonies on blood agar, although some can express pigments.
Most have many flagella used to move about. Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous, type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their hosts, they are not spore-forming. Like other proteobacteria, enterobactericeae have Gram-negative stains, they are facultative anaerobes, fermenting sugars to produce lactic acid and various other end products. Most reduce nitrate to nitrite, although exceptions exist. Unlike most similar bacteria, enterobacteriaceae lack cytochrome c oxidase, although there are exceptions. Catalase reactions vary among Enterobacteriaceae. Many members of this family are normal members of the gut microbiota in humans and other animals, while others are found in water or soil, or are parasites on a variety of different animals and plants. Escherichia coli is one of the most important model organisms, its genetics and biochemistry have been studied; some enterobacteria are important pathogens, e.g. Salmonella, or Shigella e.g. because they produce endotoxins.
Endotoxins reside in the cell wall and are released when the cell dies and the cell wall disintegrates. Some members of the Enterobacteriaceae produce endotoxins that, when released into the bloodstream following cell lysis, cause a systemic inflammatory and vasodilatory response; the most severe form of this is known as endotoxic shock, which can be fatal. The following genera have been validly published, thus they have "Standing in Nomenclature"; the year the genus was proposed is listed in parentheses after the genus name. The following genera have been but not validly, thus they do not have "Standing in Nomenclature"; the year the genus was proposed is listed in parentheses after the genus name. To identify different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, a microbiologist may run a series of tests in the lab; these include: Phenol red Tryptone broth Phenylalanine agar for detection of production of deaminase, which converts phenylalanine to phenylpyruvic acid Methyl red or Voges-Proskauer tests depend on the digestion of glucose.
The methyl red tests for acid endproducts. The Voges Proskauer tests for the production of acetylmethylcarbinol. Catalase test on nutrient agar tests for the production of enzyme catalase, which splits hydrogen peroxide and releases oxygen gas. Oxidase test on nutrient agar tests for the production of the enzyme oxidase, which reacts with an aromatic amine to produce a purple color. Nutrient gelatin tests to detect activity of the enzyme gelatinase. In a clinical setting, three species make up 80 to 95% of all isolates identified; these are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis. However, Proteus mirabilis is now considered a part of the Morganellaceae, a sister clade within the Enterobacterales. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are claimed as "the last line of antibiotic defense" against resistant organisms. For instance, some Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are carbapenem resistant. Enterobacteriaceae genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Evaluation of new computer-enhanced identification program for microorganisms: adaptation of BioBASE for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae Brown, A.
E.. Benson's microbiological applications: laboratory manual in general microbiology. New York: McGraw- Hill
Toshiko Akiyoshi at Maybeck is a solo jazz piano album recorded by Toshiko Akiyoshi at the Maybeck Recital Hall in Berkeley and released on the Concord Jazz record label. It is Volume 36 in Concord's "Maybeck Recital Hall Series." "Village" – 5:59 "Come Sunday" – 4:37 "Con Alma" – 5:28 "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" – 7:02 "It Was a Very Good Year" – 5:34 "Things We Did Last Summer" – 7:44 "Old Devil Moon" – 6:04 "Sophisticated Lady" – 6:09 "Quadrille, Anyone?" – 5:45 "Tempus Fugit" – 3:50 Concord Records CCD-4635 Ginell, Richard S. AllMusic.com
Perry Chen is an American artist and entrepreneur best known for being the creator and principal founder of Kickstarter, the online funding platform for creative projects. He came up with the idea for Kickstarter in 2001 and launched it in 2009 along with co-founders Charles Adler and Yancey Strickler. Chen is an alumnus of Hunter College High School in New York City and Tulane University in New Orleans. Chen co-founded the Southfirst gallery in Brooklyn in 2001, was a TED Fellow in 2010, a resident of Laboratorio para la Ciudad in Mexico City in 2014, is a 2016 Director's Fellow at the MIT Media Lab. In 2017, he was appointed to the Knight Commission on Trust and American Democracy — a nonpartisan commission of leaders across media and public policy tasked with guiding the public discourse on rebuilding trust in America’s democratic institutions. In 2013, he was honored on the annual list of Time's 100 most influential people. In December 2014, he exhibited "Computers in Crisis" for the New Museum's First Look program, co-presented by Rhizome and Creative Time Reports.
The exhibition included the event Y2K+15, an exploration of the phenomenon and legacy of Y2K, held at the New Museum. Chinese Americans in New York City Tech companies in the New York metropolitan area Perry Chen Studio Kickstarter