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Enterolobium cyclocarpum

Enterolobium cyclocarpum known as guanacaste, caro caro, monkey-ear tree or elephant-ear tree, is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, native to tropical regions of the Americas, from central Mexico south to northern Brazil and Venezuela. It is known for its large proportions, its expansive spherical crown, its curiously shaped seedpods; the abundance of this tree in Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, where it is prized for the shady relief it provides from the intense sun, coupled with its immensity, have made it a recognized species. It is the national tree of Costa Rica. In North America it is called elephant-ear tree, due to the shape of the seedpods. Other common names include Devil's ear and earpod tree and orejón or huanacaxtle. In El Salvador, it is known as conacaste. In the Yucatan peninsula, it is known by the Mayan name, pich. In Panama it is known as corotú; the guanacaste is a medium-sized to large tree, growing to 25–35 m tall, with a trunk up to 3.5 m in diameter. Unusual in a tree of these proportions, buttresses are lacking.

The bark is light gray, with prominent dark reddish-brown vertical fissures. In young trees these fissures are closer together, and their confluence lends a characteristic reddish hue to the bark of guanacaste saplings. Older specimens present broken, chipped or scarred bark; the crown is broad and spreading. The height at which branches first occur along the trunk – as well as the overall tree shape – vary among individuals and are habitat-dependent characteristics. Guanacaste trees grow as single specimens in a sunny pasture. Under these conditions, extended, horizontal limbs emerge low on the boles, forming giant, hemispherical spreading crowns. In the forest trees tend to become taller, branching occurs at a higher level. Tree forms become somewhat narrower, though crowns are still rounded, hemispherical shapes are maintained by those that have reached the canopy; the alternate leaves are bipinnate compound, 15–40 cm long and 17 cm broad with a 2–6 cm petiole bearing 4–15 pairs of pinnae, each pinna with 40–70 leaflets.

Near its base, the twiggy petiole bares a small, oval gland. The leaves are confined to the outer shell of the crown, yet they are plentiful enough to make it moderately dense and green; the guanacaste is evergreen, or deciduous for 1–2 months during the dry season. Most foliage is shed at the start of the dry season. In late February, a growth surge is initiated that re-establishes a thick crown by April. Concurrent with the leaves' renewal is the appearance of globular inflorescences in the axils of the new leaves. Supported by a long pedestal, each spherical white head – composed of about fifty individual flowers – sports thousands of thin, filamentous stamens as its major feature; the blossoms themselves each consist of about twenty stamens and a single pistil, bound together at the base by a short, tubular corolla and an shorter calyx, just 5 mm long altogether. Guanacaste flowers are fragrant, during intense flowering periods their odor permeates the air for many meters in all directions.

In Manuel Antonio National Park near Quepos, Costa Rica, flowering lasts from late February to early April. No obvious fruiting activity follows the decline of the blossom. Rather, nine or ten months pass before green pods first appear high in the crown by December, they reach full size by February and begin to ripen in March – a full year after flowering has ceased. Fruit ripening lasts from March to April, as the green pods turn brown in the guanacaste crown and are shed. Vigorous trees will produce large crops on a nearly annual basis. In June, guanacaste seedlings can be seen, germinating in the moist soil of the early rainy season. Guanacaste fruits are large, glossy dark brown indehiscent and spirally-organized pods, shaped like orbicular disks, their shape suggests the usual Mimosoideae fruit – a long, flattened pod – taken and wound around an axis perpendicular to its plane. Made of thick, soft tissue with a leathery feel, the pods contain 8-20 radially arranged seeds, 14.5–17.5 mm long, 7.8–11.2 mm wide, 6.2–7.2 mm thick and weighing about 1 g.

Guanacaste seeds are marked with a conspicuous light brown or orange ring. They are hard, resembling small stones rather than tree seeds in their strength and durability. In order for germination to occur, the hard seed coat must be broken to enable water to reach the embryo. Otherwise, the seeds will lie dormant indefinitely; the ardillo and the iguano possess similar bipinnate leaves with extra-fine leaflets. Though of impressive stature, these two trees can be distinguished from the guanacaste: the ardillo has tan-colored wrinkled and rough bark – nothing like the guanacaste's unmistakably gray and vertically cracked cortex; the iguano's leaflets are serrate. Guanacaste trees appear to delay the onset of fruit development—some nine months—so that seed maturation will coincide with the start of the rainy season; this adaptive behavior is an adaptation to give germinating seedlings as much time as possible to establish root systems before the start of the next dry season. Both the jatobá and the cenizaro exhibit similar reproductive strategies.

Of course, guanacaste trees—like all deciduous and semi-deciduous species in this part of th

Salomons Museum

The Salomons Museum is a museum north of Tunbridge Wells, in the county of Kent, southeast England. It preserves the country house of Sir David Salomons, the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London, of his nephew, Sir David Lionel Salomons, a scientist and engineer. Called Broomhill, the house is now called Salomons; the museum is managed by Markerstudy Group. The house was built in the 1830s by Decimus Burton, it features an tall water tower, stables, a private science lecture theatre and Sir David Lionel's laboratories. Major additions were made in 1854, 1863, 1908, 1910 and 1913; the house is a Grade II listed building. The museum preserves the bench from which David Salomons rose to speak in 1851, becoming the first Jew to speak in Parliament; the first Jew elected to Parliament was Baron Lionel de Rothschild. Elected in 1847, he refused to swear his oath of office using the phrase "on the true faith of a Christian." Unable, therefore, to serve, he stood down but was again elected M. P. for the City of London in 1850.

He took his oath leaving out the crucial phrase. A Parliamentary debate ensued, the conclusion of, that a non-Christian could not take a seat in Parliament. David Salomons was elected MP for Greenwich in an 1851 by-election, he arrived at Parliament on 18 July 1851, like Rothschild, took his oath omitting the words "on the true faith of a Christian". He sat on the bench in the museum's collection, but when requested to leave a second time he stood and departed, he returned three days and again took his seat. A heated debate ensued. A fellow MP for the Liberal Party inquired what he intended to do. Salomons stood and spoke, the first Jew to speak in Parliament, he said that he had been elected by a large majority, that he was carrying out the wishes of the people in being there. He voted three times. Salomons was fined £500 for voting illegally; the law requiring Members of Parliament to swear an oath "on the true faith of a Christian" was changed in 1858. Lionel de Rothschild, elected yet again in 1857, became the first Jewish MP, taking his seat as soon as the law was changed.

David Salomons was elected for Greenwich in 1859 and continued to sit in Parliament until his death in 1873. Items in the museum include Sir David Lionel Salomons' collections of hot air ballooning memorabilia, early automobiles, a Welte Philharmonic-Organ and writings on electrical and scientific subjects. There is a collection of Judaica, which includes the tablets of the Ten Commandments from the Salomons family's private Roof-top synagogue in Brighton. David Salomons House; the Story of Three David Salomons at Broomhill, James William Parkes, 1950 Catalogue of the Library at Broomhill, Tunbridge Wells: The Property of Sir David Lionel Salomons, Bt. by Sir David Salomons, Edition 3, 1903 Salomons Estate: Museum

Ginzan Onsen

Ginzan Onsen is an onsen area in Obanazawa, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "silver mine hot spring". Ginzan Onsen's economy took off thanks to its booming silver production and transitioned over to tourism when it opened up dozens of hot spring resorts along the central river that runs through the town; the mountains that surround this town yield rich hot spring water, used both in the private hotels and public baths in the city center. Ginzan Onsen became nationally famous; each year this onsen village sees hundreds of thousands of domestic Japanese visitors. Internationally, this town saw a sharp rise in foreign tourism thanks to the famous snow covered sights in the winter, it has since been featured on international travel agencies across the world. CNN has suggested that this onsen town may be "Japan's most charming winter village". Fossils from the Miocene era have been found in the vicinity. Access to this town requires taking a short taxi ride. Lodging at Ginzan Onsen can be difficult due to limited availability of rooms in this small town.

Guests are advised to make reservations one year in advance if they wish to stay here during the months of January or February. Ginzan-Hot spring Association

Albion-class ship of the line (1763)

The Albion-class ships of the line were a class of five 74-gun third rates, designed for the Royal Navy by Sir Thomas Slade. Slade based the design of the Albion-class on the lines of the 90-gun ship Neptune. HMS AlbionBuilder: Deptford Dockyard Ordered: 1 December 1759 Launched: 16 May 1763 Fate: Wrecked, 1797HMS GraftonBuilder: Deptford Dockyard Ordered: 22 October 1767 Launched: 26 September 1771 Fate: Broken up, 1816HMS AlcideBuilder: Deptford Dockyard Ordered: 21 August 1774 Launched: 30 July 1779 Fate: Broken up, 1817HMS FortitudeBuilder: Randall, Rotherhithe Ordered: 2 February 1778 Launched: 23 March 1780 Fate: Broken up, 1820HMS IrresistibleBuilder: Barnard, Harwich Ordered: 8 July 1778 Launched: 6 December 1782 Fate: Broken up, 1806

Ahmet AtaĆ½ew

Ahmet Didarovich Atayev is a Turkmen footballer who plays as a midfielder for Ýokary Liga club Altyn Asyr FK and the Turkmenistan national team. He started playing football at 6 years old, his first coach was Atamyrat Jumamuradov, in Youth sport school of Bagyr. He began his professional career in Ashgabat; the first half of the 2011 season was held in FC Aşgabat. The second part of the 2011 season, he played for FC HTTU, which included winning the Cup of Turkmenistan for the first time. In 2013, he became the first champion 2013 Ýokary Liga. Since 2014, Ataýew has played for Altyn Asyr FK; as part of the team, he won the title of champion of Turkmenistan in 2014 and 2015, the 2015 Turkmenistan Cup, the 2015 Turkmenistan Super Cup. At the end of the 2015 season, Ataýew was voted the best player of 2015 Ýokary Liga. From August 2017, he began performing in Indonesia's Super League for the Arema, which included 25 games and scored 3 goals. In June 2018 moved to the new Indonesian club Persela, which he played for until the end of the 2018 year.

On 15 May 2019, Ataýew signed by Malaysian Premier League club Sabah FA as one of two imports to fill their vacant player slots. Ataýew became part of the team squad that emerged as the champion of 2019 Malaysia Premier League since the team last lifted their old first division title back in 1996, subsequently qualifying them into the 2020 Malaysia Super League. In the team match against Kelantan FA, Ataýew notably scored the winning goal from a ball given by his teammate through corner kick in the 58th minute, he played for the Olympic team of Turkmenistan in the Asian Football Confederation's Pre-Olympic Tournament. Ataýew made his senior national team debut on 27 January 2012, in an friendly match against Romania; the captain of the national team from 2015. Scores and results list Turkmenistan's goal tally first. Best player of Ýokary Liga: 2015Altyn AsyrÝokary Liga: 2014, 2015 Turkmenistan Cup: 2015 Turkmenistan Super Cup: 2015FC HTTUÝokary Liga: 2013 Turkmenistan Cup: 2011Sabah FAMalaysia Premier League: 2019 AFC Challenge Cup Runners-up: 2012 Ahmet Ataýew at National-Football-Teams.com Ahmet ATAYEV at FIFA.com

Gertrude Simmons Burlingham

Gertrude Simmons Burlingham was an early 20th-century mycologist best known for her work on American Russula and Lactarius and pioneering the use of microscopic spore features and iodine staining for species identification. Her life outside scientific research has been little documented with the exception of the most basic biographical information. Gertrude S. Burlingham was born in Mexico, New York on April 21, 1872, her life prior to obtaining a Master of Science degree from Syracuse University in 1898 is not known. While a student at Syracuse, she became a member of Kappa Alpha Theta. From 1898 to her retirement in 1934, she taught high-school biology in Binghamton and Brooklyn, but despite earning a Ph. D. from Columbia University in 1908, never taught at college level. As a postgraduate, she worked at the New York Botanical Garden under an agreement between that institution and Columbia University for doctoral studies, the first woman to gain a Ph. D. from the program. At the garden, she collaborated with William A. Murrill.

Soon after starting her scientific career, she began spending a lot of time in Vermont, where she owned a secondary home in Newfane, Windham County, an area, the topic of her first scientific publication. Tribe Lactarieae, formed of the genera Lactarius and Russula, was her specialty and the topic of both her doctoral thesis as well as the majority of her publications, such as the 1910 treatment of the tribe for the North American Flora. Russula specialist Ray Fatto credited Burlingham with noting the importance of spore ornamentation in separating the species of this notoriously troublesome genus. Although some authors, like Michael Kuo, have disputed the usefulness of that criterion, it has remained of great importance in the absence of genetic research to clarify the status of many species. In his obituary, Fred J. Seaver says that "he had a wide knowledge of the fungi in general and having grown up on a farm she was an all-round naturalist."After she retired from teaching in 1934, she moved to Florida, joining there several other retired mycologists, collaborated with Henry Curtis Beardslee.

She collected in the Northeast and Florida, but the Pacific Northwest and on one occasion, traveled to Scandinavia where she worked with Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and Jakob Lange. She died in her Winter Park, Florida home on January 11, 1952 from an unspecified illness and was buried on Newfane Hill at her own request, she never married. Her papers, personal library and 10,000 specimens herbarium were bequeathed to the NYBG, where she funded a fellowship to allow for students of mycology to use the garden's facilities; this fellowship was granted to 27 students between 1956 and 1994. Her papers at the library include a large correspondence covering 40 years, research papers and manuscripts, field notes, several hundred pictures and glass negatives, as well as some 60 watercolor illustrations by fellow mycologist Ann Hibbard. For a more complete list, see Seaver's obituary. Burlingham, G. S.. "Agaricaceae – Lactaria". North American Flora 9: 172–200. _______________. "Agaricaceae – Lactarieae". North American Flora 9: 201–236.

_______________. "Studies in North American russulae". Mycologia 36: 104–120. JSTOR 3754882 _______________. "Noteworthy species of Lepiota and Lactaria". Mycologia 37: 53–64. JSTOR 3754850 _______________. "Henry Curtis Beardslee". Mycologia 40: 505–506. JSTOR 3755255 Three species of fungi have been named in honor of Gertrude Burlingham: Entoloma burlinghamiae Murrill 1917 Russula burlinghamiae Singer 1938 Rhizopogon burlinghamii A. H. Sm. 1966 List of mycologists Abundantly illustrated biographical sketch at the NYBG