Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health; the major subdisciplines of environmental health are: environmental science. Other terms referring to or concerning environmental health are environmental public health, public health protection, environmental health protection. Environmental health has been defined in a 1999 document by the as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment, it refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can affect health. Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals and some biological agents, the effects on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport.
As of 2016 the WHO website on environmental health states "Environmental health addresses all the physical and biological factors external to a person, all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can affect health, it is targeted towards creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, as well as genetics."The WHO has defined environmental health services as "those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities. They carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors, they have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas."The term environmental medicine may be seen as a medical specialty, or branch of the broader field of environmental health.
Terminology is not established, in many European countries they are used interchangeably. Five basic disciplines contribute to the field of environmental health: environmental epidemiology, exposure science, environmental engineering, environmental law; each of these disciplines contributes different information to describe problems and solutions in environmental health, but there is some overlap among them. Environmental epidemiology studies the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Observational studies, which observe exposures that people have experienced, are common in environmental epidemiology because humans cannot ethically be exposed to agents that are known or suspected to cause disease. While the inability to use experimental study designs is a limitation of environmental epidemiology, this discipline directly observes effects on human health rather than estimating effects from animal studies. Toxicology studies how environmental exposures lead to specific health outcomes in animals, as a means to understand possible health outcomes in humans.
Toxicology has the advantage of being able to conduct randomized controlled trials and other experimental studies because they can use animal subjects. However there are many differences in animal and human biology, there can be a lot of uncertainty when interpreting the results of animal studies for their implications for human health. Exposure science studies human exposure to environmental contaminants by both identifying and quantifying exposures. Exposure science can be used to support environmental epidemiology by better describing environmental exposures that may lead to a particular health outcome,identify common exposures whose health outcomes may be better understood through a toxicology study, or can be used in a risk assessment to determine whether current levels of exposure might exceed recommended levels. Exposure science has the advantage of being able to accurately quantify exposures to specific chemicals, but it does not generate any information about health outcomes like environmental epidemiology or toxicology.
Environmental engineering applies scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors. Environmental law includes the network of treaties, regulations and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment. Information from epidemiology and exposure science can be combined to conduct a risk assessment for specific chemicals, mixtures of chemicals or other risk factors to determine whether an exposure poses significant risk to human health; this can in turn be used to develop and implement environmental health policy that, for example, regulates chemical emissions, or imposes standards for proper sanitation. Actions of engineering and law can be combined to provide risk management to minimize and otherwise manage the impact of exposure to protect human health to achieve the objectives of environmental health policy. Environmental health addresses all human-health-related aspects of the natural environment and the built environment.
Environmental health concerns include: Air qualit
There are efforts to use the game of chess as a tool to aid the intellectual development of young people. Chess is significant in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence studies, because it represents the domain in which expert performance has been most intensively studied and measured. Although the results of research studies have failed to produce unambiguous support for the intellectual benefits of playing chess, several local government and student organizations all over the world are implementing chess programs. New York based Chess-In-The-Schools, Inc. has been active in the public school system in the city since 1986. It reaches more than 30,000 students annually. America's Foundation for Chess has initiated programs in partnership with local school districts in several U. S. cities, including Seattle, San Diego and Tampa. The Chess'n Math Association promotes chess at the scholastic level in Canada. Chess for Success is a program for at-risk schools in Oregon. Since 1991, the U.
S. Chess Center in Washington, D. C. teaches chess to children those in the inner city, "as a means of improving their academic and social skills." There are a number of experiments that suggest that playing chess aids the mind. The Grandmaster Eugene Torre Chess Institute in the Philippines, the United States Chess Federation's chess research bibliography, English educational consultant Tony Buzan's Brain Foundation, among others, continuously collect such experimental results; the advent of chess software that automatically record and analyze the moves of each player in each game and can tirelessly play with human players of various levels, further helped in giving new directions to experimental designs on chess as mental training. As early as 1779 Benjamin Franklin, in his article The morals of chess, has advocated such a view: "The Game of Chess is not an idle amusement. By playing at Chess we may learn: 1st, which looks a little into futurity, considers the consequences that may attend an action...
2nd, which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: - the relation of the several Pieces, their situations. 3rd, not to make our moves too hastily...." Alfred Binet demonstrated in the late 19th century that good chess players have superior memory and imagination. Adriaan de Groot concurred with Alfred Binet that visual memory and visual perception are important attributors and that problem-solving ability is of paramount importance. Thus, since 1972, at the collegiate level, the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County both recruit chessplayer-scholars and run scholastic outreach programs in their respective communities. W. G. Chase, H. A. Simon: Perception in Chess USCF Chess Research Bibliography Hampton University Dean finds chess, business make a smart match
Hell Is is a compilation album by Alice Cooper. It was featured many of his best-known songs of the late 1980s and early 1990s. "Poison" - 4:30 "House of Fire" - 3:45 "Hell Is Living Without You" - 4:11 "Bed of Nails" - 4:19 "Only My Heart Talkin'" - 4:45 "Hey Stoopid" - 4:32 "Love's a Loaded Gun" - 4:11 "Feed My Frankenstein" - 4:44 "Hurricane Years" - 3:58 "Lost in America" - 3:52 "Stolen Prayer" - 5:34 "It's Me" - 4:37 "Cleansed by Fire" - 6:12 "Fire" - 3:01 "Go to Hell" - 5:30 "School's Out" - 3:53