Environmental movement

The environmental movement including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific and political movement for addressing environmental issues. Environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered on ecology and human rights; the environmental movement is an international movement, represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots and varies from country to country. Due to its large membership and strong beliefs, speculative nature, the environmental movement is not always united in its goals; the movement encompasses some other movements with a more specific focus, such as the climate movement. At its broadest, the movement includes private citizens, religious devotees, scientists, nonprofit organizations and individual advocates. Early interest in the environment was a feature of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century.

The poet William Wordsworth had travelled extensively in the Lake District and wrote that it is a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. Under increasing political pressure from the urban middle-class, the first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash; the modern conservation movement was first manifested in the forests of India, with the practical application of scientific conservation principles. The conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that the human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out.

James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation programme based on scientific principles; this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. The government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation programme in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In 1860, the Department banned the use shifting cultivation. Hugh Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent.

Dietrich Brandis joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. He helped establish research and training institutions; the Imperial Forestry School at Dehradun was founded by him. The late 19th century saw the formation of the first wildlife conservation societies; the zoologist Alfred Newton published a series of investigations into the Desirability of establishing a'Close-time' for the preservation of indigenous animals between 1872 and 1903. His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the mating season led to the formation of the Plumage League in 1889; the society acted as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes, influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world.

For most of the century from 1850 to 1950, the primary environmental cause was the mitigation of air pollution. The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs, it was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875 required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. Systematic and general efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century. Starting with the formation of the Commons Preservation Society in 1865, the movement championed rural preservation against the encroachments of industrialisation. Robert Hunter, solicitor for the society, worked with Hardwicke Rawnsley, Octavia Hill, John Rus

German submarine U-2350

German submarine U-2350 was a Type XXIII U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was ordered on 20 September 1944, was laid down on 28 September 1944 at Deutsche Werft, Hamburg, as yard number 504, she was launched on 22 November 1944 and commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Werner Schauer on 23 December 1944. Like all Type XXIII U-boats, U-2350 had a displacement of 234 tonnes when at the surface and 258 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 34.68 m, a beam width of 3.02 m, a draught depth of3.66 m. The submarine was powered by one MWM six-cylinder RS134S diesel engine providing 575–630 metric horsepower, one AEG GU4463-8 double-acting electric motor electric motor providing 580 PS, one BBC silent running CCR188 electric motor providing 35 PS; the submarine had a submerged speed of 12.5 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate at 4 knots for 194 nautical miles. U-2350 was fitted with two 53.3 cm torpedo tubes in the bow. She could carry two preloaded torpedoes.

The complement was 14 – 18 men. This class of U-boat did not carry a deck gun. On 9 May 1945, U-2350 surrendered at Norway, she was transferred to Loch Ryan, Scotland on 29 May 1945. Of the 156 U-boats that surrendered to the Allied forces at the end of the war, U-2350 was one of 116 selected to take part in Operation Deadlight. U-2350 was towed out to be sank on 28 November 1945, by gunfire from the British destroyer HMS Onslow and the Polish destroyer ORP Piorun; the wreck now lies at 56°10′N 10°05′W. Battle of the Atlantic Helgason, Guðmundur. "U-2350". Retrieved 28 April 2016

Moron (Book of Mormon)

Moron is the name of a location and a king in the Book of Ether in the Book of Mormon. They are both connected with the Jaredite people. According to the Book of Mormon, Moron was a Jaredite king who lived during the 1st millennium B. C. in the Americas. He was the son of Ethem, the grandson of Ahah, as well as being the father of Coriantor, grandfather of Ether, after whom the Book of Ether is named, he was a descendant of Jared. Moron is described as doing "that, wicked before the Lord." He is the subject of several verses in Chapter 11 of the Book of Ether. Moron succeeded Ethem as king, but during his reign, there was a "rebellion among the people, because of that secret combination, built up to get power and gain" and the rebel leader took over half of Moron's kingdom. Moron was to regain the other half of his kingdom, but he was overthrown by a descendant of the brother of Jared, spent the rest of his days in captivity, where he fathered Coriantor; the Land of Moron is mentioned in the Book of Ether, in chapters 7 and 14.

The Land of Moron was near the Land of Desolation of the Nephites. It was here that Corihor captured the King Kib, in the chapter, we find that Noah captured Shule here. In Chapter 14, we find that Coriantumr fought Lib in the Land of Moron, that the Brother of Shared placed himself on the throne of Coriantumr in the Land of Moron. Years of the Jaredites