Duane Hanson was an American artist and sculptor from Minnesota. He spent most of his career in South Florida, he was known for his lifecast realistic works of people. He casted in various materials, including polyester resin, fiberglass and bronze, his work is associated with the Pop Art movement as well as hyperrealism. Duane Elwood Hanson was born January 1925, in Alexandria, Minnesota. After attendance at Luther College and the University of Washington, he graduated from Macalester College in 1946. Following a period where he taught high school art, he received a Master of Fine Arts degree from the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills in 1951. Around 1966 Hanson began. Works that first brought him notice were of figures grouped in tableaux of brutal and violent subjects, somewhat similar to the work of Edward Kienholz. Hanson's Abortion was inspired by the horrors of an illicit backroom procedure, Accident showed a motorcycle crash. Race Riot included among its seven figures a white policeman terrorizing an African American man as well as an African American rioter attacking the policeman.
Other works which dealt with physical violence or other explosive social issues of the 1960s were Riot, Football Players, Vietnam Scene. These sculptures, cast from actual people, were made of fiberglass, painted to make the revealed skin look realistic, with veins and blemishes. Hanson clothed the figures with garments from second-hand clothing stores and theatrically arranged the action; these works contained strong social comment, can be seen as modern parallels to the concerns of 19th-century French Realists such as Honoré Daumier and Jean-François Millet, artists Hanson admired. Few of Hanson's early sculptures would survive because he destroyed many of them, preferring to be known for his more mature style. Around 1970, Hanson abandoned gut-wrenching scenes for more subtle, though no less vivid ones. In that year he made the Supermarket Shopper and Tourists; these were life-sized, fiberglass figures. Unlike the earlier works, these were single or paired figures, not overtly engaged in a violent activity.
Instead, his figures had a listless, bored affect, staring into the distance and disengaged from their surroundings. In 1967, art dealer Ivan Karp attempted to persuade Hanson to move from South Florida to New York City, the artist moved to Manhattan in 1969. However, in 1973, Hanson moved back south, to Davie, where he would spend the remainder of his life. While the earlier works tended to be more contained spatially, the figures had no defined boundaries separating them from the viewer, they quite inhabited the viewer's space—with amusing results at times, as in the cases of Reading Man or Photographer. Hanson sometimes would cast his own children in his work, as in Cheerleader, Surfer. Although detractors may liken his work to figures in a wax museum, the content of his sculptures is more complex and subtly expressive than that found in waxworks. Selected solo exhibitions of Hanson's work include Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk, Denmark Berlin Artist Programme Akademie der Künste.
C. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York Fort Lauderdale Airport, Fort Lauderdale – Vendor with a Walkman KunstHausWien, Vienna Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Canada Daimaru Museum of Art, Tokyo. "Duane Hanson" at the Serpentine Galleries, London, UK. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR The following collections hold sculptures by Duane Hanson: Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, Florida Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Cranbrook Art Museum, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan Flint Institute of Arts, Michigan Honolulu Museum of Art, Hawaii Hunter Museum of American Art, Tennessee Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University in Palo Alto, California Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Lowe Art Museum, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin Museum Ludwig, Cologne Germany Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Saatchi Gallery, England St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Scotland Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.
C. Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut John De Andrea Hyperrealism and sculpture Ron Mueck Photorealism George Segal Simulacrum The main works of Duane Hanson Portraits from the Heartland Duane Hanson biography Images of Duane Hanson works posted on the Saatchi Gallery, UK, website
Andrew Rogers (artist)
Andrew Rogers is a contemporary sculptor born in Australia whose works may be found in many plazas and buildings around the world. He is a leading contemporary artist. Rogers is the creator of the world's largest contemporary land art undertaking. Titled "Rhythms of Life," the project commenced in 1998 and at present comprises 51 massive stone structures across 16 countries on seven continents and has involved over 7,500 people The title of the project, the "Rhythms of Life" is derived from Rogers’ early bronze sculptures. Of particular note is a site in Cappadocia, where between 2007 and 2011 Rogers completed the "Time and Space" geoglyph park; the thirteen structures comprise more than 10,500 tons of stone and, in total, the walls measure 4 miles in length. The structures that lie furthest apart are separated by a distance of 1.5 miles. Rogers' "Rhythms of Life" project is the largest contemporary land-art undertaking in the world, forming a chain of 51 stone sculptures, or geoglyphs, around the globe: 18 sites in disparate exotic locations from below sea level and up to altitudes of 4,300 metres.
Up to three geoglyphs, ranging in size up to 40,000 square metres, are located at each site. To date the project has involved over 7,500 people in 16 countries across seven continents. Monumental geoglyphs have been constructed since 1998, forming a chain of 51 drawings on the earth visible from space. Outside Melbourne, in Geelong, a "Rhythms of Life" site was commissioned in association with the 2006 Commonwealth Games. In China the "Rhythms of Life" walls stretch 2.1 kilometres. In the book "Andrew Rogers Geoglyphs Rhythms of Life", author Eleanor Heartney, New York-based, award-winning art writer and independent art critic, describes Rogers' land art undertaking: "The geographic and historic sweep of the works constructed as part of the Rhythms of Life project is unprecedented in its scale and ambition. Taken together, the geoglyphs have been erected in every kind of climate, have responded to geographical environments as distinct as Nepal’s Himalayan Mountains, China’s Gobi Desert, the volcanic mountains of Iceland and the harsh Israeli desert."
According to Hannes Sigurdsson, Director of the Akureyri Art Museum in Iceland: “The Rhythms of Life project by Australian artist Andrew Rogers is the largest contemporary land-art project in the world, forming a chain of stone sculptures, or geoglyphs, around the globe. Monumental geoglyphs have been constructed in ten countries to date: Israel, Bolivia, Sri Lanka, Iceland, India and Nepal. Future locations will include United Kingdom, Eastern Europe and Africa. By completion, the project will have involved over 5,000 people on six continents; the Rhythms of Life sculptures are optimistic metaphors for the eternal cycle of life and regeneration and suggestive of human striving and introspection. The geoglyphs embrace a wide cultural vision that links memory and various symbols derived from ancient rock carvings and legends in each region; the exhibition at the Akureyri Art Museum in Iceland is the first general survey of the project.” Lilly Wei, an independent curator based in New York City, writes: “Rogers believes that accelerating environmental changes with their catastrophic consequences are much less avoidable these days and therefore much more heeded.
He is right. Since the inception of his geoglyphs, it has been one of the artist's purposes to point to the irreplaceable beauties of the earth, both existent and man-made. By creating contemporary megaliths as markers, Rogers insists on the need to preserve this natural and artistic heritage for ourselves and for the future.” Three examples of the'Rhythms of Life' geoglyphs are: "The Ancients" This geoglyph is derived from a "pictureglyph" of a pre-Columbian deity known as "El Señor de los Báculos" located in the Rio Loa area near Calama, Chile. The pictureglyph is attributed to the Tiwanaku culture that developed between the years 300 and 900 AD; the geoglyph is located at an altitude of 8,100 feet above sea level, on the Llano de la Paciencia, 13 km from the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The stone walls forming this geoglyph, constructed from volcanic rock and clay, are 1,200 metres long; this image forms part of the pastoral cosmology. The sun cuts across this "pictureglyph" at the solstice.
"The Rhythms of Life" This geoglyph is located at 2,603 metres on the Cordillera de la Sal, which rise from the Llano de la Paciencia, form the head of the Valle de la Luna, a geological formation of lunar appearance 14 km from the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "Ancient Language" This geoglyph is about 80 by 2.8 metres high, is inspired by an Aguadan petroglyph carved into stone at the Pampa Vizcachilla archaeological site, in the surrounding area of Yerbas Buenas, 20 km from the Rio Grande. Rogers' works are of such proportions that they have been captured in photographs taken by satellite from distances between 440 and 770 km above the earth's surface, they can be observed in Google Earth’s satellite imagery, used to create a tour of the'Rhythms of Life' Land art project. 2017—European Cultural Centre, Collateral Exhibition to the 57th Venice Biennale, Palazzo Mora, Italy: We Are 2017—National Gallery of Victoria, Australia: We Are 2017—Mossgreen Gallery, Victoria, Australia: We Are 2015—Geelong Gallery, Australia: Geoglyphs - the land ar
Louise Nevelson was an American sculptor known for her monumental, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures. Born in the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire, she emigrated with her family to the United States in the early 20th century. Nevelson learned English at school. By the early 1930s she was attending art classes at the Art Students League of New York, in 1941 she had her first solo exhibition. A student of Hans Hofmann and Chaim Gross, Nevelson experimented with early conceptual art using found objects, dabbled in painting and printing before dedicating her lifework to sculpture. Created out of wood, her sculptures appear puzzle-like, with multiple intricately cut pieces placed into wall sculptures or independently standing pieces 3-D. One unique feature of her work is that her figures are painted in monochromatic black or white. A figure in the international art scene, Nevelson was showcased at the 31st Venice Biennale, her work is seen in major collections in corporations. Nevelson remains one of the most important figures in 20th-century American sculpture.
Louise Nevelson was born Leah Berliawsky in 1899 in Perislav, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire, to Minna Sadie and Isaac Berliawsky, a contractor and lumber merchant. Though the family lived comfortably, Nevelson's relatives had begun to leave the Russian Empire for America in the 1880s; the Berliawskys had to stay behind, as the youngest brother, had to care for his parents. While still in Europe, Minna gave birth to two of Nevelson's siblings: Anita. On his mother's death, Isaac moved to the United States in 1902. After he left and the children moved to the Kiev area. According to family lore, young Nevelson was so forlorn about her father's departure that she became mute for six months. In 1905, Minna and the children emigrated to the United States, where they joined Isaac in Rockland, Maine. Isaac struggled to establish himself there, suffering from depression while the family settled into their new home, he worked as a woodcutter before opening a junkyard. His work as a lumberjack made wood a consistent presence in the family household, a material that would figure prominently in Nevelson's work.
He became a successful lumberyard owner and realtor. The family had another child, Lillian, in 1906. Nevelson was close to her mother, who suffered from depression, a condition believed to be brought on by the family's migration from Russia and their minority status as a Jewish family living in Maine. Minna overly compensated for this, dressing herself and the children up in clothing "regarded as sophisticated in the Old Country", her mother wore flamboyant outfits with heavy make-up. Nevelson's first experience of art was at the age of nine at the Rockland Public Library, where she saw a plaster cast of Joan of Arc. Shortly thereafter she decided to study art, taking drawing in high school, where she served as basketball captain, she painted watercolor interiors, in which furniture appeared molecular in structure, rather like her professional work. Female figures made frequent appearances. In school, she practiced her second language, as Yiddish was spoken at home. Unhappy with her family's economic status, language differences, the religious discrimination of the community, her school, Nevelson set her sights on moving to high school in New York.
She graduated from high school in 1918, began working as a stenographer at a local law office. There she met Bernard Nevelson, co-owner with his brother Charles of the Nevelson Brothers Company, a shipping business. Bernard introduced her to his brother, Charles and Louise Nevelson were married in June 1920 in a Jewish wedding at the Copley Plaza Hotel in Boston. Having satisfied her parent's hope that she would marry into a wealthy family and her new husband moved to New York City, where she began to study painting, singing and dancing, she became pregnant, in 1922 she gave birth to her son Myron, who grew up to be a sculptor. Nevelson studied art, despite the disapproval of her parents-in-law, she commented: "My husband's family was refined. Within that circle you could know Beethoven, but God forbid if you were Beethoven."In 1924 the family moved to Mount Vernon, New York, a popular Jewish area of Westchester County. Nevelson was upset with the move, which removed her from her artistic environment.
During the winter of 1932–1933 she separated from Charles, unwilling to becoming the socialite wife he expected her to be. She never sought financial support from Charles, in 1941 the couple divorced. Starting in 1929, Nevelson studied art full-time under Kenneth Hayes Miller and Kimon Nicolaides at the Art Students League. Nevelson credited an exhibition of Noh kimonos at the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a catalyst for her to study art further. In 1931 she sent her son Mike to live with family and went to Europe, paying for the trip by selling a diamond bracelet that her now ex-husband had given her on the occasion of Mike's birth. In Munich she studied with Hans Hofmann before visiting France. Returning to New York in 1932 she once again studied under Hofmann, serving as a guest instructor at the Art Students League, she met Diego Rivera in 1933 and worked as his assistant on his mural Man at the Crossroads at Rockefeller Plaza. The two had an affair which caused a rift between Nevelson and Rivera's wife, Frida Kahlo, an artist Nevelson admired.
Shortly thereafter, Nevelso
Olga Kisseleva is a Russian artist. Olga Kisseleva works in installation and media art, her work employs various media, including video, immersive virtual reality, the Web, wireless technology, large-scale art installations and interactive exhibitions. As early as the beginning of the 1990s Olga Kisseleva became, thanks to an invitation by the Fulbright Foundation, part of a team of creators working on the development of numerical technologies in the United States, she stays at Columbia University and University of California, where she participates in the adventure of the first start-ups of the Silicon Valley. Olga Kisseleva teaches Art & Science in the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. From 2007 to 2009 she was a member of the High Scientific Committee of Sorbonne; the work of Olga Kisseleva interweaves actions that reveal themselves in the urban environments or in network with interventions in galleries and museums. For the 5th Dakar Contemporary Art Biennial, she presented « Une Voyante m’a dit... », an alarming method, where the artiste publicly exchanges her look with different participants to symbolically endorse their identity and see the world through their eyes.
« Where are you? » places the phenomenon of the teleobjectivity to the centre of the project while proposing an immersion within reality, in environments that raise the imagination. Leaving one collects photographs accumulated during their peregrinations through the world. Rewarded by the International Prize ProArte, Olga Kisseleva works in collaboration with The Academy of Sciences « Hybrid Space », a body of twelve interactive installations, a perilous game, that explores the capacity of the spectator to reveal the presence of a border, that separates reality and the imagination; the artist’s exhibitions include: Modern Art Museum, State Russian Museum, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Moscow Biennale, Dakar Biennale, Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, Centre Georges Pompidou, Art Institute of Chicago, National Centre for Contemporary Arts. Olga Kisseleva "Nano Worlds: Custom Made", Le nouveau festival Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France, 2013 "Le temps à l'oeuvre", co-edition Louvre-Lens et Invenit Éditions, France, 2012 Olga Kisseleva "Double Life", les presses du réel, France, 2011 "Aesthetics of the Worst", Centre Pompidou Metz – Lienart, France, 2011 REWRITING WORLDS", 4th Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, Russia, 2011 "female nano", Moscow Museum of Modern Art, MMOMA, Russia, 2011 "Inspiration Dior", La Martiniere Paris, France, 2011 "Russian Artists Abroad - 20 century", interviews by Erik Bulatov, Ilya Kabakov, Olga Kisseleva, Oscar Rabin, Vladimir Yankilevsky, Boris Zaborov...
NCCA, Russia, 2010 "REGARDS SUR L'ART CONTEMPORAIN RUSSE 1990 -2010", Olivier Vargin, l'Harmattan, France, 2010 "The History of Gender and Art in Post-Soviet Space", Olesya Turkina, Viktor Mazin, Margarita & Victor Tupitsyn, Alla Mitrofanova, Natalia Kolodzei... MMOMA Moscow Museum of Modern Art, Russia, 2010 "Shockworkers of the Mobile Image", Boris Groys, Ekaterina Degot, David Riff, Cosmin Costinas... 1st Ural Industrial Biennial of contemporary art, Russia, 2010 "Lesson of History", catalog, ICA, Russia, 2010, texts by Joseph Backstein, AES+F, Andrey Parshikov, Dmitriï Goutov, Arseniï Jiliaev, Olga Kisseleva, Irina Korina, Andreï Monastyrskiï, Anatoliï Osmolovskiï... "2nd Western China Contemporary Art Biennale", China, 2010 "Art x-ray", 2nd Western China Contemporary Art Biennale, China, 2010 "Art perspective", 2nd Western China Contemporary Art Biennale, China, 2010 "FUTUROLOGIA. Russian Utopia", Garage Center for Contemporary Culture, Russia, 2010 Olga Kisseleva – Divers Faits, Olga Kisseleva, Manou Farine, Claire Guezengar, Hélèna Villovitch, Éditions Jannink, Paris, 2010 "It might never happen", Centre Pompidou Metz, France, 2010 "Indomitable Women", Video Art World, Spain, 2010 "To be here and there: general relativity and quantum physics" PLASTK Art&Science #1, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France, 2009 "Genipulation", Kunsthaus Pasquart, Switzerland, 2009 "Valeurs croisées", 1st Rennes Contemporary Art Biennale, les presses du réel, France, 2009 "Superlight: Global Festival of Art on the Edge", MOCA Cleveland, USA, 2009 "15 years of NetArt", WJ-SPOTS, France, 2009 "Olga Kisseleva: atelier de production", Centre Photographique Ile de France, Paris, 2009 "Art-Nature", Sancy, France, 2009 Olga Kisseleva: "Soyez réalistes, demandez l’impossible!"
Semaine, Arles, 2008 "TOOL BOX", Entre-deux, France, 2008 "L'Argent", FRAC Ile de France, France, 2008 "Another Voice – WE", Shanghai Art Museum, China, 2008 CrossWorlds, Elisabeth Lebovici, Paris, France, 2008 Olga Kisseleva, signs that don’t lie, Christophe Kihm, Marc Chagall Museum, France, 2008 Olga Kisseleva, Viktor Misiano, Paris, France, 2007 Where are you?, Paris, France, 2006 Imagemakers, Louis Cabri, TNG, Canada, 2005 Olga Kisseleva, a clearing between East and West, Larissa Soloviova, National Centre for Contemporary Arts, Russia, 2004 Instrument Flying Rules, Laurence Hazout-Dreyfus, La Passerelle, France, 2004 Hybrid Space, Arcady Ippolitov, PRO ARTE Foundation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Tørskind Gravel Pit
Tørskind Gravel Pit is a former gravel pit converted to a sculpture park near Egtved, Denmark. The sculptures were created by Robert Jacobsen and Jean Clareboudt over five years up to 1991 and feature steel and timber. Danish web siteTourist leaflet in English
Patricia Johanson is an American artist. Patricia Johanson is known for her large-scale art projects that create aesthetic and practical habitats for humans and wildlife, she designs her functional art projects, created with and in the natural landscape, to solve infrastructure and environmental problems, but to reconnect city-dwellers with nature and with the history of a place. These project designs date from 1969, making her a pioneer in the field of ecological-art Johanson's work has been classified as Land Art, Environmental Art, Site-specific Art and Garden Art, her early paintings and sculptures are part of Minimalism. Johanson's enthusiasm for nature and for art began in childhood, she grew up in New York City. Her mother, a former model, introduced her to the arts; as a high school student, she excelled at music. Through her contacts at Bennington, Johanson became part of the 1960s New-York art-world, her Bennington instructor, Tony Smith, was a close friend and her art-history professor, Eugene Goossen, a mentor and her husband.
At this time she met fellow-artists Kenneth Noland, David Smith, Helen Frankenthaler, Franz Kline, Philip Guston and Joseph Cornell. She came to know art-critic Clement Greenberg and visionary architect Frederick John Kiesler. Johanson earned a Master's in art history at Hunter College, New York in 1964. There she studied with Tony Smith, Eugene Goossen and Ad Reinhardt and met fellow art students Robert Morris, Carl Andre and Robert Barry. At this time, she worked as a researcher for New York publisher Benjamin Blom on a compendium of 18th and 19th century American artists; the project led to an opportunity to catalogue the work of Georgia O'Keeffe, who became an important mentor. Her husband, art critic and historian Eugene Goossen, died in 1997. Johanson's paintings and sculptures of the 1960s have been classified as Minimalism and they were included in some of the earliest shows of Minimal Art: “8 Young Artists”, “Distillation” and “Cool Art”, her Minimalist paintings used simple lines to explore the optical effects of color.
These were shown at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery in New York in the 1960s and her 28-foot-long oil painting, William Clark, was included in the 1968 Museum of Modern Art contemporary art survey, “The Art of the Real” Johanson began making large-scale, Minimal sculpture in 1966 with William Rush, consisting of 200 feet of painted steel tee-beams laid flat in a clearing. In 1968 she increased her scale to 1,600 feet with Stephen Long, where 2-foot-wide, painted plywood segments were installed along an abandoned railroad track in Buskirk, New York; this was followed by other large-scale Minimalist sculptures sited outdoors. Johanson's Minimalst sculptures introduced the idea of artworks that cannot be experienced all at once, still an important value in her work. Cyrus Field, while still a large Minimalist sculpture, marks a transition. Using marble and redwood slabs in their natural state, she created a maze of lines that lead visitors through a forest to reveal the changing, natural landscape. With this piece she began thinking of line as a compositional device to incorporate, rather than displace, nature.
She invented a way to mediate between human scale and the vastness of nature. In 1969, House & Garden invited Johanson to design a garden. While this was never built, the commission prompted an outpouring of visionary ideas—150 small sketches—which she has continued to draw upon over the years; the drawings, accompanied by essays and explanatory notes, were a departure from traditional garden designs and a rejection of the formalist orientation of the 1960s art world. Instead of art-for-art's sake, her garden designs embodied functionality. Johanson's move from making objects to working with the natural world—at first in drawings and in actual commissions—has parallels with the emergence of Earthworks by artists in her circle of friends, such as Robert Smithson and Nancy Holt; the similarity is working large-scale with the land itself. A difference is that many of Johanson's designs were meant to serve practical functions, such as flood control, habitat for local wildlife, green roofs that absorb rainwater.
Johanson designed for urban, rather than remote locations. Another difference is that most of her designs are dominated by a simple, large image of a plant or animal; the House and Garden designs mark a reorientation in Johanson's career. She gave up painting and sculpture and now focused on designs that are art and landscape To prepare herself for translating project designs into large-scale sculptural landscapes, she began studying civil engineering and architecture at City College School of Architecture, New York, in 1971, receiving her B. Arch. in 1977. In the 1970s, Johanson began a family and settled in upstate New York, where she has lived since, she left the vibrant New York art scene for a 19th-century farmhouse on the rural Buskirk property of Eugene Goossen. Her first son, was born in 1973. Here she was in constant touch with the natural seasons, but childrearing left only snatches of time to work, her solution was to make tiny drawings of plants during the day and at night to transform them into designs for large-scale projects.
At this time, she studied botany texts. This was a new process: instead of depending on inspiration, she rendered nature in a straightforward
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu; the city is the main gateway to a major portal into the United States. The city is a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture and traditions. Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world and is the westernmost and southernmost major U. S. city. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area referred to as "City of Honolulu" as a census county division. Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean; the population of the Honolulu census designated place was 359,870 as of the 2017 population estimate, while the Honolulu CCD was 390,738 and the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207. Honolulu means "sheltered harbor" or "calm port".
The old name is Kou, a district encompassing the area from Nuʻuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street, the heart of the present downtown district. The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941; as of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, was ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U. S, it is the most populated Oceanian city outside Australasia and ranks second to Auckland as the most-populous city in Polynesia. Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts; these indicate. However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804, his court relocated in 1809 to. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812. In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.
More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu, he and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu. Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands. An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi.
Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms; the UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Urban Honolulu Census-designated place has a total area of 68.4 square miles. 60.5 square miles of it is land, 7.9 square miles of it is water. Honolulu is the most remote major city in the world; the closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles. However, islands off the Mexican coast, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are closer to Honolulu than the mainland. Downtown Honolulu is the financial and governmental center of Hawaiʻi.
On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. The tallest building is the 438-foot tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets; the downtown campus of Hawaiʻi Pacific University is located there. The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown, it is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street – home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District, which includes the former Hotel Street Vice District; the Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale, State Library, the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings. Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopmen