SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Environmentalism

Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Environmentalism advocates the preservation and improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability.

The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are represented by the colour green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour; this may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in renewable resources, improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as Ecological economics and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources.

In various ways, environmentalists and environmental organisations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, the protection of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology and human rights. A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history; the earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in Jainism, revived by Mahavira in 6th century BC in ancient India. Jainism offers a view that may seem compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i.e. protection of life by nonviolence. His teachings on the symbiosis between all living beings and the five elements—earth, air and space—form the basis of environmental sciences today. In Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem.

The fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Earlier in the Middle East, the Caliph Abu Bakr in the 630s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food." Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, including pollution, were written by Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, environmental impact assessments of certain localities. At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history shuts her eyes; the origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution.

The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution; the responsibilities of the inspectorate were expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke, grit and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities local experts and reformers after 1890, took the lead in identifying environmental degrada

Brookfield Township, Renville County, Minnesota

Brookfield Township is a township in Renville County, United States. The population was 163 at the 2000 census. Brookfield Township was organized in 1874. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 36.2 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 163 people, 72 households, 55 families residing in the township; the population density was 4.5 people per square mile. There were 83 housing units at an average density of 2.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.39% White, 0.61% from two or more races. There were 72 households out of which 20.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.1% were married couples living together, 2.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.58. In the township the population was spread out with 19.0% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, 20.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 123.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $39,444, the median income for a family was $39,167. Males had a median income of $30,208 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,628. About 8.6% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 9.1% of those sixty five or over

Norman Percy Allen

Dr Norman Percy Allen was a British metallurgist. He was born in Wrexham, North Wales, the son of accountant Sidney Edward Allen and educated at Burton-on-Trent Boys’ Grammar School and Sheffield University, where he obtained an honours degree in metallurgy, he stayed on at Sheffield to carry out research into copper die-casting alloys, but in 1925 moved to Swansea University to work for three years on the porosity of copper and copper alloys, moving again in 1929 to Birmingham University to continue the work. He was awarded a D. Sc. by Birmingham University in 1934. In 1933 he left the university to join Mond Nickel Company at their Birmingham research laboratory under Dr Leonard Bessemer Pfeil, where he stayed until 1945. During that time he worked on the development of alloyed nickel base materials Nimonic having high strength and high oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures which served a key role in the use of such alloys in the new jet engines. In 1945, he joined the National Physical Laboratory as Superintendent of the Metallurgy Division, where he stayed until his retirement in 1959.

A major project there concerned the development of superconductors, their manufacture and ongoing development. Other projects involved the development of physical methods of analysis such as spectrographic analysis, colorimetry, X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectrometry. In 1966 he was appointed Deputy Director of the NPL, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1956 and elected President of the Institution of Metallurgists for 1961/62. He was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1966 Birthday Honours, he died in 1972. He had married in 1929 Olive Williams, with whom he had 2 sons and a daughter