SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Enzo Ferrari

Enzo Anselmo Giuseppe Maria Ferrari, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque. He was known as "il Commendatore" or "il Drake". In his final years he was referred to as "l'Ingegnere" or "il Grande Vecchio". Ferrari was said to have been born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and that his birth was recorded on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office, he was the younger of two children to Alfredo Ferrari and Adalgisa Bisbini, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior. Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi, started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with little formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaro's win at the 1908 Circuito di Bologna, an event that inspired him to become a racing driver. During World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army.

His father Alfredo, his older brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from the Italian service. Following the family's carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry, he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to Fiat in Turin settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N. A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, he was promoted to race car driver and made his competitive debut in the 1919 Parma-Poggio di Berceto hillclimb race, where he finished fourth in the three-litre category at the wheel of a 2.3-litre 4-cylinder C. M. N. 15/20. On 23 November of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his car's fuel tank developed a leak. In 1920, Enzo joined the racing department of Alfa Romeo as a driver. Ferrari won his first Grand Prix in 1923 in Ravenna on the Savio Circuit.

1924 was his best season, with three wins, including Ravenna and the Coppa Acerbo in Pescara.. Shocked by the death of Antonio Ascari in 1925, Ferrari, by his own admissions, continued to race half-heartedly. Following the birth of his son Alfredo in 1932, Ferrari decided to retire and to focus instead on the management and development of the factory Alfa race cars building up a raceteam of superstar drivers, including Giuseppe Campari and Tazio Nuvolari; this team was called Scuderia Ferrari and acted as a racing division for Alfa Romeo. The team was successful, thanks to the excellent cars, for example the Alfa Romeo P3 and to the talented drivers, like Nuvolari. Ferrari retired from competitive driving having participated to 41 Grands Prix with a record of 11 wins. In this period the prancing horse emblem began to show up on his team's cars; the emblem had been created and sported by Italian fighter plane pilot Francesco Baracca. During World War I, Baracca gave Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff.

Baracca was shot down and killed by an Austrian aeroplane in 1918. In memory of his death, Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world-famous Ferrari shield. Displayed on Alfa Romeos, the shield was first seen on a Ferrari in 1947. Alfa Romeo agreed to partner Ferrari's racing team until 1933, when financial constraints forced them to withdraw their support – a decision subsequently retracted thanks to the intervention of Pirelli. Despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes. Although the German manufacturers dominated the era, Ferrari's team achieved a notable victory in 1935 when Tazio Nuvolari beat Rudolf Caracciola and Bernd Rosemeyer on their home turf at the German Grand Prix. In 1937 Scuderia Ferrari was dissolved and Ferrari returned to Alfa's racing team, named Alfa Corse. Alfa Romeo decided to regain full control of its racing division, retaining Ferrari as Sporting Director. After a disagreement with Alfa's managing director Ugo Gobbato, Ferrari left in 1939 and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, a company supplying parts to other racing teams.

Although a contract clause restricted him from racing or designing cars for four years, Ferrari managed to manufacture two cars for the 1940 Mille Miglia, which were driven by Alberto Ascari and Lotario Rangoni. With the outbreak of World War II in 1940, Ferrari's factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolini's fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello. At the end of the war, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, founded Ferrari S.p. A. in 1947. Enzo decided to battle the dominating Alfa Romeos and race with his own team; the team's open-wheel debut took place in Turin in 1948 and the first win came in the year in Lago di Garda. The first major victory came at the 1949 24 Hours of Le Mans, with a Ferrari 166 MM driven by Luigi Chinetti and Peter Mitchell-Thomson. In 1950 Ferrari enrolled in the newly-born Formula 1 World Championship and is the only team to remain continuously present since its introduction.

Ferrari won his first Grand Prix with José Froilán González at Silverstone in 1951. The story goes that Enzo cried like a baby when his team defeated the mighty Alfetta

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved; this war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam. Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Occupation of the Baltic states Tauras, KV. Guerrilla Warfare on the Amber Coast.

New York: Voyages Press. Clodfelter, M.. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. McFarland

Island School (Bahamas)

The Island School is located 1 mile from Powell Point near the southwestern-most tip of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. The Island School offers a 6-week summer term. Fall semester begins in late August and runs through early December and spring semester begins in late February and ends in the beginning of June. Summer term runs from late June to early August. Fall and spring semester program students complete a course of study in seven classes including Island School Seminar, Marine Ecology, Applied Scientific Research and Writing, Histories of the Bahamas, Applied Mathematics, Land and Environmental Art. Students participate in weekly Community Outreach classes with the Deep Creek Middle School. Summer programs focus on Applied Scientific Human Ecology; the Island School was founded in 1999 by Chris and Pam Maxey with support from the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey. Chris Maxey taught at the school and in 1996, he received the Joukowsky Fellowship allowing him to work towards his master's in Marine Resource Management at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami.

He initiated the Cape Eleuthera Marine Conservation Project and began to set the framework to build a school and research station at Cape Eleuthera in The Bahamas. The project received a donation of 18 acres of land donated by the Cape Eleuthera Resort & Yacht Club. Construction on the campus began in fall 1998. On March 15, 1999, Pam and Chris started the first 14-week, one-hundred-day Island School semester which included 22 students and 6 faculty members. What began; the current campus comprises a faculty office and school store, two large dormitory buildings, four main classrooms, a boathouse, dining hall with outside patio seating, a student life and medical center, two two-story faculty apartment buildings, two open-air gazebos, a living-roof multi-use building, a farm and orchard, a bio-diesel production facility, wood shop, a resource processing center, in addition, the adjacent campus which hosts the Cape Eleuthera Institute. The 10-acre campus is powered by systems. Rainwater from the roofs is captured for use, collected into a system of cisterns with 82,000 gallon storage capacity.

Water is heated through solar thermal collectors. Buildings are designed and constructed from local materials where possible and without air-conditioning. Furniture for the school is hand-crafted on campus out of Casuarina, a local invasive species of tree; the school generates the majority of its electricity through its 29 kW photovoltaic array and 10 kW wind turbine mounted on a 100 ft tower above campus. The school seeks to transform its waste outputs through its constructed wetland which captures nutrients, filters waste water before being used to irrigate landscaping; the school seeks to revolutionize its waste processing through the adaptation of its newly constructed bio-digester which will convert human waste into usable energy. In 2003, a student research group pioneered the biodiesel program which annually transforms 18.000 gallons of waste cooking oil, collected from local restaurants and cruise ships. The biodiesel powers Island School's fleet of 9 boats and 11 vehicles, backup generators.

The school’s permaculture and aquaponics programs, seek to reduce the amount of food imported annually. The school invests in local agriculture by partnering with farmers to provide locally sourced fruits and meats. Students undergo PADI Open Water Scuba Certification so, they learn about concepts of marine ecology and interact with knowledge through direct observation of the marine world. Marine Ecology class take place in the ocean, with students diving in order to study these ecological concepts. Students may be required do dive as part of their coursework in Research classes. All students participate in two expeditions during the course of the semester; the initial three-day kayak trip teaches basic skills of ocean kayaking, team building and serves as an introduction to exploring the island. Students complete either a 9-day kayak trip that covers 30 nautical miles or a 9-day sailing trip to the Exuma Cays; the kayak expedition takes students to the southern point of Eleuthera while further developing students’ kayaking skills and focusing on leadership training.

The sailing expedition focuses on group dynamics in the tight quarters of a small sailing vessel, giving students leadership roles throughout the trip. Both expeditions culminate with a 48-hour solo experience in which students are spread out individually in assigned spaces along Lighthouse Beach. Solos are overseen by on-site faculty who support this opportunity for self-discovery