In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris gives the trajectory of occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky, i.e. the position over time. The etymology is from Latin ephemeris, meaning'diary' and from Greek ἐφημερίς, meaning'diary, journal'. Positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time; the calculation of these tables was one of the first applications of mechanical computers. Modern ephemerides are computed electronically, from mathematical models of the motion of astronomical objects and the Earth. However, printed ephemerides are still produced, as they are useful when computational devices are not available; the astronomical position calculated from an ephemeris is given in the spherical polar coordinate system of right ascension and declination. Some of the astronomical phenomena of interest to astronomers are eclipses, apparent retrograde motion/planetary stations, planetary ingresses, sidereal time, positions for the mean and true nodes of the moon, the phases of the Moon, the positions of minor celestial bodies such as Chiron.
Ephemerides are used in celestial astronomy. They are used by some astrologers. 1st millennium BC – Ephemerides in Babylonian astronomy. 2nd century AD – the Almagest and the Handy Tables of Ptolemy 8th century AD – the zīj of Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī 9th century AD – the zīj of Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī 12th century AD – the Tables of Toledo – based on Arabic zīj sources of Islamic astronomy – were edited by Gerard of Cremona to form the standard European ephemeris until the Alfonsine Tables. 13th century AD – the Zīj-i Īlkhānī were compiled at the Maragheh observatory in Persia. 13th century AD – the Alfonsine Tables were compiled in Spain to correct anomalies in the Tables of Toledo, remaining the standard European ephemeris until the Prutenic Tables 300 years later. 13th century AD - the Dresden Codex, an extant Mayan ephemeris 1408 – Chinese ephemeris table. 1474 – Regiomontanus publishes his day-to-day Ephemerides in Nürnberg, Germany. 1496 – the Almanach Perpetuum of Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto 1504 – While shipwrecked on the island of Jamaica, Christopher Columbus predicted a lunar eclipse for the natives, using the ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus.
1531 – Work of Johannes Stöffler is published posthumously at Tübingen, extending the ephemeris of Regiomontanus through 1551. 1551 – the Prutenic Tables of Erasmus Reinhold were published, based on Copernicus's theories. 1554 – Johannes Stadius published Ephemerides novae et auctae, the first major ephemeris computed according to Copernicus' heliocentric model, using parameters derived from the Prutenic Tables. Although the Copernican model provided an elegant solution to the problem of computing apparent planetary positions, it still relied on the use of epicycles, leading to some inaccuracies – for example, periodic errors in the position of Mercury of up to ten degrees. One of the users of Stadius's tables is Tycho Brahe. 1627 – the Rudolphine Tables of Johannes Kepler based on elliptical planetary motion became the new standard. 1679 – La Connaissance des Temps ou calendrier et éphémérides du lever & coucher du Soleil, de la Lune & des autres planètes, first published yearly by Jean Picard and still extant.
1975 – Owen Gingerich, using modern planetary theory and digital computers, calculates the actual positions of the planets in the 16th Century and graphs the errors in the planetary positions predicted by the ephemerides of Stöffler and others. According to Gingerich, the error patterns "are as distinctive as fingerprints and reflect the characteristics of the underlying tables; that is, the error patterns for Stöffler are different from those of Stadius, but the error patterns of Stadius resemble those of Maestlin, Magini and others who followed the Copernican parameters." For scientific uses, a modern planetary ephemeris comprises software that generates positions of planets and of their satellites, asteroids, or comets, at any time desired by the user. Such ephemerides cover several centuries and future. There are secular phenomena which cannot adequately be considered by ephemerides; the greatest uncertainties in the positions of planets are caused by the perturbations of numerous asteroids, most of whose masses and orbits are poorly known, rendering their effect uncertain.
Reflecting the continuing influx of new data and observations, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has revised its published ephemerides nearly every year for the past 20 years. Solar System ephemerides are essential for the navigation of spacecraft and for all kinds of space observations of the planets, their natural satellites and galaxies. Scientific ephemerides for sky observers contain the positions of celestial bodies in right ascension and declination, because these coordinates are the most used on star maps and telescopes; the equinox of the coordinate system must be given. It is, in nearly all cases, either the actual equinox, or that of one of the "standard" equinoxes J2000.0, B1950.0, or J1900. Star maps always use one of the standard equinoxes. Sci
The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne is a 22-episode science fiction television series in the steampunk genre that first aired in June 2000 on CBC Television in Canada. The series first ran in the United States on cable on The Sci-Fi Channel, lasted for one season; the premise begins with the revelation that Jules Verne did not write the stories behind his famous science fiction classic books Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, Journey to the Center of the Earth or Around the World in Eighty Days — but experienced these adventures personally. This series is notably the first hour-long series filmed in HDTV format. Phileas Fogg as played by Michael Praed Rebecca Fogg as played by Francesca Hunt Passepartout as played by Michel Courtemanche Jules Verne as played by Chris Demetral Jules Verne is a struggling author who joins Phileas and Passepartout after a chance encounter. Phileas leads the group. Dapper, intelligent and arrogant, Praed described him as a more flawed version of James Bond.
Rebecca Fogg is his second cousin. Passepartout is Phileas' valet, an accomplished inventor/mechanician. Although Phileas treats Passepartout poorly, the servant is a valued member of the crew; the group's only recurring enemy is the League of Darkness, an international terrorist organization aiming to use steampunk technology to rule the world. Its leader: Count Gregory, a steampunk cyborg who died 500 years ago. Most episodes took advantage of both the Wold Newton family and metafictional possibilities of the premise. Mark Twain, the Holy Grail, Cardinal Richelieu all made appearances; some parts of the show are truthfully historical, such as the mention of Nicolas Poussin or Verne's friendship with Alexandre Dumas. However, the show cannot be placed. For example, at least one episode takes place during the American Civil War. During the Civil War, the historical Jules Verne was married; the historical Verne would have been in his mid-thirties at the time of that conflict, whereas Chris Demetral, the actor who portrayed him on television, was in his mid-twenties.
The Aurora is at the heart of The Secret Adventure of Jules Verne. The world's first dirigible airship, property of Mr. Phileas Fogg of London, it combines unexampled luxury, total mobility and an extraordinary array of weapons and gadgets, it is to this series what the Starship Enterprise is to Star Trek: both as a home base and as the route to the world of adventure. The Aurora became Phileas' property after he won it in a poker game, rigged by the British government; the series' main theme and incidental music was composed by Nick Glennie-Smith. In April 2011, Perseverance Records released a 2-CD soundtrack of the series' music; the soundtrack included the main theme, closing theme, "bumpers", suites from every episode of the series apart from "The Book of Knowledge", for which the composer and the recording studio were unable to locate the original tapes. The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne on IMDb The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne at TV.com
Brian G. Knight is an economics professor at Brown University, as well as a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, he received his B. S. from Miami University in 1992, his Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2000, under the supervision of Arik Levinson. In 2006, Knight published a study of the 2000 United States presidential election and stock prices of companies expected to prosper under the front-runner's administration; the study found that the more either George W. Bush or Al Gore was expected to win the election, the higher the values of stocks expected to prosper under their presidency were. In 2011, he and Chun-Fang Chiang co-authored a study of the effects of newspaper endorsements on voters' probabilities of voting for a candidate, their results showed that voters moderate voters, were more to support a candidate if they were endorsed by a newspaper of a different political ideology than the candidate. In 2013, he published a study showing that guns used to commit crimes in the United States tend to move from states with weak gun laws to those with strict ones.
Sir Roger Hillary was an English justice. He was one of five sons of William Hillary and his wife Agnes, a landowning family which held properties in Lincolnshire, Warwickshire and Leicestershire, appear to have been related to Sir William Bereford, the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. In 1310 Hillary was recorded as a court attorney, in 1324 he was made a Serjeant-at-law. In the years of Edward II's reign Hillary kept a low profile. In spring 1320 he married Katherine, added to his property portfolio the Manor of Fisherwick near Lichfield in 1327 and a life-grant of a mill at Bentley at around the same time. After Edward's deposition in 1327 his career began to advance, his position within the Irish judicial system seems to have been in name only. In 1332 he was tasked with investigating Breakers of the Kings Peace in Staffordshire, in 1335 he was investigated the activities of administrators in the West Midlands, he was knighted in 1336, on 18 March 1337 he became a justice of the English Court of Common Pleas.
In August 1338, he was tasked with investigating the fate of the wealth of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, executed in 1326, in 1340 he worked as a tax assessor and collector in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. In 1341, he was made Chief Justice of the Common Pleas to replace Sir John Stonor, removed following a purge of the administration. Stonor was returned to his position in 1342, Hillary was instead made a Puisne Justice. In 1344, he was part of a special commission investigating the demands of the House of Commons in return for granting a tax, in 1348 he was appointed a justice for an Eyre in Kent, one which never took place. In 1351, he was tasked with enforcing the Statute of Labourers in Worcestershire, after the retirement of Sir John Stonor in 1354 he was reappointed as Chief Justice, a position he held until his death in 1356
Deep Water is a 2006 British documentary film directed by Jerry Rothwell and Louise Osmond, produced by Al Morrow, Jonny Persey and John Smithson. It is based on the true story of Donald Crowhurst and the 1968 Sunday Times Golden Globe Race round the world alone in a yacht; the film reconstructs Crowhurst's voyage from his own audio tapes and cine film, interwoven with archive footage and interviews. Smithson had produced the successful British documentary, Touching the Void; the film received critical acclaim. The official poster quotes The Daily Telegraph,'A movie which will reduce the hardest of hearts to a shipwreck'. Variety said "As it explore the limits of human endurance, the pic should suck land-lubbers into a whirlpool of gripping adventure, overblown ambitions and sheer human folly", it was described as'fascinating' by The New York Times upon its release. The film won the Best Documentary award at the 2006 Rome International Film Festival and a commendation in the Australian Film Critics Association 2007 Film Awards.
The film opened in the UK on 15 December 2006 and grossed $122,384. It was released on 24 August 2007 in the United States where it grossed $271,143 and went on to gross $727,202 worldwide. Deep Water site for Independent Lens on PBS Deep Water at Box Office Mojo Deep Water on IMDb
Krishna Kuchela is 1961 Mythological Malaylam film telling the story of Krishna and Kuchelan. The movie was directed and produced by Kunchacko, starring Prem Nazir, KPAC Sulochana, Harikeshan Thampi, T. S. Muthaiah and Ambika Sukumaran; the story is the mythological relationship between Kuchelan. Prem Nazir - Krishnan Sathyan T. S. Muthaiah - Kuchelan KPAC Sulochana - Wife of Kuchelan Ambika Ragini Kanchana B. Saroja Devi Harikeshan Thampi The music was composed by K. Raghavan and lyrics were written by P. Bhaskaran; the film was bombed at the box office. The presence of Prem Nazir as Krishna, T. S. Muthiah as Kuchela and KPAC Sulochana as Kuchela's wife failed to attract viewers to the theatres, it got huge competition from Bhakta Kuchela, released a week before, which has the same plot. Bhakta Kuchela was a blockbuster at the box office, in its shadow, Krishna Kuchela bombed. Http://www.hindu.com/mp/2008/09/13/stories/2008091351510500.htm