The Epimenides paradox reveals a problem with self-reference in logic. It is named after the Cretan philosopher Epimenides of Knossos, credited with the original statement. A typical description of the problem is given in the book Gödel, Bach, by Douglas Hofstadter: Epimenides was a Cretan who made one immortal statement: "All Cretans are liars." A paradox of self-reference arises when one considers whether it is possible for Epimenides to have spoken the truth. Thomas Fowler states the paradox as follows: "Epimenides the Cretan says,'that all the Cretans are liars,' but Epimenides is himself a Cretan, but if he is a liar, what he says is untrue, the Cretans are veracious. Thus we may go on alternately proving that Epimenides and the Cretans are truthful and untruthful."The Epimenides paradox in this form, can be solved. There are two options: it is either true or false. First, assume that it is true, but Epimenides, being a Cretan, would be a liar, making the assumption that liars only make false statements, the statement is false.
So, assuming the statement is true leads us to conclude that the statement is false. This is a contradiction, so the option of the statement being true is not possible; this leaves the second option:. If we assume the statement is false and that Epimenides is lying about all Cretans being liars there must exist at least one Cretan, honest; this does not lead to a contradiction. This means that Epimenides can say the false statement that all Cretans are liars while knowing at least one honest Cretan and lying about this particular Cretan. Hence, from the assumption that the statement is false, it does not follow that the statement is true. So we can avoid a paradox as seeing the statement "all Cretans are liars" as a false statement, made by a lying Cretan, Epimenides; the mistake made by Thomas Fowler above is to think that the negation of "all Cretans are liars" is "all Cretans are honest" when in fact the negation is "there exists a Cretan, honest", or "not all Cretans are liars". The Epimenides paradox can be modified as to not allow the kind of solution described above, as it was in the first paradox of Eubulides but instead leading to a non-avoidable self-contradiction.
Paradoxical versions of the Epimenides problem are related to a class of more difficult logical problems, including the liar paradox, Socratic paradox, the Burali-Forti paradox, all of which have self-reference in common with Epimenides. Indeed, the Epimenides paradox is classified as a variation on the liar paradox, sometimes the two are not distinguished; the study of self-reference led to important developments in logic and mathematics in the twentieth century. In other words, it is not a paradox once one realizes "All Cretans are liars" being untrue only means "Not all Cretans are liars" instead of the assumption that "All Cretans are honest". Better put, for "All Cretans are liars" to be a true statement, it does not mean that all Cretans must lie all the time. In fact, Cretans could tell the truth quite but still all be liars in the sense that liars are people prone to deception for dishonest gain. Considering that “All Cretans are liars” has been seen as a paradox only since the 19th century, this seems to resolve the alleged paradox.
Of course, if ‘all Cretans are continuous liars’ is true asking a Cretan if they are honest would always elicit the dishonest answer ‘yes’. So arguably the original proposition is not so much paradoxical as invalid. A contextual reading of the contradiction may provide an answer to the paradox; the original phrase, "The Cretans, always liars, evil beasts, idle bellies!" Asserts not an intrinsic paradox, but rather an opinion of the Cretans from Epimenides. A stereotyping of his people not intended to be an absolute statement about the people as a whole. Rather it is a claim made about their position regarding their religious beliefs and socio-cultural attitudes. Within the context of his poem the phrase is specific to a certain belief, a context that Callimachus repeats in his poem regarding Zeus. Further, a more poignant answer to the paradox is that to be a liar is to state falsehoods, nothing in the statement asserts everything said is false, but rather they're "always" lying; this is not an absolute statement of fact and thus we cannot conclude there's a true contradiction made by Epimenides with this statement.
Epimenides was a 6th-century BC philosopher and religious prophet who, against the general sentiment of Crete, proposed that Zeus was immortal, as in the following poem: They fashioned a tomb for thee, O holy and high oneThe Cretans, always liars, evil beasts, idle bellies! But thou art not dead: thou livest and abidest forever,For in thee we live and move and have our being. Denying the immortality of Zeus was the lie of the Cretans; the phrase "Cretans, always liars" was quoted by the poet Callimachus in his Hymn to Zeus, with the same theological intent as Epimenides: O Zeus, some say that thou wert born on the hills of Ida. -- “Cretans are liars.” Yea, a tomb, O Lord, for thee the Cretans builded. The logical inconsistency of a Cretan asserting all Cretans are always liars may not have occurred to Epimenides, nor to Callimachus, who both used the phrase to emphasize their point, without irony meaning that all Cretans lie but no
Ueli Staub was a Swiss vibraphonist and photographer. Staub was the founder of the Metronome Quartet, along with Swiss pianist Martin Hugelshofer, whom were both graduate students at the time. Staub was a self-taught vibraphonist, he founded the Metronome Quartet with Martin Hugelshofer in 1953, which he played internationally from 1979–2001. He played for the Robi Weber Quartet, Five Blazers, Swiss All Stars, he recorded an album with British saxophone and piano player Dennis Armitage. Staub married Margrit Staub-Hadorn in 1978, a Swiss TV announcer and author, he published two books: 1978 - Tempi passati 1994 - Portrait eines Jazz-Pioniers 2003 - Jazzstadt Zürich Staub worked as a journalist for the Swiss Neue Zürcher Zeitung, about music. In 1957, Swiss musician Bruno Spoerri joined the Metronome Quartet, which became Metronome Quintet, until 1975 when he left, his arrival marked a new era in the group, as when he left another musician became a member, so it always remained a quintet until its end in 2013.
His arrival was the beginning of the groups touring in Europe, in Japan in the Expo'70 in 1970. Discography here available at discogs.com "Details zu Musiker: "Ueli Staub". Www.jazzindex.ch. Retrieved 2019-08-31
Beltola is a prime residential area in the southern part of Guwahati, Assam. It is an adjoining area of the capital of Assam. Though most of the buildings and roads were newly constructed, Beltola has a long history which dates back mythical ages. During Ahom reign, Beltola was a small Koch kingdom, whose ruler assisted in the administration of the Borphukan in Guwahati, the Ahom Viceroy of Lower Assam and in maintaining relations with the communities of Khasi Hills; the Kingdom of Beltola survives under the British rule and it existed till India's independence in 1947 CE. Not much is known about the history of Beltola in ancient times. Mythical sources claimed that the word Beltola comes from the word Bilvapatra, which means leaves of Bael tree, used in religious ceremonies, it was said that in olden day’s large quantities of Bael tree leaves were sent to Kamakhya Temple to be used in rituals. It was; the Ganesh Temple located in Ganeshguri, which comes under Beltola Mouza or estate, is very ancient and not much is known about its origin.
Some local sources stated that since Beltola was located in the entrance of the old city of Guwahati where the famous temple of Kamakhya is situated, the Ganesh deity at the Ganesh temple in Ganeshguri, serves as a gatekeeper. Therefore, the Ganesh temple may be as ancient as Kamakhya temple; this theory was inspired by the mythical story of Ganesha guarding the entrance of the house, while his mother Devi Parvati was bathing. The Basithashram or Basistha Temple comes under Beltola Mouza. Though the Basistha Temple was constructed by Ahom King Swargadeo Rajeswar Singha in the middle of eighteenth century, the Basisthashram or the ashram of Basistha dates back to mythical era and it was established by one of the Saptarishi, Rishi Basistha, it is said. Early inhabitants of Beltola consist of Garos, Lalungs and Koch-Kachari, Keot while small numbers of Ahoms, Manipuris and Muslims came and settled in Beltola. No records exist about any rulers of Beltola before Gaj Narayan of Koch dynasty. In 1613 CE, Parikshit Narayan, the ruler of Koch Hajo, was defeated by the Mughals.
He was taken prisoner and was escorted to Delhi where he had an audience with Mughal Emperor Jahangir. On acknowledging Mughal Supremacy and on the agreement of annual tribute of four lakhs rupees, the Emperor returned his kingdom. While on his way back, Parikshit Narayan died. On his death, the Mughals set up Hajo as their headquarters in Assam. Bijit Narayan, the young son of Parikshit Narayan was set up as a tributary king of a small state, named after him, called Bijni. On the defeat of Parikshit Narayan, his two brothers Balinarayan and Gaj Narayan, fled to the Ahom Kingdom and sought refuge from Ahom King Swargadeo Pratap Singha. Swargadeo Pratap Singha had married the daughter of Parikshit Narayan and set up the Mangaldoi town on her respect. Owing to this matrimonial alliance, Swargadeo Pratap Singha granted refuge to these Koch princes. Meanwhile, the Mughal Governor demanded their extradition; this and other causes of offence led the Mughal Governor to decide on the invasion of the Ahom Kingdom, leading to Ahom-Mughal conflict.
The invading Mughal forces were driven back to their own territory. After this victory, in 1615 CE Swargadeo Pratap Singha installed Balinarayan as the tributary ruler of Darrang and renamed him as Dharmanarayan, while his brother Gaj Narayan was set up as a tributary ruler in Beltola. Gajnarayan was instructed to administer under the supervision of Borphukan, the Ahom viceroy of Lower Assam. Gaj Narayan and his descendants ruled Beltola as a Tributary Chiefs under the Ahom Sovereigns. Treasury records of late Ahom period showed that the rulers of Beltola used to pay 2500 rupees as annual tribute to the Ahom Government. After the decline of Ahom supremacy and the fall of Ahom Kingdom in Assam, Beltola comes under British rule. After occupation of the Ahom Kingdom, the British divided the erstwhile Ahom kingdom into Mouzas or revenue circle for the purpose of smooth administration. In each Mouza, one Mouzadar was appointed, entrusted with the task of collecting taxes and administration; the British reduced the status of Beltola from Kingdom to Mouza and that of the ruler from King to Mouzadar, though certain terms were set up in favour of the royal family.
Beltola Mouza was specially categorized as Raj Principality. The rulers were allowed to retain the title of Raja in their names and the official post of the Mouzadar of Beltola was made hereditary and was reserved for the royal family of Beltola. After independence of India from British rule, the Government of India abolished Zamindari or system of land lords in 1956 CE, due to which the royal family of Beltola lost much of their lands. In 1974 CE, the Government of India abolished all the special privileges bestowed to former royal families of India; the royal family of Beltola was affected by these changes and the rank of Beltola Mouza was demoted from Raj Mouza to that of general category Mouza. The official post of Mouzadar remained with the royal family and till now the post of Mouzadar was held hereditarily by them, though they do not have any power of administration except collecting land taxes for Government of Assam. During the Ahom reign, the kingdom of Beltola extends from the borders of the kingdom of Rani in the west, while in the east it extends to the borders of the kingdom of Mayong and Dimorua.
In Forgotten Realms, the campaign setting of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, Bhaalspawn is a name given to all children of the fictitious Bhaal, Lord of Murder, who foresaw his own death during the Time of Troubles and fathered children who could one day be sacrificed for his return. The Lord of Murder shall perish, but in his doom he shall spawn a score of mortal progeny, chaos will be sown by their passage. - From the writings of the seer Alaundo. During the storyline of the Baldur's Gate series of computer games the player will encounter a number of Bhaalspawn, some as friends and some as enemies. Issue number #288 of Dragon Magazine contains an article detailing Bhaalspawn for 3rd Edition Dungeons and Dragons, enabling a Gamesmaster to recreate the Baldur's Gate series of games for their own campaign, or to play a "post-games" campaign where not all of the Bhaalspawn were slain and where they retained the fragment of Bhaal's essence; the Bhaalspawn came from the humble to the powerful.
Here are some of the known Bhaalspawn: A male half-dragon. He had the half-dragon Draconis, he joined the alliance of Bhaalspawn known as the Five, raised an army consisting of non-humans. A male human monk, a member of the Five; the leader of a monastic order based in the town of Amkethran. Balthazar wanted to kill all of the other Bhaalspawn before committing ritual suicide, so that the evil essence of Bhaal would be "locked away" forever, he was slain by Abdel Adrian. The Bhaalspawn raised by Gorion, at the great library of Candlekeep. Abdel Adrian is the protagonist of the novelization of the Baldur's Gate series; as such, he corresponds to the player character Bhaalspawn in the games. Due to the lack of any official name, the protagonist in the games as opposed to the novels is referred to as "Charname" by the Baldur's Gate gaming community in reference to the designation given to this character in the game's code, which when the game is played is replaced by the name chosen by the player. A male half-orc who ruled Saradush while the city was under siege by Yaga-Shura.
A female human, one of the Five. Known as "Illasera the Quick" for her superhuman speed in combat, she was the first of the Five sent by Melissan to hunt down Abdel Adrian. Abdel manages only to defeat her in the novelization by resorting to his Bhaal-essence rage. Imoen is the half-sister of Gorion's Ward, although her identity as a fellow Bhaalspawn is unknown in the first game, she is loyal to the player character and cheerful despite the horrors she has seen. At the end of the series, she gives up her Bhaalspawn essence to kill Melissan and elevate the protagonist to godhood. Sarevok is a powerful fighter, the primary antagonist of the original Baldur's Gate and revealed to be the half-brother of the protagonist, he has lost his essence of Bhaal after his resurrection in Baldur's Gate II: Throne of Bhaal, so technically he is no longer a child of Bhaal. A female Drow and member of the Five. A powerful cleric and warrior, Sendai commanded an army of renegade Drow and other Underdark creatures before she was killed by the protagonist.
Viekang is a male human, taken by fear whenever he encounters another Bhaalspawn. Through his tainted blood, fear causes him to teleport away whenever he is afraid, causing his encounters with Bhaalspawn to be brief. After meeting Melissan in Saradush, he loses this ability, it is possible for the player to scare Viekang into regaining his power. A male fire giant, member of the Five; this powerful giant commanded an army of humanoids and giants and laid siege to the city of Saradush, where many Bhaalspawn were in hiding. To stop him, the protagonist discovered the secret to Yaga-Shura's invulnerability and destroyed it, making Yaga-Shura himself vulnerable. Before the protagonist was able to return to Saradush and kill Yaga-Shura, Yaga-Shura was able to breach the city's wall and slaughter all of the Bhaalspawn within. Time of Troubles Baldur's Gate series
R&D Sport is a Japanese racing team competing in the Super GT series. R&D Sport was created in 1991 as a race car management and manufacturing company and expanded to JGTC, racing under the company's own name in 2002; the team first competed in Japanese Formula 3000 in 1992 as AD Racing with Finnish driver Mika Salo. The team changed to Navi Connection Racing in 1995 with driver Masahiko Kageyama taking third place at Suzuka in 1995 and third place at Fuji in 1996. Masami Kageyama, younger brother of Masahiko Kageyama, followed his sibling to third place at Fuji in 1997. A third-place finish at Fuji in 2000 from driver Shinsuke Shibahara would be R&D Sports' last podium in Formula Nippon. In 2001 R&D Sport moved to the JGTC in a Porsche 911 GT3 R driven by Shinsuke Shibahara and Shogo Mitsuyama. 2002 would be the first successful year of JGTC competition, changing to a new Vemac RD320R, Shibahara and Mitsuyama would win three rounds of the season, taking victory at Fuji, Twin Ring Motegi, Mine Circuit and finishing second in the drivers' championship.
R&D moved to GT500 with a Vemac RD350R in 2003, but they would not have the success of the last season, being unable to properly compete with the factory teams of GT500. As a result, the team dedicated 2004 to further developing their new Vemac RD408R competing in only one race of the season. 2005 would see the team move back to the GT300 class, as an accident with the team's RD408R ruined the planned GT500 effort. Instead R&D Sport was forced to use their Vemac RD350R from the 2003 season in the GT300 class, as it was no longer competitive in GT500; the team ran two cars in 2006 with Shogo Mitsuyama and Nobuteru Taniguchi winning at Okayama and taking third in the drivers' championship. Drivers Shinsuke Shibahara and Hiroyuki Yagi won the next round at Fuji and finished sixth in the drivers championship. Shinsuke Shibahara and Haruki Kurosawa achieved victory at Autopolis in 2007, finishing third in the drivers' championship. R&D Sport began a partnership with Subaru in 2009 using a AWD Subaru Legacy B4 that debuted at the sixth round of the season at Suzuka.
However the car was retired from the race. 2010 was a shift from the disappointing performance of the Legacy in 2009, by changing the car from an AWD setup to FR, Kota Sasaki and Tetsuya Yamano won at Suzuka. 2011 was an better performance, with Sasaki and Yamano winning at both Suzuka and Autopolis, finishing fourth overall in the drivers' championship. STI and R&D Sport began a joint partnership in 2012 with STI general director Eiji Tatsumi taking over as team principal and a new Subaru BRZ for the 2012 season. In 2013 the team achieved victory at the fifth round of the season at Suzuka, with drivers Kota Sasaki and Tetsuya Yamano finishing fourth in the drivers' championship. At the eighth round of the series Tetsuya Yamano announced his retirement after the end of the 2013 season. Yamano's replacement, Takuto Iguchi and Kota Sasaki win at Fuji and finish 5th in the drivers' championship in 2014; the 2015 season is less successful than the previous year with the year's best finish being a third place podium at Suzuka.
Drivers Takuto Iguchi and Hideki Yamauchi finished the season twelfth overall in the driver's championship. The 2016 season is more successful than the previous year with the year's best finish being a win at Suzuka, third place podium at Sportland Sugo and Fuji. Drivers Takuto Iguchi and Hideki Yamauchi finished the season sixth overall in the driver's championship; the 2017 season is less successful than the previous year with the year's best finish being a second place podium at Autopolis. Drivers Takuto Iguchi and Hideki Yamauchi finished the season nineth overall in the driver's championship; the 2018 season is more successful than the previous year with the year's best finish being a third place podium at Suzuka and win at Sportland Sugo. Drivers Takuto Iguchi and Hideki Yamauchi finished the season eightth overall in the driver's championship; the 2019 season is worst successful than the previous year with the year's best finish being a third place podium at Suzuka. Drivers Takuto Iguchi and Hideki Yamauchi finished the season eighteenth overall in the driver's championship
Dan Gill is a retired American gymnast and current CEO of webforum company Huddler. Gill was an all-arounder, he attributed this to his tall stature for a gymnast. On floor exercise, Gill performed an difficult mount: a double-twisting double backflip with immediate punch to a one and one-quarter front flip. On high bar, he dismounted with a triple twisting double layout. Gill won many awards. In 2000, he became the first Virginia athlete to score a 10.0. That year, he set the nationwide record for all around at high school national championships. Gill was a club gymnast at Burke's Capital Gymnastics under coach Carlos Vasquez. Gill was a two time member of the US Junior National Team. Gill competed for Stanford from 2001-2004. In 2001 and 2002, he overlapped with David Durante. In 2001, the Cardinal won NCAAs. At the 2002 NCAA championships, Gill won gold on the vault. In 2004, Gill was the team's won silver in the all-around at championships; that year, Gill won the Heisman of men's gymnastics. Gill became a member of the U.
S. National Team in 2003 and was a part of the bronze-medal winning team at Pan American Games that year. At the 2003 National Championships, he finished 11th all around, sixth on floor exercise, fifth on vault. At the 2004 Nationals, Gill won silver on the floor exercise and performed well enough overall to be invited to Olympic Trials. At Trials, Gill moved from 12th to 7th at one point, he described Trials as the high point of his athletic career and a more tense meet than the Olympics. Gill was planning for a career as a physician. However, gymnastics competition had interfered with taking MCATs and Gill decided to go into Silicon Valley startups instead of medicine. After experience elsewhere, along with his brother, founded Huddler; the company has raised $17 million venture funding. Gill believes his experience as a gymnast has given him the persistence needed for sales and marketing and that being a team captain translates to leading a startup. NCAA floor exercise: The double-twisting double backflip to punch front one and one quarter flip is at the beginning of the routine.