SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and the rationality of belief. Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth and justification, various problems of skepticism, the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, the criteria for knowledge and justification. Epistemology addresses such questions as: "What makes justified beliefs justified?", "What does it mean to say that we know something?", fundamentally "How do we know that we know?" The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning "logical discourse". It is analogous to the German Wissenschaftslehre, introduced by philosophers Johann Fichte and Bernard Bolzano in the late 18th century; the word first appeared in English in 1847 as a translation of the German in New York's Eclectic Magazine review of a philosophical novel by German author Jean Paul: The title of one of the principal works of Fichte is ′Wissenschaftslehre,′ which, after the analogy of technology... we render epistemology.

It was properly introduced in the philosophical literature by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in his Institutes of Metaphysics: This section of the science is properly termed the Epistemology—the doctrine or theory of knowing, just as ontology is the science of being... It answers the general question, ‘What is knowing and the known?’—or more shortly, ‘What is knowledge?’ French philosophers gave the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as philosophy of science. E.g. Émile Meyerson opened his Identity and Reality, written in 1908, with the remark that the word'is becoming current' as equivalent to'the philosophy of the sciences.'The idea of epistemology predates the word. John Locke describes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding as an inquiry "into the original and extent of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief and assent". According to Brett Warren, the character Epistemon in King James VI of Scotland's Daemonologie "was meant to be a personification of a philosophical concept known as'epistemology': the investigation into the differences of a justified belief versus its opinion."

In mathematics, it is known that 2 + 2 = 4, but there is knowing how to add two numbers, knowing a person, thing, or activity. Some philosophers think there is an important distinction between "knowing that", "knowing how", "acquaintance-knowledge", with epistemology being concerned with the first of these. While these distinctions are not explicit in English, they are defined explicitly in other languages. In French, Spanish and Dutch'to know' is translated using connaître, conhecer and kennen whereas'to know' is translated using savoir, saber and weten. Modern Greek has the verbs γνωρίζω and ξέρω. Italian has the verbs conoscere and sapere and the nouns for'knowledge' are conoscenza and sapienza. German has kennen; the verb itself implies a process: you have to go from one state to another, from a state of "not-erkennen" to a state of true erkennen. This verb seems the most appropriate in terms of describing the "episteme" in one of the modern European languages, hence the German name "Erkenntnistheorie".

The theoretical interpretation and significance of these linguistic issues remains controversial. In his paper On Denoting and his book Problems of Philosophy Bertrand Russell stressed the distinction between "knowledge by description" and "knowledge by acquaintance". Gilbert Ryle is credited with stressing the distinction between knowing how and knowing that in The Concept of Mind. In Personal Knowledge, Michael Polanyi argues for the epistemological relevance of knowledge how and knowledge that; this position is Ryle's, who argued that a failure to acknowledge the distinction between knowledge that and knowledge how leads to infinite regress. In recent times, epistemologists including Sosa, Kvanvig and Duncan Pritchard have argued that epistemology should evaluate people's "properties" and not just the properties of propositions or of propositional mental attitudes. In common speech, a "statement of belief" is an expression of faith or trust in a person, power or other entity—while it includes such traditional views, epistemology is concerned with what we believe.

This includes'the truth' and everything else we accept as'true' for ourselves from a cogni

2012 Farmers Classic

The 2012 Farmers Classic, presented by Mercedes-Benz, was a men's tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts in Los Angeles. It was the 86th edition of the Los Angeles Open, was part of the Emirates Airline US Open Series of the 2012 ATP World Tour, it took place at the Los Angeles Tennis Center on the campus of UCLA, from July 23 through July 29, 2012, with total player compensation in excess of $1 million. The events were televised by the Tennis Channel. During the early rounds, Rhythm & Blues group "The Spinners," and "Sax and the City" performed at the Classic. Sam Querrey from California, fellow American James Blake, France’s Nicolas Mahut and Belgium’s Xavier Malisse, the tournament’s reigning doubles champion, were participants of this year's tournaments. Defending champion, who grew up in nearby Thousand Oaks, defeated Ričardas Berankis for his third Los Angeles title in four years on July 29, 2012. Xavier Malisse teamed up with Ruben Bemelmans this year to win the doubles championship.

Querrey would join fellow Americans, Andre Agassi and Jimmy Connors as the only three men to win 3 or more titles in the Open Era. The 2012 tournament marked the last time. 1 Seedings based on the rankings of July 16, 2012 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Brian Baker Steve Johnson Jack SockThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Ričardas Berankis Chris Guccione Bradley Klahn Nicolas Meister Malek Jaziri Lukáš Lacko Rankings are as of July 16, 2012 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Marcos Giron / Nicolas Meister Steve Johnson / Sam QuerreyThe following pair received entry as alternates: Chris Guccione / Marinko Matosevic Ryan Sweeting Michael Russell Sam Querrey defeated Ričardas Berankis, 6–0, 6–2 Ruben Bemelmans / Xavier Malisse defeated Jamie Delgado / Ken Skupski, 7–6, 4–6, Official website

Solidarity Szczecin–Goleniów Airport

Solidarity Szczecin–Goleniów Airport is the main domestic and international airport serving the city of Szczecin in Poland and is located 45 km northeast of the city, near the town of Goleniów, in the village of Glewice. About 1.6 million residents live within its catchment area. The airport was constructed between 1953–56 at the height of the Cold War, 5 km east of Goleniów, it was constructed as a standard military airport with a 1,800 m × 45 m runway and basic airport infrastructure. In 1967, the civilian airport at Dąbie was relocated to the site and named Port Lotniczy Szczecin–Goleniów. In 1976–77 the runway was extended to 2,500 m and a new passenger terminal was constructed. Works to improve the runway and the main apron were undertaken in 1998; the airport’s electricity supply together with the runway and approach lighting was upgraded in 1999. A new passenger terminal was opened in 2001 and further expansion works commenced on the terminal in 2005. Construction commenced on a new air traffic control tower in 2004, was finished by the end of 2005.

The terminal expansion concluded in April 2006, at which time the airport was renamed for the Solidarność trade union. In July 2013, a 4km spur linking the airport to the mainline between Szczecin and Kołobrzeg opened, creating a direct rail link between the airport and the city of Szczecin. There are three trains a day covering the route between Szczecin and the airport using the new 4km spur; the airport has infrequent train connections to Goleniów, Gryfice and Kołobrzeg. The train takes 90 minutes from Kołobrzeg to get to the airport; the airport is located 45km away from Szczecin by taxi, using the S3 and A6. There are cheap coaches available heading to the city after every planes' arrival. List of airports in Poland Media related to Solidarity Szczecin-Goleniów Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website