The Letter of James, the Epistle of James, or James, is one of the 21 epistles in the New Testament. The author identifies himself as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ", writing to "the twelve tribes scattered abroad"; the epistle is traditionally attributed to James the brother of Jesus, the audience is considered to be Jewish Christians, who were dispersed outside Palestine. Framing his letter within an overall theme of patient perseverance during trials and temptations, James writes to encourage his readers to live with what they have learned in Christ, he wants his readers to mature in their faith in Christ by living. He condemns various sins, including pride, hypocrisy and slander, he encourages and implores believers to humbly live by godly, rather than worldly wisdom and to pray in all situations. According to Robert J. Foster, "there is little consensus as to the genre, structure and authorship of the book of James." There are four "commonly espoused" views concerning authorship and dating of the Epistle of James: the letter was written by James before the Pauline epistles, the letter was written by James after the Pauline epistles, the letter is pseudonymous, the letter comprises material from James but reworked by a editor.
The writer refers to himself only as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ". Jesus had two apostles named James: James, the son of Zebedee and James, the son of Alphaeus, but it is unlikely that either of these wrote the letter. According to the Book of Acts, the brother of John, was killed by Herod Agrippa I. James, the son of Alphaeus is a more viable candidate for authorship, although he is not prominent in the scriptural record, little is known about him. Hippolytus, writing in the early third century, asserted in his work On the 12 Apostles: And James the son of Alphaeus, when preaching in Jerusalem was stoned to death by the Jews, was buried there beside the temple; the similarity of his alleged martyrdom to the stoning of James the Just has led some scholars, such as Robert Eisenman and James Tabor, to assume that these "two Jameses" were one and the same. This identification of James of Alphaeus with James the Just has long been asserted, as evidenced by their conflation in Jacobus de Voragine's medieval hagiography the Golden Legend.
Some have said the authorship of this epistle points to James, the brother of Jesus, to whom Jesus evidently had made a special appearance after his resurrection described in the New Testament as this James was prominent among the disciples. James the brother of Jesus was not a follower of Jesus before Jesus died according to John 7:2-5, which states that during Jesus' life "not his brothers believed in him". From the middle of the 3rd century, patristic authors cited the epistle as written by James, the brother of Jesus and a leader of the Jerusalem church. Not numbered among the Twelve Apostles unless he is identified as James the Less, James was nonetheless a important figure: Paul the Apostle described him as "the brother of the Lord" in Galatians 1:19 and as one of the three "pillars of the Church" in 2:9. Pseudonymous authorship implies that the person named "James" is doubtless well known. Moreover, this James, brother of Jesus, is honored by the epistle written and distributed after the lifetime of James, the brother of Jesus.
John Calvin and others suggested that the author was the James, son of Alphaeus, referred to as James the Less. The Protestant reformer Martin Luther denied it was the work of an apostle and termed it an "epistle of straw"; the Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church teaches that the Book of James was "written not by either of the apostles, but by the'brother of the Lord', the first bishop of the Church in Jerusalem." Many scholars consider the epistle to be pseudepigrapha: The author introduces himself as "a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ" without invoking any special family relationship to Jesus. The cultured Greek language of the Epistle, it is contended, could not have been written by a Jerusalem Jew; some scholars argue for a primitive version of the letter composed by James and later polished by another writer. The epistle was only accepted into the canon of the New Testament; some see parallels between James and 1 Peter, 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas and take this to reflect the socio-economic situation Christians were dealing with in the late 1st or early 2nd century.
It thus could have been written anywhere in the Empire. There are some scholars. Scholars, such as Luke Timothy Johnson, suggest an early dating for the Epistle of James: The Letter of James according to the majority of scholars who have worked through its text in the past two centuries, is among the earliest of New Testament compositions, it contains no reference to the events in Jesus' life, but it bears striking testimony to Jesus' words. Jesus' sayings are embedded in James' exhortations in a form, not dependent on the written Gospels. If written by James the brother of Jesus, it would have been written sometime before AD 69, when he was martyred; the earliest extant manuscripts of James date to the mid-to-late 3rd century. James is considered New Testament wisdom literature: "like Proverbs and Sirach, it consists of moral exhortations and precepts of a traditional and eclectic nature."The content of James is directly parallel, in many instances, to sayings of Jesus found in the gospels of Luke and
Lawrence Olajuwon Timmons is a former American football linebacker. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the first round of the 2007 NFL Draft, he would win Super Bowl XLIII with the Steelers over the Arizona Cardinals. He played college football at Florida State. Timmons attended Wilson High School in Florence, South Carolina, where he played football and ran track. In football, he played tight end on linebacker on defense, he was teammates with Justin Durant until his junior season. During his senior year, Timmons registered over 150 tackles and two sacks, while catching 47 passes for over 800 yards and five touchdowns as a tight end, which earned him all-state first-team honors, he was awarded as the Defensive Player of the Year and received Super Prep Elite 50 honors. He was selected to play in the 2003 East-West Shrine Game. In track & field, Timmons competed in the long jump event, recording a career-best leap of 6.55 meters at the 2003 SCHSL State Championships, where he placed sixth in the finals.
He was a member of the 4 × 100 m and 4 × 200 m relay squads and was timed at 4.6 seconds in the 40-yard dash. Regarded as a four-star recruit by Rivals.com, Timmons was ranked as the No. 5 outside linebacker prospect in the nation, just behind Brandon Siler. He took official visits to North Carolina, Florida State and Tennessee, before committing to the Seminoles. In his true freshman year, Timmons played in all 12 games including the Seminoles' Gator Bowl victory over West Virginia, although only limited minutes on special teams and as a backup linebacker, he recorded 12 tackles, 11 of which were unassisted, which ranked second among the Seminole freshmen behind Jae Thaxton. A season-high three tackles came against Alabama–Birmingham; as a sophomore, Timmons ranked second on the Seminoles' depth chart at strongside linebacker behind Ernie Sims. He played in all 13 games, both at linebacker and on special teams, as well as defensive end in some third-and-long formations. Timmons finished the year with 35 tackles, which ranked him third on the team behind Buster Davis and Sam McGrew, as well as three quarterback sacks, third-best among all Seminoles behind Kamerion Wimbley and Marcello Church.
His season-best performance came in the ACC Championship Game against Virginia Tech, when he recorded eight tackles, six solo, two quarterback sacks and two QB hurries. After Sims decided to forgo his senior season, Timmons took over as the starter at strongside linebacker, he had a great season recording 79 tackles and five sacks, was honored with All-American third-team and All-Atlantic Coast Conference first-team. He finished his college career with eight sacks. Timmons was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers 15th overall in the 2007 NFL Draft, he began his rookie season as the backup right outside linebacker to James Harrison. He made his professional debut in the Steelers' season opener against the Cleveland Browns, making one tackle in the Steelers' victory; the following week, he made a season-high two solo tackles during a 26–3 victory over the Buffalo Bills. As a rookie, he was used as a rotational player and on special teams but appeared in all 16 regular-season contests, he made 13 tackles throughout his rookie season.
The following season, he was moved over to right inside linebacker, backing up veteran Larry Foote on a Steelers defensive linebacking corps with veteran depth and talent that included himself, Harrison, LaMarr Woodley, James Farrior. In the season opener, he made. On September 29, 2008, Timmons made four combined tackles, a pass deflection, sacked Baltimore Ravens' quarterback Joe Flacco for his first career sack as the Steelers defeated them, 23–20, in overtime on Monday Night Football. In Week 7, he had his best game of the season statistically, finishing with a season-high ten combined tackles and had a season-high two sacks after getting to Bengals' quarterback Ryan Fitzpatrick twice during the Steelers' 38–10 victory. On November 3, 2008, Timmons earned his first career start during a victory over the Washington Redskins during Monday Night Football and finished the game with four combined tackles. On November 30, he made four tackles and intercepted Patriots's quarterback Matt Cassel for his first career interception during the Steelers' 33–10 victory.
On January 11, 2009, he played in his first career playoff game when the Steelers defeated the San Diego Chargers, 35–24, in the wildcard round. He finished the game with three of them being solo; the Steelers defeated the Baltimore Ravens in the AFC Championship and went on to play the Arizona Cardinals in Super Bowl XLIII. In his first Super Bowl, Timmons recorded five tackle, helping his team win, 27–23, he finished his second season with 65 tackles, five sacks and an interception, while starting three games and playing in all 16 regular-season contests. Timmons took over as starter for the 2009 season following the release of Larry Foote, who asked for his release, foreseeing Timmons's future emergence as the starter and increased playing time. Timmons was slated as the Steelers' starting right inside linebacker to begin the season but missed the season opener against the Tennessee Titans, he returned the following week, making three solo tackles and two pass deflections during a 14–17 loss to the Chicago Bears.
The next game, he made his first start of the season during a loss to the Bengals and finished the game with three combined tackles and a pass deflection. During Week 5, Timmons made five tackles and forced two fumbles as the Steelers routed the Cleveland Browns, 27–14, he finished the 2009 season with a total of 78 combined tackles, 7 sacks, 4 pass deflections, 3 forced fum
Khors is a Ukrainian black metal band formed in 2004 in Kharkiv by Khorus, the former bass guitarist of Astrofaes. During the creative activity, the band recorded two DVDs; the group keeps an active touring and performed with groups like Enslaved, Behemoth, Nokturnal Mortum and Temnozor. Reviews and interviews of the group Khors may be found in web publishing; the group was formed in 2004 with the former bass guitarist of Astrofaes, who left the group to create his own project. In August 2004 the drummer Khaoth, a former member of Hate Forest and Tessaract, subsequently and vocalist Helg, a member of Runes of Dianceht, joined the band. In the fall of 2004 the band recorded their debut album The Flame Of Eternity’s Decline released by Audio Alchemia Studio; the keyboardist of black-metal group Nokturnal Mortum Saturious and the guitarist of group Finist Wortherax collaborated on the record. The mastering took place in the studio Buddha Cat in Moscow, it was released in April 2005 on Oriana Music label.
In the same year on autumn the former member of Nagual Nort joined Khors. With his arrival the first membership of Khors starts their concert activity. After a small tour in Ukraine group went to the studio again to record their next album; the work on the second album was started in February 2006 on Audio Alchemia studios. Again in recording took Wortherax. Reduction and mastering was again made by Moscow studio Buddha Cat. Album was named Cold and was released with Oriana Music in December 2006. In a short time group went to the tour in Russia. In autumn 2007 members of Khors went to the Kiev studio Blacklight to record another one album. Record was ended in summer 2008. In the same time English label Heidenwut Production with Ukrainian label Ancient Nation Production release album Cold on vinyl and Eclectic Productions release DVD named Cold Ways inclusive bootleg shot in the concert activity of the group. By the end of 2008 the third album named Mysticism released in digipack format CD on Americal label Paragon Records, in 2009 Russian label Irond Records releases special edition of album Mysticism for CIS.
Group went to the tour in Ukraine. At the middle of the year started first changed in the group: instead of guitarist Nort came Warth who earlier worked with group Faces of Death. Group started to record their fourth album in February 2010 in Kiev studio Blacklight. Record was finished in the same year in June. Album, named Return to Abandoned released in December on Paragon Records and on Irond Records special for CIS. In the same year Paragon Records released reissue of first two albums The Flame of Eternity’s Decline and Cold, English Heidenwut Productions released reissue of the album The Flame of Eternity’s Decline. In Summer 2010 Helg had to leave Khors and his place took Jurgis, former member of groups Gurgabs, Вайтмара and Faces of Death. In 2011 label Eclectic Productions released second DVD of group named Winter Stronghold. During the time of existence Khors performed more than 50 concerts in Ukraine, Russia and Moldova with groups Enslaved, Cynic, Behemoth, Gods Tower, Dub Buk, Obtest, Nokturnal Mortum, Temnozor and many others.
The group released five full-length albums and one concert DVD. Reviews and interviews of the group Khors may be found in web publishing. 2005 - The Flame of Eternity’s Decline 2006 - Cold 2008 - Mysticism 2010 - Return To Abandoned 2012 - Wisdom of Centuries 2015 - Night Falls Onto the Front of Ours 2008 - Cold Ways 2011 - Winter Stronghold Jurgis - vocals, guitars Helg - guitar, vocals Khorus - bass Khaoth - drums Warth - guitar Nort - guitar Black metal Astrofaes Nokturnal Mortum Hate Forest Official website Khors on Twitter Khors's channel on YouTube