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Epping Forest

Epping Forest is a 2,400-hectare area of ancient woodland between Epping in Essex to the north, Forest Gate in Greater London to the south, straddling the border between London and Essex. It is a former royal forest, is managed by the City of London Corporation. An area of 1,728 hectares is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation, it gives its name to the Epping Forest local government district. The forest is 19 kilometres long in the north-south direction, but no more than 4 kilometres from east to west at its widest point, in most places narrower, it lies on a ridge between the valleys of the rivers Roding. It contains areas of woodland, heath, rivers and ponds, its elevation and thin gravelly soil made it unsuitable for agriculture; the name "Epping Forest" was first recorded in the 17th century. The area that became known as Waltham and as Epping Forest has been continuously forested since Neolithic times. Embankments of two Iron Age earthworksLoughton Camp and Ambresbury Banks – can be found in the woodland, but pollen profiles show that Iron Age occupation had no significant effect on the forest ecology.

The former lime/linden Tilia-dominated woodland was permanently altered during Saxon times by selective cutting of trees. Today's beech-birch and oak-hornbeam-dominated forest was the result of partial forest clearance in Saxon times; the forest is thought to have been given legal status as a royal forest by Henry II in the 12th century. This status allowed commoners to use the forest to gather wood and foodstuffs, to graze livestock and turn out pigs for mast, but only the king was allowed to hunt there. "Forest" in the historical sense of royal forest meant an area of land reserved for royal hunting, where the forest laws applied, did not imply that it was wooded. In Tudor times, Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I may have hunted in the forest, though no documentary evidence has survived to prove it. In 1543, Henry commissioned a building, known as Great Standing, from which to view the chase at Chingford; the building can still be seen today in Chingford. The building is now known as Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge, is open to the public.

There is another hunt standing, which now forms the core of the Forest HQ at the Loughton. There were disputes between commoners. One group of commoners was led by Thomas Willingale who on behalf of the villagers of Loughton continued to lop the trees after the Lord of the Manor had enclosed 550 hectares of forest in Loughton; this led to an injunction against further enclosures. The Epping Forest Act 1878 was passed, saving the forest from enclosure, halting the shrinkage of the forest that this had caused. Epping Forest ceased to be a royal forest and was placed in the care of the City of London Corporation who act as Conservators. In addition, the Crown's right to venison was terminated, pollarding was no longer allowed, although grazing rights continued; this act laid down a stipulation that the Conservators "shall at all times keep Epping Forest unenclosed and unbuilt on as an open space for the recreation and enjoyment of the people". In compensation for the loss of lopping rights, Lopping Hall in Loughton was built as a community building.

When Queen Victoria visited Chingford on 6 May 1882 she declared "It gives me the greatest satisfaction to dedicate this beautiful forest to the use and enjoyment of my people for all time" and it thus became "The People's Forest". The City of London Corporation still manages Epping Forest in strict conformity with the Epping Forest Act; this care is funded from'City's Cash', the private funds of the Corporation rather than any money for its upkeep coming from local rates or taxes. The Conservators administer the forest from The Warren, modern offices built in the grounds of Grade II* listed Warren House, Loughton. Warren House known as the Reindeer Inn, was built around a smaller hunt standing, known as the Little Standing, its grounds were redesigned by Humphry Repton in the early 19th century. Until the outbreak of BSE in 1996 commoners still exercised their right to graze cattle and every summer herds of cattle would roam in the southern part of the forest. Cattle were reintroduced in 2001 but their movements are now more restricted to reduce conflict with traffic.

Commoners, who are people who live in a Forest parish and own 0.5 acres of land, can still register and graze cattle during the summer months. The right to collect wood still exists but is practised and is limited to "one faggot of dead or driftwood" per day per adult resident. A barn built in the mid-19th century the Grade II listed building Butler's Retreat is one of the few remaining Victorian retreats within the forest; the building is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Hunting Lodge and takes its name from the 1891 occupier John Butler. Retreats served non-alcoholic refreshments as part of the Temperance movement. After closing in 2009 the building was refurbished by the City of London Corporation and re-opened as a café in 2012. On 12 July 2012 The Duke of Gloucester—the official Epping Forest Ranger—opened the View interpretation centre at Chingford; the building a former Victorian coach house and stables together with Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge and Butler's Retreat form the Epping Forest Gateway.

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Confidence Bay

Confidence Bay was the first mobile high-definition edit suite in the world. The facility is a 35' recreational vehicle with two full editing bays inside, it debuted in March 2006 at South by Southwest in Texas. The interior of the truck was designed to focus on the comfort of the passengers instead of focusing on the technology. Most of the tech is hidden out of view with only the displays and such being visible; the vehicle has two slide-out compartments. The custom cabinetry and counters were created by Gerry Burgess; the counter tops and several of the cabinets feature rounded edges which were created by steaming and bending the wood over time. The floor is covered with laminate hardwood flooring. There's a video projector inside the RV that points to a dual-vision projection screen in front of a 16:9 aspect window in the side of the RV. At night the images projected onto the screen are visible to anybody standing outside the truck; this was designed to allow large groups of crew members to view footage without having to crowd into the truck.

The technology used in Confidence Bay is customized to the needs of the project. By default, the systems are multi-processor MacPro towers with Final Cut Studio, but the tech has been reconfigured in the past for AVID, Sony Vegas; the infrastructure is designed to work with any desktop platform. The power system on Confidence Bay is a double conversion power system. Alternating Current power is fed into a high power battery charger that feeds 12 V direct current into 600 pounds of deep cycle marine batteries. Two 2000 W ProSine inverters use the power from the battery bank and feed pristine 120 V AC power to the two editing systems; this configuration isolates the sensitive electronics onboard from any spikes, blackouts, or otherwise irregular power fluctuations that occur when plugging into some generators or less than ideal electricity sources. This allows the systems to remain up and functional while disconnected from any power source at all for close to an hour at moderate electrical load.

The truck does have a 5.5 kW gasoline generator which can run continuously for over 3 days if grid power is not available. The fuel supply is the 75 gallon gas tank used by the RV's engine; the generator will shut off. Doonby Beyond the Farthest Star Carried Away Night Crawlers Ghostbreakers WFAA-TV MSN Video AOL Online AT&T Blue Room San Diego Comic-Con International New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival AFI-Dallas Film Festival Austin Film Festival Sasquatch Music Festival Newport Jazz Festival Every Time a Bell Rings... On Second Thought Caching In confidencebay.com

Skipping-rope RNA motif

The skipping-rope RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure, discovered by bioinformatics. Skipping-rope motif RNAs are found in multiple phyla: Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Spirochaetes. A skipping-rope RNA was found in a purified phage the phage Bacillus phage SPbeta, which infects Bacillus organisms that fit into the phylum Firmicutes. Therefore, skipping-rope RNAs function, at least sometimes, to perform a function useful to phages. Skipping-rope RNAs function in trans as small RNAs, are immediately followed on their 3′ ends by Rho-independent transcription terminators. Genes that encode homologous proteins are located nearby to skipping-rope RNAs; these genes can occur 5′ or 3′ relative to the RNA, on the same or opposite DNA strand. These proteins match the DUF3800 conserved protein domain, so skipping-rope RNAs might be an example of DUF3800 RNA motifs; these properties are similar to the Drum RNA motif