The Welsh Guards, part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. It was founded on 26 February 1915 by Royal Warrant of George V and they were the last of the Guards to be created, with the Irish Guards coming into being in 1900. Just three days the 1st Battalion Welsh Guards mounted its first Kings Guard at Buckingham Palace on 1 March 1915 – St Davids Day, on 17 August 1915 the 1st Battalion sailed for France to join the Guards Division to commence its participation in the First World War. Its first battle was some months after its arrival, at Loos on 27 September 1915. The regiments first Victoria Cross came two years in July 1917 awarded to Sergeant Robert Bye, in 1929 the 1st Welsh Guards deployed to Egypt where they joined the Cairo Brigade where they stayed for only a brief period of time, returning home in 1930. Just prior to the outbreak of the Second World War the 1st Welsh Guards were dispatched to Gibraltar where they remained upon the outbreak of war in September 1939, the 2nd Battalion, Welsh Guards was created in 1939.
The Welsh Guards were increased to three battalions during the Second World War, the 1st Battalion fought valiantly in all the campaigns of the North-West European Theatre. In May 1940 at the Battle of Arras, the Welsh Guards gained their second Victoria Cross by Lieutenant Christopher Furness, who was subsequently killed in action. The 3rd Battalion, Welsh Guards, which was formed at Beavers Lane Camp in 1941, fought throughout the arduous North African Campaign, in the Tunisia Campaign, shortly after the end of the war the 3rd Battalion was disbanded while the 2nd Battalion was placed in suspended animation. In 1947 the 1st Welsh Guards were dispatched to Palestine, under British control, while it was in a volatile, the regiment had its colour trooped for the first time in 1949. In 1950 the regiment arrived in West Germany as part of the 4th Guards Brigade, in 1952 the regiment joined the Berlin Brigade in West Berlin, an enclave in Communist East Germany during tense times between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact.
The Welsh Guards returned home the year and soon after deployed to the British-controlled Suez Canal Zone in Egypt. As previously in Palestine, the Welsh Guards time in Egypt was quite turbulent and they performed internal security duties there. They remained in the SEZ until the British withdrawal in 1956, in 1960 the regiment deployed to West Germany again, and in 1965 to Aden, another part of the declining British Empire. They were to return home the following year, in 1970 the regiment arrived again in West Germany, this time at Münster, as part of 4th Armoured Brigade. In 1972 came deployment to Northern Ireland, embroiled in violence known as The Troubles, the following year the Welsh Guards were dispatched to the province again and during this period lost Guardsman David Roberts in a landmine explosion. In October 1975 till March 1976 the Welsh Guards were part of the British contingent of the United Nations force deployed to Cyprus in the aftermath of the Turkish invasion of the island in 1974.
In 1977 the regiment arrived in West Berlin again, and in 1979 once more in the midst of the situation in Northern Ireland
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
The Household Cavalry is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals. The Household Cavalry is part of the Household Division and is the Queens official bodyguard, the British Household Cavalry is classed as a corps in its own right, and consists of two regiments, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals. They are the regular regiments in the British Army, with traditions dating from 1660. They are guards regiments and, with the five foot guard regiments, the Household Cavalry as a whole is split into two different units that fulfil very distinct roles. These are both joint units, consisting of personnel from both regiments, like other Cavalry formations, the Household Cavalry is divided into regiments and squadrons. The whole corps is under the command of the Commander Household Cavalry and he is a Colonel, and is assisted by a retired lieutenant colonel as Regimental Adjutant. The current Commander is Colonel S H Cowen RHG/D, the first unit is the Household Cavalry Regiment.
It has an operational role as a Formation Reconnaissance Regiment, serving in armoured fighting vehicles. The regiment serves as part of the Royal Armoured Corps, one of HCRs squadrons is assigned to the airborne role with 16 Air Assault Brigade as of 2003. The Regiment is based at Combermere Barracks, one mile from Windsor Castle, the men of the Household Division have sometimes been required to undertake special tasks as the Sovereign’s personal troops. The Household Cavalry were called to Windsor Castle on 20 November 1992 to assist with salvage operations following the Great Fire, the second unit is the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment, which is horsed and carries out mounted ceremonial duties on State and Royal occasions. These include the provision of a Sovereigns Escort, most commonly seen on The Queens Birthday Parade in June each year, other occasions include state visits by visiting heads of state, or whenever required by the British monarch. The regiment mounts the guard at Horse Guards, the Regiment has been based at Hyde Park Barracks, since 1795.
This is three-quarters of a mile from Buckingham Palace, new troopers and officers are generally first assigned to London upon completion of horsemanship training and remain there for up to three years. Like the five Foot Guards regiments they rotate between the unit and ceremonial duties. However, this origin may be apocryphal, since serjeant was a used by some offices of comparative seniority, such as Serjeants at Arms. Uniquely, non-commissioned officers and warrant officers of the Household Cavalry do not wear insignia on their full dress uniforms. Rank is indicated by a system of aiguillettes, Second Lieutenants in The Blues and Royals are known as Cornets
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are often referred to as royalty or royals and it is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is referred to as the House of. As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all, in some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, there is often a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts and this is not always observed, some monarchies have operated by the principle of jure uxoris.
In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal, the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereigns prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages, the members of a royal family may or may not have a surname or dynastic name. Some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary France, whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses
Australian Defence Force
The Australian Defence Force is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force, the ADF has a strength of just over 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, and is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies. During the first decades of the 20th century, the Australian Government established the armed services as separate organisations, each service had an independent chain of command. In 1976, the government made a change and established the ADF to place the services under a single headquarters. Over time, the degree of integration has increased and tri-service headquarters, the ADF is technologically sophisticated but relatively small. Although the ADFs 58,061 full-time active-duty personnel and 19,338 active reservists make it the largest military in Oceania, the ADF is supported by a significant budget by worldwide standards and is able to deploy forces in multiple locations outside Australia.
The ADFs legal standing draws on the executive government sections of the Australian Constitution, Section 51 gives the Commonwealth Government the power to make laws regarding Australias defence and defence forces. Section 68 of the Constitution sets out the ADFs command arrangements, the Section states that the command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor-General as the Queens representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play a part in the ADFs command structure. The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control, the Minister acts on most matters alone, though the National Security Committee of Cabinet considers important matters. The Minister advises the Governor-General who acts as advised in the form of executive government. The Commonwealth Government has never required by the Constitution or legislation to seek parliamentary approval for decisions to deploy military forces overseas or go to war.
The ADFs current priorities are set out in the 2016 Defence White Paper, the first of these is to defend Australia from direct attack or coercion. The second priority is to contribute to the security of South East Asia, the third priority is to contribute to stability across the Indo-Pacific region and a rules-based global order which supports our interests. The white paper states that the government will place equal weight on the three priorities when developing the ADFs capabilities, Australia has maintained military forces since federation as a nation in January 1901. Shortly after Federation, the Australian Government established the Australian Army, in 1911, the Government established the Royal Australian Navy, which absorbed the Commonwealth Naval Force. The Army established the Australian Flying Corps in 1912 although this separated to form the Royal Australian Air Force in 1921, the services were not linked by a single chain of command, as they each reported to their own separate Minister and had separate administrative arrangements.
The three services saw action around the world during World War I and World War II, the importance of joint warfare was made clear to the Australian military during World War II when Australian naval and air units frequently served as part of single commands
Lieutenant commander is a commissioned officer rank in many navies. The rank is superior to a lieutenant and subordinate to a commander, the corresponding rank in most armies and air forces is major, and in the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces is squadron leader. The NATO rank code is mostly OF-3, a lieutenant commander is a senior department officer or the executive officer on many warships and smaller shore installation, or the commanding officer of a smaller ship/installation. They are senior department officers in naval aviation squadrons, most Commonwealth and other navies address lieutenant commanders by their full rank or the positions they occupy. The United States Navy, addresses officers by their rank or the higher grade of the rank. For example, oral communications in formal and informal situations, a Lieutenant is abbreviated as Lieutenant, Lieutenants were commonly put in command of smaller vessels not warranting a commander or captain. Such a lieutenant was called a lieutenant commanding or lieutenant commandant in the United States Navy, the USN settled on lieutenant commander in 1862 and made it a distinct rank.
The RN followed suit in March 1914, the insignia worn by a Royal Navy lieutenant commander is two medium gold braid stripes with one thin gold stripe running in between, placed upon a navy blue/black background. The top stripe has the ubiquitous loop used in all RN officer rank insignia, the RAF follows this pattern with its equivalent rank of squadron leader. This distinction was abolished when the rank of lieutenant commander was introduced, throughout much of its existence, the British Royal Observer Corps maintained a rank of observer lieutenant commander. The ROC wore a Royal Air Force uniform and their rank insignia appeared similar to that of an RAF squadron leader except that the stripes were shown entirely in black, prior to the renaming, the rank had been known as observer lieutenant. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank is the naval rank equal to Major in the army or air force and is the first senior officer rank, Lieutenant Commanders are senior to Lieutenants and to army and air force Captains, and are junior to Commanders and Lieutenant Colonels.
There are two insignia used by USN and USCG Lieutenant Commanders, in all dress uniforms, they wear sleeve braid or shoulder boards bearing a single gold quarter-inch stripe between two gold half-inch strips. Above or inboard of the stripes, they wear their speciality insignia and this rank is used on in Pakistan Navy. The rank of lieutenant commander is used in the Irish Naval Service. The majority of commanders in the Irish Naval Service hold the rank of lieutenant commander, with a commander being a senior. The corresponding rank in the German Navy, Italian Navy, Argentine Navy, Brazilian Navy, French Navy, Spanish Navy and most other French and Spanish-speaking countries is corvette captain. The insignia of kapteeniluutnantti, the rank immediately below the former, is one thin stripe between two wider ones, which could cause confusion among the naval personnel of other nations
Monarchy of New Zealand
The Crown is the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the New Zealand government, which is a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. Most of the powers are exercised by the elected parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown generally drawn from amongst them. The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British Crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, the Queen is the only member of the Royal Family with any constitutional role. New Zealand shares the same monarch with the other 15 monarchies in the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations, supports of the monarchy argue it costs New Zealand taxpayers only a small outlay for royal engagements and tours and the expenses of the governor-generals establishment. Monarchy New Zealand states his figure is one dollar per person per year. Thus, New Zealands line of succession remains identical to that of the United Kingdom, as such, the rules for succession are not fixed, but may be changed by a constitutional amendment.
The Constitution Act 1986 specifies that should a regent be installed in the United Kingdom, upon a demise of the Crown, the late sovereigns heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony—hence arises the phrase The King is dead. It is customary, for the accession of the new monarch to be proclaimed by the governor-general on behalf of the Executive Council of New Zealand. Following an appropriate period of mourning, the monarch is crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient ritual. After an individual ascends the throne, he or she continues to reign until death. One of the first post-Second World War examples of New Zealands status as an independent monarchy was the alteration of the title by the Royal Titles Act 1953. This is one of the key differences from the Queens role in England and this is done in reciprocation to the sovereigns Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises to govern the Peoples of. According to their laws and customs.
Though this power stems from the people, all New Zealanders live under the authority of the monarch, the government of New Zealand is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her Executive Council. In the construct of constitutional monarchy and responsible government, the advice tendered is typically binding, meaning the monarch reigns. The Royal Prerogative extends to foreign affairs, the sovereign or the governor-general conducts treaties, the governor-general, on behalf of the Queen, accredits New Zealand high commissioners and ambassadors, and receives similar diplomats from foreign states. In addition, the issuance of passports falls under the Royal Prerogative, the Crown is further responsible for summoning and dissolving the House of Representatives, after which the governor-general usually calls for a general election. The sovereign is responsible for rendering justice for all her subjects, she does not personally rule in judicial cases, instead the judicial functions of the Royal Prerogative are performed in trust and in the Queens name by Officers of Her Majestys Court
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarchs family, the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the Sovereign of the order, its motto is Victoria, and its official day is 20 June. The orders chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London, the organisation was founded a year preceding Victorias Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The orders official day was made 20 June of each year, in 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order. It is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes, Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007.
Foreigners may be admitted as members, there are no limits to the number of any grade. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St, prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members, but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO. Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes. For Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Lieutenants, the orders ribbon is blue with red-white-red stripe edging, the only difference being that for foreigners appointed into the society, their ribbon bearing an additional central white stripe. For Knights Grand Cross, the ribbon is 82.5 millimetres wide, for Dames Grand Cross 57.1 millimetres, for Knights and Dames Commander 44.4 millimetres, and for all other members 31.7 millimetres.
Though after the death of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross their insignia may be retained by their family, the collar must be returned. Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear a mantle of blue satin edged with red satin and lined with white satin. Since 1938, the chapel of the Royal Victorian Order has been the Queens Chapel of the Savoy, in central London, upon the occupants death, the plate is retained, leaving the stalls festooned with a record of the orders Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1938. There is insufficient space in the chapel for the display of knights and dames banners, founded by Michael Jackson, the group has, since 2008, gathered biennially. The practice of notifying the Prime Minister of Canada of nominees ended in 1982, in Canada, the order has come to be colloquially dubbed as the Royal Visit Order, as the majority of appointments are made by the sovereign during her tours of the country. Persons have been removed from the order at the monarchs command, anthony Blunt, a former surveyor of the Queens Pictures, was in 1979 stripped of his knighthood, after it was revealed that he had been a spy
Royal New Zealand Air Force
The Royal New Zealand Air Force is the air force component of the New Zealand Defence Force. The RNZAF fought in World War II, Korean War, the RNZAFs air combat capability ended in 2001 with the disbanding of the A-4 Skyhawk squadrons. The Air Force is led by an air vice-marshal who holds the appointment of Chief of Air Force, the RNZAF motto is the same as that of the Royal Air Force, Per ardua ad astra, meaning Through adversity to the stars. New Zealands military aviation began in 1913 when the New Zealand Army was presented with two Blériot monoplanes by the United Kingdom and these machines were grounded after a young woman was given a joyride. Both aircraft were handed back after war broke out. In the Great War, New Zealand aircrew flew as part of the British Royal Flying Corps, New Zealand pilots serving with British forces saw service in all theatres. Fifteen became aces, the top scorer being Keith Caldwell with, depending on how counted, the government assisted two private schools to train pilots for the conflict.
The Walsh brothers flying school at Auckland was founded by Leo, from 1915 pilots trained on the Walsh Brothers Flying Boats including Curtiss machines, aircraft of their own design and, in the war, the first two aircraft made by Boeing. In 1916 Sir Henry Wigram established the Canterbury Aviation Company at Sockburn, Christchurch and he gave the aerodrome, Wigram Aerodrome, to the government for defence purposes. At the end of the war many New Zealand pilots stayed with the new Royal Air Force, others returned to New Zealand and, serving part-time, provided the nucleus of the New Zealand Permanent Air Force. At the close of hostilities Great Britain offered an Imperial Gift to each of the Dominions of a hundred war-surplus combat aircraft, New Zealand was the last to respond and least enthusiastic. Several of the aircraft were heavily modified—a 504 becoming a 3-seat floatplane. The importance of aviation in war was recognised, largely thanks to the efforts of visionary parliamentarian Sir Henry Wigram.
It was initially equipped with the surviving Avro 504K, the DH. 4s, DH. 9s and these operated from an airfield outside Christchurch at Sockburn. In 1926 Wigram donated £2,500 for the purchase of modern fighters, Sockburn was renamed RNZAF Station Wigram, a name adopted by the suburb which grew up around the airfield. It is the site of the present Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum, a trickle of new-build Bristol Fighters and other new types joined the NZPAF in the late 1920s and early 1930s. A Lewis gun-equipped De Havilland Gipsy Moth floatplane took part in operations against rebels in Samoa. The NZPAFs first action came in 1930 when the Moth dropped a bomb made out of a treacle tin on to a ship suspected of gun-running
Monarchy of Australia
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nations sovereign. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia and she is represented in Australia by the governor-general, in accordance with the Australian constitution and letters patent from the Queen. In each of the states, the monarch is represented by a governor, the Australian monarch, besides reigning in Australia, separately serves as monarch for each of 15 other Commonwealth nations known as realms. This developed from the colonial relationship between these countries and the United Kingdom, but they are now independent of each other and are legally distinct. Likewise, on all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the ministers of the Crown of that state, the British government is thus considered a foreign power in regard to Australias domestic and foreign affairs. The sovereigns Australian title is currently Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth.
Typically, the monarch is styled King or Queen of Australia and is addressed as such when in Australia or performing duties on behalf of Australia abroad, prior to 1953, the title had simply been the same as that in the United Kingdom. Australia, wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned as well, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time, separately mentioned Australia and the other Commonwealth realms. The passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the Parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law, Queen Elizabeth II signed her assent at Government House, Canberra, on 19 October 1973. Australia does not pay any money to the Queen, either for personal income or to support the royal residences outside Australia, only when the Queen is in Australia does the Australian government support her in the performance of her duties. This rule applies equally to members of the Royal Family. Succession is according to British laws that have incorporated into Australian law.
By adhering to the Statute of Westminster in 1942, Australia agreed to change its rules of only in agreement with the UK. Parallel proclamations are made by the governors in each state, regardless of any proclamations, the late sovereigns heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. After an individual ascends the throne, he or she continues to reign until death. The legal personality of a component of the Australian state is expressed by reference to the sovereign. In criminal prosecutions, the state as a party is named as The Queen—for instance. However, the prosecutors themselves are referred to as representing the Crown, more commonly and conveniently, the entity is referred to directly—for example, as The Commonwealth or The State of New South Wales or simply New South Wales
A Royal Mews is a mews of the British Royal Family. In London the Royal Mews has occupied two sites, formerly at Charing Cross, and since the 1820s at Buckingham Palace. The site is open to the public much of the year. The first set of stables to be referred to as a mews was at Charing Cross at the end of The Strand. The royal hawks were kept at this site from 1377 and the name derives from the fact that they were confined there at moulting time, the building was destroyed by fire in 1534 and rebuilt as a stables, keeping its former name when it acquired this new function. On old maps, such as the Woodcut map of London of the early 1560s, the Mews can be seen extending back towards the site of todays Leicester Square. This building was known as the Kings Mews, but was sometimes referred to as the Royal Mews. It was rebuilt again in 1732 to the designs of William Kent, the present Royal Mews is in the grounds of Buckingham Palace, to the south of Buckingham Palace Gardens, near Grosvenor Place.
However, when his son George IV had Buckingham Palace converted into the royal residence in the 1820s the whole stables establishment was moved. The old Mews at Charing Cross was demolished and Trafalgar Square was built on the site, the current Royal Mews was built to designs by John Nash and were completed in 1825. The buildings have been modified extensively since, the Royal Mews is regularly open to the public. The state coaches and other carriages are kept there, along with about 30 horses, together with their modern counterparts, grooms and other staff are accommodated in flats above the carriage houses and stables. A few of the carriages stored at the Mews are pictured here in action, vehicles in the care of the Royal Mews are listed below. A good number are on display though not all are kept in London. Most are in use, and some are driven on a daily basis. Others are only used on great and rare State occasions, the horses in the Royal Mews today are for the most part either Windsor Greys or Cleveland Bays, though this has not always been the case.
The horses are regularly exercised in the art of pulling carriages, they are used for competitive, the manure that is produced by the horses is used by the adjacent garden at Buckingham Palace. The maintenance and provision of modern motor vehicles is as much a part of the work of the Royal Mews as that of carriages and horses, the State and semi-state Cars are all painted in claret and black, the five State Cars are without number plates