Equity (law)

In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law, developed in the English Court of Chancery and, now administered concurrently with the common law. For much of its history, the English common law was principally developed and administered in the central royal courts: the Court of King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Exchequer. Equity was the name given to the law, administered in the Court of Chancery; the Judicature Reforms in the 1870s effected a procedural fusion of the two bodies of law, ending their institutional separation. The reforms did not effect any substantive fusion, however. Judicial or academic reasoning which assumes the contrary has been described as a "fusion fallacy". Jurisdictions which have inherited the common law system differ in their current treatment of equity. Over the course of the twentieth century some common law systems began to place less emphasis on the historical or institutional origin of substantive legal rules. In England, New Zealand, Canada, equity remains a distinct body of law.

Modern equity includes, among other things: The law relating to express and constructive trusts. The latter part of the twentieth century saw increased debate over the utility of treating equity as a separate body of law; these debates were labelled the "fusion wars". A particular flashpoint in this debate centred on the concept of unjust enrichment and whether areas of law traditionally regarded as equitable could be rationalised as part of a single body of law known as the law of unjust enrichment. After the Norman Conquest of England in the 11th century, royal justice came to be administered in three central courts: the Court of King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Exchequer; the common law developed in these royal courts. To commence litigation in these royal courts, it was necessary to fit one's claim within a form of action; the plaintiff would purchase a writ in the Chancery, the head of, the Lord Chancellor. If the law provided no remedy, litigants could sometimes appeal directly to the King.

The King would delegate resolution of these petitions to the King's Council. These petitions were delegated to the Lord Chancellor himself. In the early history of the United States, common law was viewed as a birthright. Both the individual states and the federal government supported common law after the American Revolution. U. S. courts draw on decisions of English courts, individual state courts, federal courts in formulating common law. By the 14th century it appears that Chancery was operating as a court, affording remedies for which the strict procedures of the common law worked injustice or provided no remedy to a deserving plaintiff. Chancellors had theological and clerical training and were well versed in Roman law and canon law. By the 15th century the judicial power of Chancery was recognised. Equity, as a body of rules, varied from Chancellor until the end of the 16th century. After the end of the 17th century, only lawyers were appointed to the office of Chancellor. Over time, Equity developed a system of precedent much like its common-law cousin.

One area in which the Court of Chancery assumed a vital role was the enforcement of uses, a role that the rigid framework of land law could not accommodate. This role gave rise to the basic distinction between equitable interests, it was early provided that, in seeking to remove one who wrongfully entered another's land with force and arms, a person could allege disseisin and demand a writ of entry. That writ gave him the written right to re-enter his own land and established this right under the protection of the Crown if need be, hence its value. In 1253, to prevent judges from inventing new writs, Parliament provided in the Provisions of Oxford that the power to issue writs would thereafter be transferred to judges only one writ at a time, in a "writ for right" package known as a form of action. However, because it was limited to enumerated writs for enumerated rights and wrongs, the writ system sometimes produced unjust results, thus though the King's Bench might have jurisdiction over a case and might have the power to issue the perfect writ, the plaintiff might still not have a case if there was not a single form of action combining them.

Therefore, lacking a legal remedy, the plaintiff's only option would be petitioning the King. People began petitioning the King for relief against unfair judgments of the common law courts; as the number of petitioners grew, the King delegated the task of hearing petitions to the Lord Chancellor, the Keeper of the King's Conscience. Since the early Chancellors lacked formal legal training and showed little regard for precedent, their decisions were widely diverse. In 1529, a lawyer, Sir Thomas More, was appointed as Chancellor. After this time, all future Chancellors were lawyers. Beginning around 1557, records of proceedings in the Courts of Chancery were kept and several equitable doctrines developed. Chancery continued to be the subject of extensive criticism, the most famous of, 17th-century jurist John Selden's aphorism:Equity is a roguish thing: for law we have a measure, know what to trust to.

Marshal (Brazil)

Marshal is the highest rank in both the Brazilian Army and the Brazilian Air Force, although the latter is titled Marechal-do-Ar. These ranks are equivalent to that of Admiral in the Navy. A marshal is distinguished by using five stars, which for a marshal of the air are in the approximate position of Southern Cross and for a marshal in the army, in the form of "X"; the five stars of Admiral are in the shape of a pentagon. Until the structural reform of 1967 in the Brazilian Army, army generals, when moving to the reserve, were awarded the fifth star automatically. With the reform, it was established that there would be only the promotion of a general to marshal in the event of war, thus extinguishing the rank of marshal within the army in times of peace; those dubbed as marshals prior to such reform, would still bear such titles for the reminder of their lives. The last living Brazilian Army marshal, Marshal Waldemar Levy Cardoso, died in May 2009. During the days of the Imperial Period, the patent, regarding the Army, was named "marshal of the army", having been renamed to its shorter current counterpart with the advent of the Republic after 1889.

Although a large number of marshals existed within Brazilian ranks in the second half of the 20th century as mentioned above, the last active marshal in the Brazilian Army was Marshal Mascarenhas de Morais, holding the position of commander of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, a special Corps assembled to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre of World War II. Marshal Mascarenhas de Morais would bear said position and title for the reminder of his life as a result of a decree by the National Congress which dubbed the position and title honorary lifetime in the form of active troops; some Marshals became President of Brazil, notably in the years following the establishment of the Republic in 1889 and between the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état and the re-establishment of democracy in 1984/1985. Worthy mentions would be Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca and Floriano Peixoto and Marshals Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco and Artur da Costa e Silva; this category comprises articles about marshal of the Armed Forces of Brazil.

There have been 66 Marshals. Although all international conflicts that Brazil participated occurred during the Imperial Era few military officers achieved the distinct rank: Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias Manuel Antônio da Fonseca Costa, Marquis of Gávea Francisco Xavier Calmon Cabral da Silva, Baron of Itapagipe Manuel Luís Osório, Marquis of Erval José Antônio Correia da Câmara, Viscount of Pelotas Francisco José de Sousa Soares de Andréa, Baron of Caçapava Gaston d´Orléans, Count of Eu Ademar de Queirós Aguinaldo Caiado de Castro Aires Antônio de Morais Âncora Alexandre Gomes de Argolo Ferrão Alexandre Zacharias de Assumpção Ângelo Mendes de Morais Antônio Enéias Gustavo Galvão Antônio Henrique Cardim Armando Figueira Trompowsky de Almeida Bento Manuel Ribeiro Cândido José da Costa Cândido Rondon Carlos Antônio Napion Carlos Frederico Lecor Carlos Machado Bittencourt Casimiro Montenegro Filho Cordeiro de Farias Artur da Costa e Silva Deodoro da Fonseca Eduardo Gomes Eurico Gaspar Dutra Floriano Peixoto Francisco Arruda Câmara Frederico Augusto de Mesquita Francisco Carlos da Luz Francisco das Chagas Santos Francisco José de Sousa Soares de Andréa Francisco Marcelino de Sousa Aguiar Francisco de Paula Magessi Tavares de Carvalho Guilherme Xavier de Sousa Hastinfilo de Moura Henrique Batista Duffles Teixeira Lott Hermes Ernesto da Fonseca Hermes da Fonseca Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco João Batista do Rego Barros Cavalcanti de Albuquerque João Carlos Augusto de Oyenhausen-Gravenburg João de Deus Mena Barreto João Frederico Caldwell João de Segadas Viana João de Sousa da Fonseca Costa João Tomás de Cantuária João Vieira de Carvalho Joaquim de Oliveira Álvares Joaquim Xavier Curado José Bernardino Bormann José Egídio Gordilho de Barbuda Filho José de Oliveira Barbosa José Pessoa José Ribeiro de Sousa Fontes Juarez Távora Júlio Anacleto Falcão da Frota Luís Paulino d'Oliveira Pinto da França Luís Paulino d'Oliveira Pinto da França Garcês Manuel de Almeida Lobo d'Eça Manuel Antônio da Fonseca Costa Manuel Jorge Rodrigues João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais Odílio Denys Pedro de Alcântara Bellegarde Raimundo José da Cunha Matos Rufino Enéias Gustavo Galvão Salustiano Jerônimo dos Reis Salvador José Maciel Sebastião Barreto Pereira Pinto Tomás Joaquim Pereira Valente Waldemar Levy Cardoso

Comunidad Cristiana Agua Viva

Comunidad Cristiana Agua Viva is a charismatic evangelical megachurch, in Lima, Peru. As of 2017, it has seven locations in the Lima Province. Agua Viva was founded in 1985 by Peter Mirta. In 2007, Sergio Hornung and Carla became senior pastors. In 2008, the church bought a stadium with 18,000 seats. In 2020, the Church had 42,000 people; the beliefs of the church are identified as part of Evangelical Christianity part of the charismatic movement. Lima District Lurigancho-Chosica Lince District Los Olivos District San Juan de Lurigancho San Juan de Miraflores Villa María del Triunfo List of the largest evangelical churches List of the largest evangelical church auditoriums Worship service - Official Website