Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, sheep, horses and pigs. "Fodder" refers to food given to the animals, rather than that which they forage for themselves. Fodder is called provender and includes hay, silage and pelleted feeds and mixed rations, sprouted grains and legumes. Most animal feed is from plants, but some manufacturers add ingredients to processed feeds that are of animal origin; the worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million tons of feed in 2011, fast approaching 1 billion tonnes according to the International Feed Industry Federation, with an annual growth rate of about 2%. The use of agricultural land to grow feed rather than human food can be controversial. In many cases the production of grass for cattle fodder is a valuable intercrop between crops for human consumption, because it builds the organic matter in the soil; some agricultural byproducts fed to animals may be considered unsavory by human consumers.
Alfalfa Barley Birdsfoot trefoil Brassica spp. Kale Rapeseed Rutabaga Turnip Clover Alsike clover Red clover Subterranean clover White clover Grass Bermuda grass Brome False oat grass Fescue Heath grass Meadow grasses Orchard grass Ryegrass Timothy-grass Corn Millet Oats Sorghum Soybeans Trees Wheat Conserved forage plants: hay and silage Compound feed and premixes called pellets, nuts or cake Crop residues: stover, straw, sugar beet waste Fish meal Freshly cut grass and other forage plants Meat and bone meal Molasses Oligosaccharides Seaweed Seeds and grains, either whole or prepared by crushing, etc. Sprouted grains and legumes Yeast extract Native green grass Bran Concentrate mix Oilseed press cake Green maize Green sorghum Horse gram Leaves from certain species of trees Grass/lawn clipping waste In the past, bovine spongiform encephalopathy spread through the inclusion of ruminant meat and bone meal in cattle feed due to prion contamination; this practice is now banned in most countries.
Some animals have a lower tolerance for spoiled or moldy fodder than others, certain types of molds, toxins, or poisonous weeds inadvertently mixed into a feed source may cause economic losses due to sickness or death of the animals. The US Dept. of Health and Human Services regulates drugs of the Veterinary Feed Directive type that can be present within commercial livestock feed. Fodder in the form of sprouted cereal grains such as barley, legumes can be grown in small and large quantities. Hydroponic systems can grow up to tons of sprouts to each day. Sprouted grains can increase the nutritional value of the grain compared with feeding the ungerminated grain to stock. In addition, they use less water than traditional forage. Under hydroponic conditions, sprouted fodder at 150 mm tall with a 50 mm root mat is at its peak for animal feed. Although products such are barley are grain, when sprouted they are approved by the American Grassfed Association to be used as livestock feed. Cannon fodder Factory farming Feed manufacturing Forage Grain Pasture Karl Heinrich Ritthausen Die Eiweisskörper der Getreidearten, Hülsenfrüchte und Ölsamen.
Beiträge zur Physiologie der Samen der Kulturgewachese, der Nahrungs- und Futtermitel, Bonn, 1872 from Google books. Zhou, Yiqin. Compar Fresh or Ensiled Fodders on the Production of Greenhouse Gases Following Enteric Fermentation in Beef Cattle. Rouyn-Noranda, Qué.: Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 2011. N. B.: Research report. UK Food Standards Agency, Animal feed legislation and guidance FAO Feed Safety guidelines Fodder Plants at Agriculture Guide An article from Agriculture Guide
In plant taxonomy, commelinids is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms. The commelinids are the only clade; the remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Known as the commelinid monocots it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots. Members of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV-fluorescent ferulic acid; the commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan, who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them as a subclass to Liliopsida. The name was used in the 1981 Cronquist system. However, by the release of his 1980 system of classification, Takhtajan had merged this subclass into a larger one, no longer considered to be a clade. In the Takhtajan system treated this as one of six subclasses within the class Liliopsida, it consisted of: subclass Commelinidae superorder Bromelianae order Bromeliales order Velloziales superorder Pontederianae order Philydrales order Pontederiales order Haemodorales superorder Zingiberanae order Musales order Lowiales order Zingiberales order Cannales superorder Commelinanae order Commelinales order Mayacales order Xyridales order Rapateales order Eriocaulales superorder Hydatellanae order Hydatellales superorder Juncanae order Juncales order Cyperales superorder Poanae order Flagellariales order Restionales order Centrolepidales order Poales The Cronquist system treated this as one of four subclasses within the class Liliopsida.
It consisted of: subclass Commelinidae order Commelinales order Eriocaulales order Restionales order Juncales order Cyperales order Hydatellales order Typhales The APG II system does not use formal botanical names above the rank of order. The commelinids now constitute a well-supported clade within the monocots, this clade has been recognized in all four APG classification systems; the commelinids of APG II and APG III contain the same plants as the commelinoids of the earlier APG system. In APG IV the family Dasypogonaceae is no longer directly placed under commelinids but instead a family of order Arecales. Media related to Commelinids at Wikimedia Commons
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods, mollusks and cnidarians; the majority of animal species are invertebrates. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata; some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy; the word "invertebrate" comes from the Latin word vertebra, which means a joint in general, sometimes a joint from the spinal column of a vertebrate. The jointed aspect of vertebra is derived from the concept of turning, expressed in the root verto or vorto, to turn; the prefix in- means "not" or "without". The term invertebrates is not always precise among non-biologists since it does not describe a taxon in the same way that Arthropoda, Vertebrata or Manidae do.
Each of these terms describes a valid taxon, subphylum or family. "Invertebrata" is a term of convenience, not a taxon. The Vertebrata as a subphylum comprises such a small proportion of the Metazoa that to speak of the kingdom Animalia in terms of "Vertebrata" and "Invertebrata" has limited practicality. In the more formal taxonomy of Animalia other attributes that logically should precede the presence or absence of the vertebral column in constructing a cladogram, for example, the presence of a notochord; that would at least circumscribe the Chordata. However the notochord would be a less fundamental criterion than aspects of embryological development and symmetry or bauplan. Despite this, the concept of invertebrates as a taxon of animals has persisted for over a century among the laity, within the zoological community and in its literature it remains in use as a term of convenience for animals that are not members of the Vertebrata; the following text reflects earlier scientific understanding of the term and of those animals which have constituted it.
According to this understanding, invertebrates do not possess a skeleton of bone, either internal or external. They include hugely varied body plans. Many have like jellyfish or worms. Others have outer shells like those of insects and crustaceans; the most familiar invertebrates include the Protozoa, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Arthropoda. Arthropoda include insects and arachnids. By far the largest number of described invertebrate species are insects; the following table lists the number of described extant species for major invertebrate groups as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3. The IUCN estimates that 66,178 extant vertebrate species have been described, which means that over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates; the trait, common to all invertebrates is the absence of a vertebral column: this creates a distinction between invertebrates and vertebrates. The distinction is one of convenience only. Being animals, invertebrates are heterotrophs, require sustenance in the form of the consumption of other organisms.
With a few exceptions, such as the Porifera, invertebrates have bodies composed of differentiated tissues. There is typically a digestive chamber with one or two openings to the exterior; the body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical. A minority, exhibit no symmetry. One example of asymmetric invertebrates includes all gastropod species; this is seen in snails and sea snails, which have helical shells. Slugs appear externally symmetrical. Other gastropods develop external asymmetry, such as Glaucus atlanticus that develops asymmetrical cerata as they mature; the origin of gastropod asymmetry is a subject of scientific debate. Other examples of asymmetry are found in hermit crabs, they have one claw much larger than the other. If a male fiddler loses its large claw, it will grow another on the opposite side after moulting. Sessile animals such as sponges are asymmetrical alongside coral colonies. Neurons differ in invertebrates from mammalian cells.
Invertebrates cells fire in response to similar stimuli as mammals, such as tissue trauma, high temperature, or changes in pH. The first invertebrate in which a neuron cell was identified was the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia has been described. Mollusk neurons are able to detect tissue trauma. Neurons have been identified in a wide range of invertebrate species, including annelids, molluscs and arthropods. One type of invertebrate respi
Eragrostis cilianensis is a species of grass known by several common names, including stinkgrass, candy grass, gray lovegrass. This plant is native to much of Eurasia and Africa but it is naturalized elsewhere, including nearly all of North America; this is an annual bunchgrass forming tufts up to about half a meter in height. The stems are erect but may droop or bend; the stems have glandular tissue near the nodes and the long leaves are dotted with glands as well. The plants have a strong scent; the branching inflorescences have one to several spikelets per branch. Each spikelet is greenish brown, sometimes slightly purple-tinted, one half to two centimeters long, it is somewhat lined with 10 to over 40 florets. Media related to Eragrostis cilianensis at Wikimedia Commons Jepson Manual Treatment — Eragrostis cilianensis Eragrostis cilianensis - U. C. Photo gallery
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any