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Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements, it is a lanthanide, a rare earth element found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden, from which it got its name. Erbium's principal uses involve its pink-colored Er3+ ions, which have optical fluorescent properties useful in certain laser applications. Erbium-doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where Er3+ ions are optically pumped at around 980 or 1480 nm and radiate light at 1530 nm in stimulated emission; this process results in an unusually mechanically simple laser optical amplifier for signals transmitted by fiber optics. The 1550 nm wavelength is important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength. In addition to optical fiber amplifier-lasers, a large variety of medical applications rely on the erbium ion's 2940 nm emission when lit at another wavelength, absorbed in water in tissues, making its effect superficial.

Such shallow tissue deposition of laser energy is helpful in laser surgery, for the efficient production of steam which produces enamel ablation by common types of dental laser. A trivalent element, pure erbium metal is malleable, soft yet stable in air, does not oxidize as as some other rare-earth metals, its salts are rose-colored, the element has characteristic sharp absorption spectra bands in visible light and near infrared. Otherwise it looks much like the other rare earths, its sesquioxide is called erbia. Erbium's properties are to a degree dictated by the amount of impurities present. Erbium is thought to be able to stimulate metabolism. Erbium is ferromagnetic below 19 K, antiferromagnetic between 19 and 80 K and paramagnetic above 80 K. Erbium can form propeller-shaped atomic clusters Er3N, where the distance between the erbium atoms is 0.35 nm. Those clusters can be isolated by encapsulating them into fullerene molecules, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Erbium metal tarnishes in air and burns to form erbium oxide: 4 Er + 3 O2 → 2 Er2O3Erbium is quite electropositive and reacts with cold water and quite with hot water to form erbium hydroxide: 2 Er + 6 H2O → 2 Er3 + 3 H2 Erbium metal reacts with all the halogens: 2 Er + 3 F2 → 2 ErF3 2 Er + 3 Cl2 → 2 ErCl3 2 Er + 3 Br2 → 2 ErBr3 2 Er + 3 I2 → 2 ErI3 Erbium dissolves in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing hydrated Er ions, which exist as rose red 3+ hydration complexes: 2 Er + 3 H2SO4 → 2 Er3+ + 3 SO2−4 + 3 H2 Naturally occurring erbium is composed of 6 stable isotopes, 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 170Er, with 166Er being the most abundant.

29 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 169Er with a half-life of 9.4 d, 172Er with a half-life of 49.3 h, 160Er with a half-life of 28.58 h, 165Er with a half-life of 10.36 h, 171Er with a half-life of 7.516 h. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 3.5 h, the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 4 minutes. This element has 13 meta states, with the most stable being 167mEr with a half-life of 2.269 s. The isotopes of erbium range in atomic weight from 142.9663 u to 176.9541 u. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 166Er, is electron capture, the primary mode after is beta decay; the primary decay products before 166Er are element 67 isotopes, the primary products after are element 69 isotopes. Erbium was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1843. Mosander was working with a sample of what was thought to be the single metal oxide yttria, derived from the mineral gadolinite, he discovered that the sample contained at least two metal oxides in addition to pure yttria, which he named "erbia" and "terbia" after the village of Ytterby where the gadolinite had been found.

Mosander was not certain of the purity of the oxides and tests confirmed his uncertainty. Not only did the "yttria" contain yttrium and terbium. Erbia and terbia, were confused at this time. A spectroscopist mistakenly switched the names of the two elements during spectroscopy. After 1860, terbia was renamed erbia. Pure Er2O3 was independently isolated in 1905 by Georges Urbain and Charles James. Reasonably pure erbium metal was not produced until 1934 when Wilhelm Klemm and Heinrich Bommer reduced the anhydrous chloride with potassium vapor, it was only in the 1990s that the price for Chinese-derived erbium oxide became low enough for erbium to be considered for use as a colorant in art glass. The concentration of erbium in the Earth crust is about 2.8 mg/kg and in the sea water 0.9 ng/L. This concentration is enough to make erbium about 45th in elemental abundance in the Earth's crust. Like other rare earths, this element is never found as a free element in nature but is found bound in monazite sand ores.

It has been difficult and expensive to separate rare earths from each other in their ores but ion-exchange chromatography methods developed in the late 20th century have greatly


Powerbirds is an American children's animated television series created by Stephen P. Breen, co-created by Jennifer Monier-Williams; the series premiered on January 2020 on Universal Kids. This series is produced by Brown Bag Films; the series follows Max with his pet parakeets and Polly. Max counts on them to keep saving the day; the powerbirds save the city from danger and they stop the main villains: Nibbles, Scrapper and Asher Stasher from the events that Max will be going to so later, Max is excited to visit the events. Ace is a yellow parakeet, he is determined and playful. When he's not fighting bad guys, he loves everything related to superheroes, he's a food loving bird. Polly is a blue parakeet who can turn into a superhero like Ace, she is a silly and creative bird, can think outside of the box to solve problems. She has extra powers like super stretching herself. Max is an imaginative six-year-old who owns Ace, he loves comic superheroes are his thing. He counts on Polly to make sure no danger is around the city when he is away.

Mrs. Lopez is a bookmobile driver. Nibbles is a pooch that ends up becoming a disaster. Clawdette is an orange cat who believes that she is the best ninja, so she tries to get stuff so she can be the best at it. In "Power Meower Saves the Day", she is revealed to be Max’s cat, meaning that She is Ace and Polly’s adoptive sister. Scrapper is a raccoon that likes to try to steal all other people's food his favorite, pizzas. Minerva is an owl. Asher Stasher is a squirrel that tries to collect stuff for his "collection of shiny things"; the series has been picked up for 11 minute episodes. It premiered early on its original network for its first look of the show on January 1, 2020. Universal Pictures has chosen to make a TV series out of Breen's children's books, which are published by Penguin, include Stick, Violet the Pilot and Doug, Unicorn Executions and Skyhorse, the choice was Powerbirds. Universal Kids planned the series in 2017, but with a different style, a different style of the characters, Max, Polly and another character, the Golden Eagle.9 Story Media Group's live-action and animation division co-produced the series with animators from Brown Bag Films.

Universal Kids stated Hollywood Life that "The series promotes underlying positive messages that we can all be our own superhero if we do the right thing.” In 2017, Universal Kids, as Sprout, set a release date for Powerbirds in 2019, but on December 11, 2019, the show was delayed to a 2020 release date instead to January 19, 2020, the show got a first look release on January 1, 2020

Rose McDermott

Rose McDermott is the David and Marianna Fisher University Professor of International Relations at Brown University. She has taught at Cornell, UCSB, Harvard, she is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the recipient of numerous awards and fellowships. She is the author of more than 100 academic articles, 25 book chapters, five books. In November 2016, McDermott gave a TEDx talk entitled'The Genetics of Politics'. In her latest publication "Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution and Politics", she has focused on differentiating between conservatism and liberalism, rather than between democrats and republicans, investigates how conservatives and liberals experience the world differently. Before beginning the research it is recognized that your ideology is the result of processes of socialization and due to your environment, however this doesn't tell the whole story; the relative genetic importance is common in between cultures, however the relative influence from family and environment varies a lot depending on the society and the time.

A part of this research was carried out by having test persons look at different photos, by eye tracking techniques, tracking whay their eyes focused on. This could be related to their political ideology. An example would be that liberals tend to look at emotions - eyes, faces - compassion for a specific person or situation. Whereas conservatives would focus on authorities, a threat etc; the conclusion of this would be, that though looking at the same photo, the persons would have different experiences of the same situation. This is interesting and relevant in regards to politics, because it's possible to track the reaccion and therefore the difference in ideology, but how different people experience different actions by governments, political actions etc. Furthermore, it shows that ideology has a greater personal impact, than just politics, but actually defines certain characteristics and personal values. Other researches carried out was by using human smell - having different test persons smell other people, whether the ideology also had an impact here.

They could conclude that liberals prefer the smell of liberals and conservatives prefer the smell of other conservatives though not knowing the ideology of the person they smelled. An overall conclusion was; that politics not only has to do with the mindset or ideas about societal structures, but rather encarved values, that define how you experience the world. 1991, Ph. D. Stanford University, Political Science 1990, M. A. Stanford University, Political Science 1988, M. A. Stanford University, Experimental Social Psychology 1986, M. A. Columbia University, Political Science 1984, B. A. Stanford University, Political Science, with distinction Monroe, K.. Polygyny: Bad for women, worse for men, disastrous for society: TheDavid Easton Lectures by Rose McDermott. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Bar-Joseph, Uri & McDermott, Rose. IntelligenceSuccesses and Failure: The Human Factor. New York: Oxford University Press. Hatemi, P. & McDermott, R.. Man is by nature a political animal:Evolution and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McDermott, R.. Presidential Leadership and Decision Making. New York: Cambridge University Press. Abdelal, R. Herrera, Y. Johnston, A. I. & McDermott, R.. MeasuringIdentity: A Guide for Social Science Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. McDermott, R.. Political Psychology in International Relations. Ann Arbor, MI:University of Michigan Press. McDermott, R.. Risk-Taking in International Relations: Prospect Theory in Post-WarAmerican Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Furthermore, more than 100 academic articles. To find CV please look at Brown University website: TEDx talk Rose McDermott publications indexed by Google Scholar

Edward Chichester, 1st Viscount Chichester

Edward Chichester, 1st Viscount Chichester of Eggesford in Devon, was Governor of Carrickfergus and Lord High Admiral of Lough Neagh, in Ireland. He was the third son of Sir John Chichester, lord of the manor of Raleigh, in the parish of Pilton, about three quarters of a mile north-east of the historic centre of Barnstaple, by his wife Gertrude Courtenay, a daughter by his second marriage of Sir William III Courtenay "The Great" of Powderham, MP for Devon 1529–1535, a distant cousin of the Earl of Devon, he was thus the younger brother of Arthur Chichester, 1st Baron Chichester of Belfast, founder of Belfast. He was knighted in 1616, after his brother's death in 1625 was in his memory ennobled as Baron Chichester, of Belfast and Viscount Chichester, of Carrickfergus both in the County of Antrim, both in the Peerage of Ireland, he succeeded his brother in his extensive estates as well as in his offices of Governor of Carrickfergus and Lord High Admiral of Lough Neagh. He took his seat in the Irish House of Lords in 1634.

Edward Chichester married twice: Firstly in 1605 to Anne Copleston, the sole daughter and heiress of John Copleston Esq. of Eggesford by his wife Dorothy Biston. They had the following children: 1st Earl of Donegall the eldest son. Col. John Chichester, a Royalist during the Civil War, who married Mary Jones, eldest daughter of Roger Jones, 1st Viscount Ranelagh, an Irish peer and Lord President of Connaught. Lt-Col. Edward Chichester, a Royalist during the Civil War, who married Elisabeth Fisher, 5th daughter of Sir Edward Fisher, the latter who in 1611 had obtained letters patent from King James I for extensive lands in Wexford, from which he ejected the local population by force of arms and formed into the "Manor of Chichester", in 1617 renamed Fisherstown, with his seat at "Fisher's Prospect". Elizabeth Chichester, eldest daughter, wife of Sir William Wrey, 2nd Baronet of Trebeigh, St Ive and North Russell, Devon, MP for Liskeard, Cornwall in 1624, her eldest son was 3rd Baronet, of Trebeigh, MP for Lostwithiel in Cornwall.

Both the 2nd and 3rd Baronets were Royalists during the Civil War. Mary Chichester, younger daughter, who married firstly Thomas Wise of Sydenham in the parish of Marystow and secondly John Harris of Radford. Secondly after 1616 and before 1626, as evidenced by a date stone on Eggesford Barton bearing the inscription: "E. C. M. 1626", to Mary Denham. He died on 8 July 1648 at his manor of Eggesford in Devon, he has a fine alabaster effigy and monument against the north wall of the north aisle in Eggesford Church, Devon, to the immediate west of which stood his manor house, Eggesford House, demolished in 1824. The monument shows recumbent effigies of himself and his first wife with two tablets above inscribed as follows: "Here rest in hope of Resurrection the body of the Right Sr. Edward Chichester knt. Lord Chichester, Barron of Belfast. Viscount Chichester of Carrickfergus, governor of the same &c. and one of His Majesties most hon.ble Privy Counsell for the Kingdome of Ireland, sonne of Sr. John Chichester of Rawleigh knight.

John his second sonne who married Mary, eldest daughter of Roger Viscount Rannelagh and Edward his youngest sonne who married Elisabeth daughter of Sr. Edward Fisher knight. & Barro.ett. Hee departed this life on the 8 and was buried on ye 13 day of July Anno 1648. Shee departed this life on the 8 and was buried on the 11 day of March Anno 1616; this monument was prepared by himself in his lifetime but now erected and finished by the said Arthur Lord Viscount Chichester, Earle of Donegall, January the 11 Anno Domini 1648". On a lunette above the text planned by the deceased himself: "In memory of Edward Lord Viscount Chichester & Dame Anne his wife and in humble acknowledgement of the good providence of God in advancing their house". "Fam'd Arthur Ireland's dreade in armes in peace, Her tutelar genius Bellfast's honour wonne and Anne, blest payre, begott increase, Of lands and heires: Viscount was grafted onn, Next Arthur in God's caus and King's stak't all, And had to's honour added Donnegall".

On the wall to the right above the monument is a black stone tablet inscribed as a memorial to Anne Copleston's parents: "Here lyeth buried ye bodies of John Copleston Esq. & Dorothie his wife daughter to Sr. George Biston of Biston Castel in Chelshere, knight, they had issue Anne their sole daught. & heire, now maryed to Edwarde Chichester Esq. one of ye sonnes of Sr. John Chichester of Rawleigh, knight, in whose memory the said Edwarde Chichester their son in law hath erected this monument in ye yere 1614, she departed ye 29 of July in ye yere 1601 he departed ye 11 of... in ye yere 1606, living together 30 yeres in much peace God & lovinge societie other". Sir George Beeston of Beeston House near Bunbury, Cheshire, acquired Beeston Castle from the Crown shortly before his death, he was a naval captain who commanded HMS Dreadnought a

New London Ledge Light

New London Ledge Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Groton, Connecticut on the Thames River at the mouth of New London harbor. It is owned and maintained by the New London Maritime Society as part of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act program. New London Ledge Lighthouse was built in 1909 on the southwest ledge, it was called the Southwest Ledge light, but this caused confusion with Southwest Ledge Light in New Haven, Connecticut, so it was renamed New London Ledge Light in 1910. The United States Coast Guard took over in 1939 upon its merger with the Lighthouse Service and the light was automated in 1987; the original fourth order Fresnel lens was removed and was put on display in the Custom House Maritime Museum. The light was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. New London Ledge is locally famous for the ghost of an early keeper named Ernie who haunts the lighthouse; the Coast Guard crew on duty at the lighthouse reported unexplained knockings taking place at night, as well as doors opening and closing the television turning on and off by itself sporadically, the unexplained removal of sheets from beds.

An unknown Coast Guard officer wrote the following in the crew's log on the last night before the automated light system was installed: "Rock of slow torture. Ernie's domain. Hell on earth—may New London Ledge’s light shine on forever because I’m through. I will watch it from afar while drinking a brew." In the 1990s, a television reporter from Japan spent a night inside the lighthouse to investigate the story of Ernie. He heard loud whispering noises throughout the night which are audible on camera. Ledge Light was furthermore featured on paranormal reality shows such as Scariest Places on Earth and Ghost Hunters. Investigators from The Atlantic Paranormal Society concluded on Ghost Hunters that there was not enough evidence to determine any paranormal activity taking place at the lighthouse, despite a few unexplained phenomena such as cold spots. W. B. Petty George E. Hansen Howard B. Beebe Leonard Fuller Michael Scanlan William Clark List of lighthouses in Connecticut List of lighthouses in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in New London County, Connecticut Historic American Engineering Record No.

CT-172, "New London Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, East of main harbor channel, New London, New London County, CT", 12 photos, 9 data pages, 2 photo caption pages United States Coast Guard

Jilin Self-Defence Army

The Jilin Self-Defence Army was an anti-Japanese volunteer army formed to defend local Chinese residents against the Japanese invasion of northeast China. General Ting Chao, Li Du, Feng Zhanhai, Xing Zhanqing, Zhao Yi organised the Jilin Self-Defence Army in order to prevent the fall and occupation of Harbin city, Jilin province; this brought all their forces under a unified command. Calling for civilians to form volunteer units and join in the defense of the city, the army reached a strength of 30,000 men in six brigades of Zhang Xueliangs Northeastern army. Jilin Self-Defense Corps – Commander-in-Chief Li Du Frontline commander-in-chief – Wang Yu Chief of the general staff – Yang Yaojun Chinese Eastern Railroad Defense Army – Commander-in-Chief – Ding Chao 28th Brigade – Ding Chao 22nd Brigade – Zhao Yi 25th Brigade – Ma Xianzhang 26th Brigade – Song Wenjun 29th Brigade – Wang Ruihua Temporary 1st Brigade – Feng Zhanhai 1st Cavalry Brigade – Gong Changhai 2nd Cavalry Brigade – Yao Dianchen Wooded Mountain Guerrilla Force – Song XizengThe defense of Harbin was at first successful and succeeded in repulsing the Manchukuo forces sent against them for a time.

After its initial success, the army was forced out of Harbin when the Japanese sent their own troops under Jiro Tamon. Ting Chao's beaten Jilin Self-Defence Army retired from Harbin and marched to the northeast down the Songhua River, to join the Lower Songhua garrison of General Li Du and together reorganized, swelling its ranks with volunteers to 30,000 men in nine brigades by April 1932, it continued to resist, occupying the towns along the eastern section of the Chinese Eastern Railway, between Harbin and the Soviet border. Feng Zhanhai, former regimental commander of the Jilin Guards Division, retreating from Harbin into the west of Jilin province raised a sizeable independent volunteer force, the Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army estimated by the Japanese as 15,000 men in June 1932. Pacification of Manchukuo Second Sino-Japanese War Coogan, The volunteer armies of Northeast China, History Today.