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Erfurt

Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. Erfurt lies within the wide valley of the Gera river, it is located 100 km south-west of Leipzig, 300 km south-west of Berlin, 400 km north of Munich and 250 km north-east of Frankfurt. Together with a string of neighbouring cities Gotha, Weimar and others, Erfurt forms the central metropolitan corridor of Thuringia called Thüringer Städtekette with over 500,000 inhabitants. Erfurt's old town is one of the best preserved medieval city centres in Germany. Tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke, the Old Synagogue, the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral and Severikirche and Petersberg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe; the city's economy is based on agriculture and microelectronics. Its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for central Europe. Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany as well as the public television children's channel KiKa.

The city is situated on a medieval trade and pilgrims' road network. Modern day Erfurt is a hub for ICE high speed trains and other German and European transport networks. Erfurt was first mentioned in 742. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically, it became the economic centre of the region and it was a member of the Hanseatic League, it was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire, became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt was part of the German Democratic Republic; the University of Erfurt was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established within the geographic area which constitutes modern-day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the main modern campus on what was a teachers' training college. Martin Luther was its most famous student, studying there from 1501 before entering St Augustine's Monastery in 1505. Other noted Erfurters include the medieval philosopher and mystic Meister Eckhart, the Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel and the sociologist Max Weber.

Erfurt is an old Germanic settlement. The earliest evidence of human settlement dates from the prehistoric era; the Melchendorf dig in the southern city part showed a settlement from the neolithic period. The Thuringii inhabited the Erfurt area ca. 480 and gave their name to Thuringia ca. 500. The town is first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt": in that year, Saint Boniface wrote to Pope Zachary to inform him that he had established three dioceses in central Germany, one of them "in a place called Erphesfurt, which for a long time has been inhabited by pagan natives." All three dioceses were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt was brought into the diocese of Mainz. That the place was populous is borne out by archeological evidence, which includes 23 graves and six horse burials from the sixth and seventh centuries. Throughout the Middle Ages, Erfurt was an important trading town because of its location, near a ford across the Gera river. Together with the other five Thuringian woad towns of Gotha, Tennstedt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade, which made those cities wealthy.

Erfurt was the junction of important trade routes: the Via Regia was one of the most used east–west roads between France and Russia and another route in the north–south direction was the connection between the Baltic Sea ports and the potent upper Italian city-states like Venice and Milan. During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt; the German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz collected taxes from the people. Around 1100, some people became free citizens by paying the annual "Freizins", which marks a first step in becoming an independent city. During the 12th century, as a sign of more and more independence, the citizens built a city wall around Erfurt. After 1200, independence was fulfilled and a city council was founded in 1217. In the following decades, the council bought a city-owned territory around Erfurt which consisted at its height of nearly 100 villages and castles and another small town.

Erfurt became an important regional power between the Landgraviate of Thuringia around, the Electorate of Mainz to the west and the Electorate of Saxony to the east. Between 1306 and 1481, Erfurt was allied with the two other major Thuringian cities in the Thuringian City Alliance and the three cities joined the Hanseatic League together in 1430. A peak in economic development was reached in the 15th century, when the city had a population of 20,000 making it one of the largest in Germany. Between 1432 and 1446, a second and higher city wall was established. In 1483, a first city fortress was built on Cyriaksburg hill in the southwestern part of the town; the Jewish community of Erfurt was founded in the 11th century and became, together with Mainz and Speyer, one of the most influential in Germany. Their Old Synagogue is still extant and a museum today, as is the mikveh at Gera river near

Oliver Parker Fritchle

Oliver Parker Fritchle was an American chemist, storage battery innovator, entrepreneur with electric vehicle and wind power generation businesses during the early twentieth century. His initial battery patent was awarded in 1903 and by 1904 he had established what was to become the Fritchle Automobile & Battery Company in Denver, Colorado, he was an early adaptor and developer of significant automotive technologies, such as regenerative braking and hybrid drivetrains, that did not reemerge on production vehicles of major car companies until late in the twentieth century. Fritchle achieved national celebrity for his 1908 Lincoln-to-New York endurance run in one of the first electric automobile models produced by his firm, he covered the 1,800 miles in a stock Victoria Phaeton achieving as many as 108 miles between charges through extremes in weather and road conditions. The trip journal and photographs subsequently published to promote The 100 Mile Fritchle Electric provided unique insight to the state of road and electric power infrastructure within the United States during the early twentieth century.

Fritchle was born in Ohio to a family of Ohio natives. His father was a merchant in Holmes County. Fritchle attended local public schools followed by five years at Ohio Wesleyan University and two at Ohio State University where he graduated in 1896 with a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry, he worked as a chemical engineer at the National Steel Company for two years after college. During this time he began experimenting with storage batteries with an interest in improving their suitability for vehicle applications. Around 1899 he relocated to Denver and became chief chemist for the Henry E. Wood Company, an ore analysis concern, he worked there for two years prior to joining the Boston and Colorado Smelting Company of Argo as their chief chemist and assayer. He established the O. P. Fritchle Garage Company in Denver, Colorado shortly after being granted his first battery patent in 1903; the new firm specialized in sales and recharging of electric vehicles, but represented gasoline powered lines such as Hammer.

He began developing and manufacturing better batteries in order to enhance the range and durability of his customers' vehicles, but found automobile technology the more limiting factor after several years of battery improvements. The Fritchle Automobile & Battery Company was established by 1908 to manufacture vehicles of his own design and by 1917 he was qualified as one of the few automotive engineers in Colorado, his first design halved the power consumption, nearly doubling the range, relative to competitors' vehicles. One contribution to this advantage was his successful implementation of what was known as "electric brakes" and more as regenerative brakes; the concept of using the motor to recharge the batteries while slowing an electric vehicle was not new as early as 1908. However, implementing it in automobiles and trucks was still quite tricky with the technology of the period and required development of a proprietary controller. Fritchle produced a number of practical innovations in addition to his battery and vehicle patents, such as one of the first automobile child seats.

The Fritchle Milostat was a clever solution to the problem electric vehicle operators had estimating the driving distance available from their batteries. It was a hydrometer calibrated to display the percentage of charge remaining rather than the normal, but difficult to interpret, specific gravity reading; the Fritchle Automobile products evolved over five years from the carriage-like Phaeton to a broad line of cars and a commercial truck. Models made at various times during more than a decade of production included the Victoria Phaeton, four-passenger coupe, Stanhope runabout, two-passenger torpedo runabout, four-passenger tourer, a luxury five-passenger brougham, a one thousand pound commercial truck. Fritchle took steps to establish a company presence in Washington, D. C. at the end of his 1908 cross-country trip. Additional efforts to expand into the lucrative East Coast market were made in 1912 with the opening of a sales office on Fifth Avenue in New York City and selection of a manufacturing site in Bridgeport, Connecticut as the International Fritchle Company.

However, these did not pan out and Fritchle Automobiles remained a small regional manufacturer through the end of production. Fritchle's initial series of battery and automobile improvements culminated with production of the Victoria Phaeton in 1908, the twentieth anniversary of the electric car in America, his choice of a competitive cross-country endurance run among electric vehicles as a means for promoting the capabilities of his new product was influenced by the positive effect the annual AAA National Reliability Tour, more known as the Glidden Tour, was having on the durability and perceptions of fuel-powered vehicles. Though it had become one of the most prestigious American automobile events, electric vehicles were excluded by the distances of the daily legs which ran well over 100 miles. By September 1908 he had issued a general invitation to all manufacturers of electric automobiles to participate in a trip from Denver to New York City with the challenge "to an endurance run between the above named points at a time in the Fall that will be satisfactory and allow the greatest number of entries possible."The short time for responses, lack of electric service on the western end of the proposed route, poor timing for a trip across northern states cast some doubt as to whether he was actu

Łukawiec, Lubaczów County

Łukawiec is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wielkie Oczy, within Lubaczów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine. It lies 6 kilometres north-west of Wielkie Oczy, 12 km south of Lubaczów, 80 km east of the regional capital Rzeszów. Łukawiec has existed since the XVIth Century. Łukawiec is located in south-eastern Poland. The administrative area of Łukawiec, together with several hamlets, is 35.80 km². Łukawiec is the largest town in the commune. The village is characterized by compact buildings with a chain character. Łukawiec is composed of several parts and hamlets, including Wola, Tarnawskie, Zabuczyna, Zakościół and Zagrobla. The figure of Bolesław Müller - the founder and manager of the local school is associated with Łukawiec, who in August 1939 was mobilized as a reserve officer of the Podhale regiment and fought in the September Campaign, he was arrested and sent to a prisoner-of-war camp in Starobielsk where he shared the fate of Polish officers murdered in the East.

The last message from him came from 1940. He died in Kharkov; the school building in Łukawiec houses a plaque commemorating his merits. Most of the inhabitants are Catholics. Łukawiec parish was separated from the Lubaczów parish on July 1, 1754. Archbishop Mieczysław Mokrzycki, a personal secretary of John Paul II comes from Łukawiec. Roman Catholic Sanctuary of Our Lady is located in the village; the Blessed Virgin Mary Queen of Poland's Church was built in years: 1980-1989. The miraculous Icon of Our Lady of Łukawiec from Tartaków is displayed in the main altar. There is the Chapel of St. John Paul II in the church. Łukawiec is located on the Wooden Architecture Route. Former Greek Catholic church of the Holy Spirit St. Dymitra Martyr, erected in 1701. Rebuilt in 1923. From 1947, unused. In the 1960s, changed to a warehouse. In 1987, damaged by a fire. Renovations with the restoration of the original appearance of the western part were carried out in 1990-1994; the object belongs to a group of traditional wooden churches of the Eastern Church.

Its spatial layout - tripartite plan and single-body shape refers to the oldest wooden churches from the 16th-17th century. Former Roman Catholic Church of Epiphany, built in 1754. According to tradition, the church was transferred from Narola; the church was renewed many times. During the renovation in 1948-1950, the form of a turret for a signature was changed. During the renovation in 1974-1975, the vestibule was extended; the last renovation was carried out in 2007. Belfry hung between two old oaks. Natural monument - pedunculate oak, height: 24 m, trunk circumference: 480 cm at a height of 1.5 m. Nature Reserve "Moczary" in Łukawiec Forestry, created on April 19, 2005, its area is 12.25 ha. Plants protected in the reserve include: nettle garlic, snowdrop snowdrop, eastern Carpathian peas, greenish podkolan, egg-shaped letter, silver crassula, orchid Fucha, snow-corm; the rare plants that occur in the reserve are among others sedge sedge, chervilus glabrata and vaginal cleansing