Jody Vanessa Watley is an American singer, record producer, artist whose music crosses genres including pop, R&B, jazz and electronic soul. In 1987, she won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist and has been nominated for three Grammy awards. In 2008, she was the recipient of a Lifetime Achievement Award from Billboard magazine, was prominently featured in the historic black issue of Vogue Italia in 2008, her early music influences are Diana Ross, Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Michael Jackson, The Jackson 5, The Carpenters, Roberta Flack, Grace Jones and various jazz artists including Nancy Wilson. In December 2016 Billboard ranked her as the 21st most successful dance artist of all-time. and in 2017 Black Music Honors TV special recognized Watley as Crossover Music Icon Honoree for her groundbreaking achievements and influence. In August 2018 Billboard ranked Jody Watley as one of the top female artists of all-time, at number 53. Watley was born in Illinois. Watley made her first stage appearance at 8 years old with family friend and godfather Jackie Wilson.
She got her start on the TV dance show Soul Train at the age of 14. Documented by Ebony magazine in 1977 as a part of "The New Generation," Jody Watley was one of the most popular dancers on the show and recognized as a trendsetter for her style and dance moves; as standouts on the television show and fellow Soul Train dancer Jeffrey Daniel were selected to join Gary Mumford and become original members of the R&B group Shalamar by show creator Don Cornelius.. The lineup of Hewett and Daniel would be the most successful. Watley remained with Shalamar from 1977 to 1983; the trio released several albums and scored several hits including the US Top 20 "Dead Giveaway", the R&B hits "The Second Time Around", "For The Lover In You", "A Night To Remember". Because of conflicts within the group, disagreements about the artistic direction of Shalamar with Dick Griffey, lack of payment from Solar Records, she left the group in 1983, prior to the release of The Look album. Post-Shalamar, Watley moved to England, while there she recorded a guest vocal with British Jamaican roots reggae group Musical Youth for their album, Different Style!.
She recorded with Gary Langan, Anne Dudley and J. J Jeczalik, she had a brief stint with Phonogram Records where two singles were released under the moniker "Jody", "Where the Boys Are" and "Girls Night Out". During this era, after departing the group, she took part in Bob Geldof's Band Aid recording of "Do They Know It's Christmas", which included Bono, Boy George, George Michael, Phil Collins, Status Quo, Paul Weller and other prominent UK artists. After two and a half years in England, Watley returned to America and secured a recording deal with MCA Records, eager to establish her own identity, her debut solo studio album, titled Jody Watley, was released in March 1987, she co-wrote six of the album's nine songs. In an interview with Rolling Stone, Watley would say that she wanted to showcase her voice against "really funky hard dance tracks." The album's lead single, "Looking for a New Love", became a hit and was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. The album peaked at number ten on the US Billboard 200, number one on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, sold 2 million copies in the United States and a total of 4 million copies worldwide.
It produced five uptempo dance and R&B singles that charted on the Billboard Hot 100, with three peaking within the top-ten: "Looking for a New Love". At the 30th Annual Grammy Awards of 1988, Watley won the award for Best New Artist, was nominated for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance; that same year, she received nominations for four MTV Video Music Awards and three Soul Train Awards. After Shalamar she had two singles released under the name of "Jody", without her last name though adverts in UK pop magazine, Smash Hits, mentioned that she was "Formerly of Shalamar"; this "technicality", allowed her controversially to be considered a "New Artist" at the Grammy's, beating Breakfast Club, Cutting Crew, Terence Trent D'Arby and Swing Out Sister. Shortly after winning the Grammy, Watley would be featured in Harper's Bazaar magazine photographed by Francesco Scavullo. In the spring of 1989, Watley released her second studio album, Larger than Life, co-writing eleven of the album’s twelve songs.
The album sold over 4 million copies worldwide, reaching number 16 on the Billboard 200, produced four singles: "Real Love", a Gold-certificated single and her first Top 40 UK single since "Looking for a New Love" in 1987. & Rakim,. The album's fourth and final single, "Precious Love", was a minor hit, peaking at number 87 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Friends" is notable for being the first multi-format hit single to include the formula of a pop star featuring a guest rapper with the custom full 16-bar verses and bridge concept, distinguishable from the rap "Intro" by Melle Mel on Chaka Khan's notable cover of Prince's song "I Feel for You". The successful "Friends" formula would become a mainstay formula in commercial pop music and was added as a
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
William Michael Griffin Jr. better known by his stage name Rakim, is an American rapper. One half of golden age hip hop duo Eric B. & Rakim, he is regarded as one of the most influential and most skilled MCs of all time. Eric B. & Rakim's album Paid in Full was named the greatest hip hop album of all time by MTV in 2006, while Rakim himself was ranked #4 on MTV's list of the Greatest MCs of All Time. Steve Huey of AllMusic stated that "Rakim is near-universally acknowledged as one of the greatest MCs – the greatest – of all time within the hip-hop community." The editors of About.com ranked him #2 on their list of the'Top 50 MCs of Our Time'. Rakim began his career as the emcee of the rap duo Eric B. & Rakim, who in 2011 were nominated for induction into the Roll Hall of Fame. In 2012, The Source ranked him #1 on their list of the "Top 50 Lyricists of All Time." Rakim is the nephew of actress Ruth Brown. He grew up in Wyandanch, New York on Long Island, became involved in the New York City hip hop scene when he was eighteen years old.
Eric B. brought him to Marley Marl's house to record "Eric B. Is President" in 1986. Rakim known as Kid Wizard in 1985, made his first recordings live at Wyandanch High School. Rakim was introduced to the Nation of Islam in 1986, joined The Nation of Gods and Earths, adopted the name Rakim Allah. First meeting in 1985, Eric B. and Rakim went on to release four studio albums before their separation in 1992. The duo were described by journalist Tom Terrell of NPR as "the most influential DJ/MC combo in contemporary pop music period", while the editors of About.com ranked them as No. 4 on their list of the 10 Greatest Hip-Hop Duos of All-Time. They were nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2011, although they did not make the final selection. After Rakim responded to Eric B.'s search for "New York's top MC", Eric B's friend and roommate Marley Marl allowed them to use his home studio. The first track they recorded—"Eric B. Is President"—was released as a single on the independent Zakia Records in 1986.
After Def Jam Recordings founder Russell Simmons heard the single, the duo were signed to Island Records and began recording the album in Manhattan's Power Play Studios in early 1987. On July 7, 1987, the duo released their debut album, Paid in Full, on the Island-subsidiary label 4th & B'way Records; the album peaked at #58 on the Billboard 200 chart and produced five singles: "Eric B. Is President", "I Ain't No Joke", "I Know You Got Soul", "Move the Crowd", "Paid in Full". While its singles attained moderate success, the album performed better on music charts than Eric B. & Rakim's debut album and reached number 22 on the U. S. Billboard Pop Albums chart, it has been certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments in excess of 500,000 copies in the United States. Released during the hip hop's "golden age", Follow the Leader was well received by critics and has since been recognized by music writers as one of the most groundbreaking and influential hip hop albums of all time.
American author William Jelani Cobb wrote of the album's significance, "On the heels of Paid in Full, Eric B. & Rakim delivered a full clip of album titled Follow the Leader in 1988. Featuring a broader spectrum of sounds than the James Brown samples that had defined the initial release, Follow the Leader saw Rakim at his most lyrically fierce, issuing deft and death threats on such tracks as'Microphone Fiend,"Lyrics of Fury,' and the nearly felonious'No Competition.' The release marked the high point in the collaboration between the two and prefaced the long slide they faced in the 1990s." Let the Rhythm Hit'Em, released in 1990, was Eric B. & Rakim's third album. This album saw the duo's sound develop further, with Rakim adopting a deeper, more aggressive tone of voice, as well as more mature and serious subject matter. Musically, the production ranges from smoother soulful tracks such as "In the Ghetto" to the hard-edged assault of the title track. Though it could not support singles as popular as the duo's previous albums, it is considered by many to be the duo's most coherent album.
It is one. In 1998, the album was selected as one of The Source's 100 Best Rap Albums; the back cover features a dedication to the memories of Rakim's father William and producer Paul C. who had worked on many of the album's tracks before his murder in July 1989. His protégé Large Professor completed his work. Neither receive credit in the album's notes. In 1992, Eric B & Rakim released their fourth and final album, Don't Sweat the Technique; the title track was a minor radio hit. "Casualties of War" was released as a single. "Know the Ledge" first appeared in the film Juice under the title "Juice". However, Eric B. refused to sign MCA's release contract, fearful. This led to a long, complicated court battle involving the two musicians and MCA; the legal wrangling led to the duo dissolving completely. After his breakup with Eric B. in early 1993, Rakim kept a low profile, only making one notable appearance on the soundtrack to the 1993 film Gunmen. A reshuffling in MCA caused Rakim to be dropped from the label in 1994.
As Rakim continued to struggle with legal problems, he secured a deal with Universal Records and began recording his solo debut album The 18th Letter in 1996. In November 1997, the album The 18th Letter was released. Expectations were high for Rakim, as the album debuted at #4 on the Billboard 200 and went certified Gold by the RIAA. In June 1999, Rakim appeared on three tracks of "The Seduction of Claude Debussy" by Art of Noise. AllMusi
Golden age hip hop
Golden age hip hop is a name given to mainstream hip hop music created in the mid/late 1980s and early 1990s by artists and musicians originating from the New York metropolitan area. It is characterized by its diversity, quality and influence on hip hop after the genre's emergence and establishment in the previous decade. There were various types of subject matter, while the music was experimental and the sampling from old records was eclectic; the artists most associated with the period are LL Cool J, Slick Rick, Ultramagnetic MC's, the Jungle Brothers, Run–D. M. C. Public Enemy, Beastie Boys, KRS-One, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul, Big Daddy Kane, EPMD, A Tribe Called Quest. Releases by these acts co-existed in this period with, were as commercially viable as, those of early gangsta rap artists such as Ice-T, Geto Boys and N. W. A, the sex raps of 2 Live Crew and Too Short, party-oriented music by acts such as Kid'n Play, The Fat Boys, DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince and MC Hammer; the golden age is noted for its innovation – a time "when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre," according to Rolling Stone.
Referring to "hip-hop in its golden age", Spin's editor-in-chief Sia Michel said, "there were so many important, groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time", MTV's Sway Calloway added: "The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived. Everything was still being discovered and everything was still innovative and new". Writer William Jelani Cobb said, "what made the era they inaugurated worthy of the term golden was the sheer number of stylistic innovations that came into existence... in these golden years, a critical mass of mic prodigies were creating themselves and their art form at the same time". The term "Golden age hip hop" frames the late 1980s in mainstream hip hop, said to be characterized by its diversity, quality and influence, associated with Public Enemy, KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. & Rakim, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, the Jungle Brothers due to their themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, their experimental music, their eclectic sampling.
This same period is sometimes referred to as "mid-school" or a "middle school" in hip hop, the phrase covering acts such as Gang Starr, The UMC's, Main Source, Lord Finesse, EPMD, Just Ice, True Mathematics, Mantronix. The innovations of Run-D. M. C. LL Cool J, new school producers such as Larry Smith, Rick Rubin of Def Jam Recordings, were advanced on by the Beastie Boys, Marley Marl and his Juice Crew MCs, Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim. Hip hop production became denser and beats faster, as the drum machine was augmented with the sampler technology. Rakim took lyrics about the art of rapping to new heights, while KRS-One and Chuck D pushed "message rap" towards black activism. Native Tongues artists' inclusive, sample-crowded music accompanied their positivity and playful energy. With the eventual commercial dominance of West Coast gangsta rap the emergence of the relaxed sounds of G-funk by the early nineties, the East Coast new school/golden age can be said to have ended, with hardcore rappers such as the Wu-Tang Clan and gangsta rappers such as Nas and The Notorious B.
I. G. Coming to dominate the East Coast scene. During the golden age of hip hop, samples were used; the ability to sample different beats and patterns from a wide variety of sources gave birth to a new breed of producers and DJs who did not need formal musical training or instruments, just a good ear for sound collages. These samples were derived from a number of genres, ranging from jazz and soul to rock and roll. For example, Paul's Boutique, the Beastie Boys' second studio album, drew from over 200 individual samples, 24 of which were featured on the last track of the album. Samples and sound bites were not limited to just music. RZA of the Wu-Tang Clan, a hip hop collective formed in the 1990s, sampled sound clips from his own collection of 1970s kung-fu films to bolster and frame the group's gritty lyrical content. Many of the sample-laden albums released during this time would not be able to receive legal clearance today; the era provided some of the greatest advances in rapping technique.
Kool G Rap, referring to the golden age in the book How to Rap said, "that era bred rappers like a Big Daddy Kane, a KRS-One, a Rakim, a Chuck D... their rapping capability and ability – these dudes were phenomenal". Many of hip hop's biggest artists were at their creative peak. Allmusic said the golden age "witnessed the best recordings from some of the biggest rappers in the genre's history... overwhelmingly based in New York City, golden age rap is characterized by skeletal beats, samples cribbed from hard rock or soul tracks, tough dis raps... rhymers like PE's Chuck D, Big Daddy Kane, KRS-One, LL Cool J invented the complex wordplay and lyrical kung-fu of hip-hop". In addition to lyrical self-glorification, hip hop was used as a form of social protest. Lyrical content from the era drew attention to a variety of social issues including Afrocentric living, drug use and violence, culture, the state of the American economy, the modern man's struggle. Conscious and political hip hop tracks of the time were a response to the effects of American capitalism and former President Reagan's conservative political economy.
According to Rose Tricia, "In rap, relationships between black cultural practice and economic conditions, technology and racial politics, the institution policing of the popular terrain are complex and in constant motion. Though hip hop was used as a mechanism for dif
The Five-Percent Nation, sometimes referred to as the Nation of Gods and Earths or the Five Percenters, is a movement founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, by Clarence Edward Smith, a former member of the Nation of Islam who took the name Clarence 13X, came to be known as Allah the Father. Allah the Father, a former student of Malcolm X, left the NOI after a dispute with Elijah Muhammad over Elijah's teaching that the white man was the devil, yet not teaching that the black man was God. Allah the Father rejected the assertion that Nation's light-skinned founder, Wallace Fard Muhammad, was Allah and instead taught that the black man was himself God personified. Members of the group call themselves Allah's Five Percenters, which reflects their concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, those elites and their agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the New York City areas of Harlem and Brooklyn were named after notable Islamic cities by members of the organization.
Other areas include Detroit, New Jersey, Queens, Connecticut, St. Louis, New Rochelle, Dallas; the Nation of Gods and Earths teaches that black people are the original people of the planet Earth, therefore they are the fathers and mothers of civilization. The Nation teaches that Supreme Mathematics and Supreme Alphabet, a set of principles created by Allah the Father, is the key to understanding humankind's relationship to the universe; the Nation does not believe in a God but instead teaches that the Asiatic Blackman is God and his proper name is Allah, the Arabic word for "God". The Nation of Gods and Earths was founded by Allah the Father after he left the Nation of Islam's Temple Number Seven in Harlem, New York. Multiple stories exist as to why the father and the NOI parted ways: some have him refusing to give up gambling; the story states that Allah the Father was disciplined by the NOI and excommunicated in 1963, but another version of events says that he left on his own free will along with Abu Shahid, who agreed with Allah's questioning of Wallace Fard Muhammad.
That same year Allah met James Howell, a sea merchant, who would become known as Justice, Allah's closest associate until his death. Allah the Father proselytized the streets of Harlem to teach others his views based on his interpretation of NOI teachings. After failing to reach elder adults whom he saw as set in their ways, he found success with street youth. On October 10, 1964, this young group formed the First Nine Born of what became known as the Five Percent Nation, or the Nation of Gods and Earths. Allah the Father taught his Black male students. Allah taught them. In Supreme Mathematics, the Black man is symbolized as "Knowledge." The Black women who came into Allah's growing movement to study along with the males were taught they were symbolic of the planet Earth, because women produce and sustain human existence as does the Earth. Female Five Percenters are referred to as "Wisdom." The Nation of Gods and Earths Supreme Wisdom states: "Wisdom is the Original Woman because life is continued through her cipher."
The NGE does not consider itself a religion—its position is that it makes no sense to be religious or to worship or deify anyone or anything outside of oneself because adherents, are the highest power in the known universe, both collectively and individually. Allah the Father developed a curriculum of eight lessons that included the Supreme Alphabets and Mathematics, which he devised, as well as lessons from developed by the Nation of Islam's Elijah Muhammad and Wallace Fard Muhammad; the eight lessons were taught in the order which follows: Supreme Mathematics Supreme Alphabets Student Enrollment English Lesson C-1 Lost-Found Muslim Lesson #1 Lost Found Muslim Lesson #2 Actual Facts Solar Facts Each Five Percenter was required to "master" each lesson and was expected to be able to "think and reason by forming profound relationships between the lessons and significant experiences within life." Five Percenters were required to share what they had learned with others, thereby recruit new members.
The FBI opened a file on the Five Percenters in 1965, the height of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements in America. In “Disturbance by Group Called ‘Five Percenters,’” the FBI refers to the organization as a “loosely knight group of Negro youth gangs.... These particular gangs emanate from New York City Public School Number 120, a junior high school...” The FBI file stated that the organization’s name meant, “The five percent of the Muslims who smoke and drink.” 1965 New York newspaper articles referred to the Five Percenters to as a “gang,” “hoodlums,” and “terror group.” Allah the Father and the Five Percenters "had a reputation for being unreachable, anti-white criminals." With the goal of preventing New York from having a race riot or uprising, New York Mayor John V. Lindsay sent Barry Gottehrer, the head of the mayor's Urban Task Force, to meet with the organization the FBI
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. In its forms, it is called a gramophone or, since the 1940s, a record player; the sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones; the phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound, his phonograph recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder.
A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, predominantly used in many languages. Improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, the sound and equalization systems; the disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the 1980s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined due to the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc, other digital recording formats. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists, have undergone a revival in the 2010s.
The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl. Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world. In more modern usage, the playback device is called a "turntable", "record player", or "record changer"; when used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are colloquially called "decks". In electric phonographs, the motions of the stylus are converted into an analogous electrical signal by a transducer converted back into sound by a loudspeaker; the term phonograph was derived from the Greek words φωνή and γραφή. The similar related terms gramophone and graphophone have similar root meanings; the roots were familiar from existing 19th-century words such as photograph and telephone. The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonography, which referred to a system of phonetic shorthand. Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording, involving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.
In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes different machines. "Talking machine" had earlier been used to refer to complicated devices which produced a crude imitation of speech, by simulating the workings of the vocal cords and lips – a potential source of confusion both and now. In British English, "gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc records, which were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in 1910 an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term. The term "phonograph" was restricted to machines that used cylinder records. "Gramophone" referred to a wind-up machine. After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, EPs, the common name became "record player" or "turntable".
The home record player was part of a system that included a radio and might play audiotape cassettes. From about 1960, such a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" or a "stereo". In American English, "phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder
In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. Other countries have similar awards. Certification is not automatic; the audit is conducted against net shipments after returns, which includes albums sold directly to retailers and one-stops, direct-to-consumer sales and other outlets. A Gold record is album that managed to sell 500,000 units; the award was launched in 1958. In 1975, the additional requirement of 500,000 units sold was added for Gold albums. Reflecting growth in record sales, the Platinum award was added in 1976, for albums able to sell one million units, singles selling two million units; the Multi-Platinum award was introduced in 1984, signifying multiple Platinum levels of albums and singles. In 1989, the sales thresholds for singles were reduced to 500,000 for Gold and 1,000,000 for Platinum, reflecting a decrease in sales of singles. In 1992, RIAA began counting each disc in a multi-disc set as one unit toward certification.
Reflecting additional growth in music sales, the Diamond award was instituted in 1999 for albums or singles selling ten million units. Because of these changes in criteria, the sales level associated with a particular award depends on when the award was made. Nielsen SoundScan figures are not used in RIAA certification. Prior to Nielsen SoundScan, RIAA certification was the only audited and verifiable system for tracking music sales in the U. S.. This system has allowed, at times, for record labels to promote an album as Gold or Platinum based on large shipments. For instance, in 1978 the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band soundtrack shipped Platinum but was a sales bust, with two million returns. All four solo albums by the members of Kiss shipped Platinum that same year but did not reach the top 20 of the Billboard 200 album chart; the following year, the RIAA began requiring 120 days from the release date before recordings were eligible for certification, although that requirement has been reduced over the years and stands at 30 days.
Sony was criticized in 1995 for hyping Michael Jackson's double album HIStory as five times Platinum, based on shipments of 2.5 million and using the RIAA's adopted practice of counting each disc toward certification, while SoundScan was reporting only 1.3 million copies sold. A similar discrepancy between shipments and sales was reported with The Lion King soundtrack. 500,000 units: Gold album 1,000,000 units: Platinum album 2,000,000+ units: Multi-Platinum album 10,000,000 units: Diamond albumFor further information, see Music recording sales certification. Multi-disc albums are counted once for each disc within the album if it is over 100 minutes in length or is from the vinyl era. For example, The Smashing Pumpkins's Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness and OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below, both double albums, were counted twice, meaning each album was certified diamond after 5 million copies were shipped. Pink Floyd's The Wall and The Beatles' White Album, both vinyl-era, are counted double though their running times are under the minimum requirement.
Rules may not apply depending on most recent staff within the Distributions position. Since 2000, the RIAA awards Los Premios de Oro y De Platino to Latin albums which are defined by the RIAA as a type of product that features at least 51% of content in Spanish; as of December 20, 2013, the award levels for Latin certifications are: 30,000 units: Disco de Oro 60,000 units: Disco de Platino 120,000 units: Disco de Multi-Platino 600,000 units: Disco de DiamanteFor certifications made before December 20, 2013, the award levels are: 50,000 units: Disco de Oro 100,000 units: Disco de Platino 200,000 units: Disco de Multi-Platino 1,000,000 units: Disco de DiamanteNote: The number of sales required to qualify for Oro and Platino awards was higher prior to January 1, 2008. The thresholds were 200,000 units. All Spanish-language albums certified prior to 2008 were updated to match the current certification at the time. "La Bomba" by Bolivian group Azul Azul is the only single to receive a Latin certification based on shipments before the creation of the Latin digital singles awards in 2013.
The Disco de Diamante award was introduced after the RIAA updated the thresholds for Latin certifications in December 20, 2013. The Disco de Diamante is awarded to Latin albums. Standard singles are certified: Gold when it ships 500,000 copies Platinum when it ships 1,000,000 copies Multi-Platinum when it ships at least 2,000,000 copiesNote: The number of sales required to qualify for Gold and Platinum discs was higher prior to January 1, 1989; the thresholds were 1,000,000 units and 2,000,000 units. Digital singles are certified: Gold means 500,000 certification units Platinum means 1,000,000 certification units Multi-Platinum means 2,000,000+ certification unitsFrom 2004 through July 2006, the certification level was 100,000 downloads for