The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dianne Mary Holum is a retired American speed skater. In 1966, Holum became the youngest person to compete in the world speed skating championships. Next year she won bronze at the World Allround Championships. At the age of 16, Holum earned a silver medal in the 500 meter race at the 1968 Winter Olympics, finishing in a three way tie for second place. Holum added a bronze medal in the 1000 meter event. At the 1972 Winter Olympics, Holum won a gold medal in the 1500 meter event, setting an Olympic record in the process. After finishing sixth in the 1000 meter race, Holum ended her Olympic career by winning a silver medal on the 3000 meters. After winning bronze once more at the World Allround Championships that same year, Holum retired from speed skating, only 20 years old; the following year, she began her career as a coach, helping put a 14-year-old Eric Heiden on the road to the 1980 Winter Olympics, where he won five gold medals. She coached Eric's sister Beth Heiden. At the 1976 Olympics, she became the first female coach to a female speed skater.
For her achievements as a speed skater, Holum was inducted in the National Speedskating Hall of Fame in 1986. For her achievements as a coach, Holum was inducted in the International Women's Sports Hall of Fame in 1996, she coached her daughter Kirstin Holum, Junior World Allround Champion in 1997 and participated in the 1998 Winter Olympics. Dianne Holum at SkateResults.com Olympic Speed Skating Medalists with Wisconsin Ties. Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-08-30
World Allround Speed Skating Championships for Men
The International Skating Union has organised the World Allround Speed Skating Championships for Men since 1893. Unofficial Championships were held in the years 1889–1892. In 1889, three distances had to be skated: 1/2 mile — 1 mile — 2 miles. In the years 1890–1892, four distances had to be skated: 1/2 mile — 1 mile — 2 miles — 5 miles. Since 1893, four distances have to be skated: 500 m — 1,500 m — 5,000 m — 10,000 m. In 1889, one could only win the World Championships by winning all three distances. If no one won all three distances, no winner would be declared. Silver and bronze medals were not awarded. In the years 1890–1907, one could only win the World Championships by winning at least three of the four distances, so there would be no World Champion if no skater won at least three distances. Silver and bronze medals were never awarded. In the years 1908–1925, ranking points were awarded; the rule that a skater winning at least three distances was automatically World Champion was still in effect, though, so the ranking could be affected by that.
Silver and bronze medals were awarded now as well. In the years 1926–1927, the ranking points on each distance were percentage points, calculated from a skater's time and the current world record time. Apart from that, the system used was the same as in the preceding years. Since 1928, the samalog system has been in use. However, the rule that a skater winning at least three distances was automatically World Champion remained in effect until 1986, it was abolished as a result of three-distance-winner Rolf Falk-Larssen having a worse samalog score than silver medal winner Tomas Gustafson in 1983. Sven Kramer has won a total of nine world championships, in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Before Kramer, Clas Thunberg and Oscar Mathisen held the record with five world championships. Kramer has won four consecutive world championships, in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. Boldface denotes highest medal count among all skaters per type. World Allround Speed Skating Championships for Women
SportsCentury is an ESPN biography program that reviews the people and athletic events that defined sports in North America throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Using stock footage, on-camera interviews, photographs of their athletic lives, who grew up. In 1999, ESPN counted down the Top 50 Athletes of the 20th Century, selected from North American athletes and voted on by a panel of sports journalists and observers, premiering a new biography highlighting each top athlete every week throughout the year; the episodes for the top two athletes, Michael Jordan and Babe Ruth, appeared on a special combined edition broadcast on Christmas Day on ABC. The top two names were announced in no particular order, the final positioning was announced at the conclusion of the two episodes. An additional list of numbers 51-100 were announced on the ESPN SportsCentury website. Themed specials such as Greatest Games, Greatest Coaches, Greatest Dynasties, Most Influential Individuals were premiered throughout the year, as well as six SportsCenter of the Decade programs.
After the initial run was complete, the episodes were rerun at various times on ESPN, ESPN2 and ESPN Classic. The original plan for the series was to expand to include #51 through #100; the series featured just over half of the athletes from #51 to #100, instead expanded to include over 150 other athletes, owners and notable moments in sports history. Acknowledgements were given to athletes that were notable for more recent accomplishments if they spent only a small part of their career in the 20th century, or were deceased. Special subsets of episodes were created revolving around a particular event, including athletes associated with the particular sport, they would air in the days leading up to those events. ESPN Classic began to feature the program with host, Chris Fowler, as the highlight of its weeknight prime-time programing, airing five nights a week. After cycling through the entire series several times, after debuting several new episodes, it was removed as a nightly program; as of 2007, reruns of the documentary series airs Monday through Friday at 4 p.m. Eastern time.
The last original program was that of Shaquille O'Neal, which aired in November 2007. The final order of choices led to debate. Bob Costas, one of the series' voters, said, "I had Babe Ruth as my number one, but I think the list they came up with was a good one. Everybody more or less deserved to be there." ESPN writer Bud Morgan conceded that the Secretariat pick "was kind of controversial because a lot of people took the attitude'What is a four-legged animal doing on this list?'" Tony Kornheiser, whose ballot was topped by Ruth, Muhammad Ali and Michael Jordan, said, "I can't conceive of how Ruth didn't finish number one. He had the greatest impact of anybody on a sport by far... Michael Jordan didn't have as many championships as Bill Russell and didn't score as many points as Wilt Chamberlain, didn't do anything to advance his sport, so maybe in retrospect I upgraded him a bit too much because the way he performed was so spectacular, because of television I got to see highlights, they may have overpersuaded a lot of us...
Did Jim Thorpe get the praise he deserved? Not, because there weren't enough people old enough to remember him." ESPN anchor Charley Steiner said "I think picking number one was a generational decision, not a historical one. Babe Ruth deserved it more."The list was North American-centric. Only one athlete in the Top 100 list, Martina Navratilova, was born outside of the United States or Canada. Australian cricketer Donald Bradman, "considered by many to be the pre-eminent sportsman of all time" was omitted. Bradman scored a lifetime average far in excess of average - 4.4 standard deviations above the mean, compared to Jordan's inferior 3.4 - leading to the statement that "no other athlete dominates an international sport to the extent that Bradman does cricket". No soccer player was included in the rankings despite it being the world's most popular sport. Baseball player Ty Cobb, appearing at 20 on the list ranked objectively above Jordan on the same ground. SportsCentury won a Peabody Award in 1999 "for overall excellence in sports broadcasting."
1972 Olympic Men's Basketball Final 1977 British Open Game 5 of the 1997 NBA Finals Ball Four Epic in Miami New York Yankees Jerry's Cowboys Bears 46 defense Villanova vs. Georgetown Disciples of Jackie Robinson 1999 Ryder Cup "Greatest Games" was a top ten countdown of the best games/matches voted on from a wide variety of team and individual sports. "The Greatest Game Ever Played" –: Baltimore Colts vs. New York Giants The Shot Heard'Round the World – Bobby Thomson's home run Super Bowl III – New York Jets defeat Baltimore Colts Miracle on Ice – U. S. A defeats U. S. S. R. "Thrilla in Manila" – Muhammad Ali vs. Joe Frazier "Ice Bowl" – Green Bay vs. Dallas Game 6 of the 1975 World Series – Carlton Fisk's home run Tiger Woods wins the Masters Willis Reed and Knicks beat Lakers in Game 7 Borg-McEnroe Wimbledon thriller "Greatest Coaches" was a top ten countdown of the best coaches voted on from a wide variety of team sports Tony Wrubel Matt Giannini John Wooden Red Auerbach Dean Smith Phil Jackson John McGraw George Halas Don Shula Paul Brown Knute Rockne New York Yankees Boston Celtics Montréal Canadiens John Wooden's UCLA Bruins (1960s and
Bislett Stadium is a sports stadium in Oslo, Norway. Bislett is Norway's most well known sports arena internationally, with 15 speed skating world records and more than 50 track and field world records having been set here; the original stadium was demolished in 2004 and construction of a new stadium was completed by the summer of 2005. The New Bislett Stadium was designed by C. F. Møller Architects. Bislett Stadium lies on the site of a 19th-century brick works, bought by the Municipality of Kristiania in 1898, turned into a sports field in 1908; the merchant, speed skater and sports organizer Martinus Lørdahl was instrumental in facilitating the construction of the first bleachers, begun in 1917 and completed in 1922 along with the new club house. One of the squares outside the stadium is named Martinus Lørdahl's Square, in his honour. Bislett became Norway's main arena for speed skating and track and field in 1940 when the architect Frode Rinnan's new functionalistic stadium was completed, with a capacity of 20,000.
Rinnan was responsible for the renovation of the stadium for the 1952 Winter Olympic Games in Oslo. At those games, the stadium hosted the speed skating events. Bislett has hosted the Bislett Games since 1965, an annual track and field event in the IAAF Golden League; the venue hosted the Norwegian Athletics Championships 18 times, in 1926–29, 1931–36, 1938–39, 1947, 1949, 1951–52, 1955 and 2006. Bislett's career as a speed skating venue ended in 1988, when it was decided that ice production would discontinue though the stadium did not meet international requirements for any other sport; the stadium was becoming run down and dangerous, but it would take more than decade of debate and at times harsh bickering before the city council decided that Bislett was to be demolished and rebuilt. The matter of whether or not Bislett would continue to host speed skating events provided tensions between the various parties involved, leaving nostalgics bitterly disappointed when it turned out not to be so.
Speed skating has become an indoor sport and providing the famous record breaking ice would no longer be possible if the stadium was to be optimized for athletics and football. The old Bislett was appreciated for its architecture and its atmosphere, not to mention its illustrious record history, it was then a fitting gesture that the new stadium was built in record breaking time – construction lasted only ten months; the new stadium designed by Danish architecture practice C. F. Møller Architects was inaugurated with the Bislett Games on 29 July 2005; the New Bislett Stadium meets international requirements for field events. The running track now has eight lanes with a 37,5 m turning radius; the track has received a 1st class certification by the IAAF, shared by only a handful other stadiums in Northern Europe. In addition, there is an indoor running track beneath the stands for warming up and for indoor workouts during the winter, the construction of an underground sports hall is under consideration.
The new turning radius has provided space for a 105 x 68 m football pitch, the stadium meets national requirements for hosting football matches in the Norwegian Premier League. The World Speed Skating Championships were held at Bislett for the first time in 1925, but it was not until 1940 that Bislett became the main venue for speed skating in Oslo. Since one unofficial World Championship event right before the start of World War II and 11 more official World Championships have been held here, from 1947 to 1983. Bislett has hosted ten European Championships, with the last one being held in 1986. Norwegian speed skaters Hjalmar Andersen, Knut Johannesen, Fred Anton Maier and Kay Stenshjemmet have all become European Champions at Bislett; the largest speed skating event at Bislett was that of the 1952 Olympics. Hjalmar Andersen won three gold medals. Despite its low-lying altitude, Bislett was on many occasions able to provide ice of a high quality, resulting in ten single distance world records and five overall world records.
In 1963, Knut Johannesen broke Boris Shilkov's eight-year-old 5000 m world record from Medeo, with the time 7:37.8. Jonny Nilsson improved the record by around four seconds during the World Championships in 1965. Fred Anton Maier was able to set a 10000 m world record here twice, in 1966 and in 1968. Bislett has seen an additional two 10000 m records, both times the record was snatched back from Medeo. Sten Stensen set a time of 14:50.31 during the European Championships in 1976. Tomas Gustafson's 14:23.59 from 1982 was Bislett's final speed skating world record. The European Championships in 1986 proved to be the last major speed skating event at Bislett, as ice production was halted two years later; when bandy was a demonstration sport at the 1952 Winter Olympics, one match was played at Bislett. National finals used to be played. Football has been played at Bislett since the early days of the sports field, the first international game was played here in 1913, between Norway and Sweden. At this time there were no bleachers, but the match still drew a crowd of 10,000.
The match ended in a 1–1 draw. Bislett was Vålerenga I. F.'s home ground for 55 seasons. The club's attendance record was set here in 1962 and was not beaten until 2004; the club won its first four league championships while playing at Bislett, which earned the nickname "Leikegrinda". After years of neglect by the authorities the stadium was in such bad shape that from the middle of the 90s Vålerenga were no
Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland. Alkmaar is well known for its traditional cheese market. For tourists, it is a popular cultural destination; the earliest mention of the name Alkmaar is in a 10th-century document. As the village grew into a town, it was granted city rights in 1254; the oldest part of Alkmaar lies on an ancient sand bank that afforded some protection from inundation during medieval times. So, it is only a couple of metres above the surrounding region, which consists of some of the oldest polders in existence. Older spellings include Alckmar. In 1573 the city underwent a siege by Spanish forces under the leadership of Don Fadrique, son of the Duke of Alva; the citizens sent urgent messages for help to the Prince of Orange. Some of his dispatches fell into the hands of Don Fadrique, with the waters beginning to rise, the Spaniards raised the siege and fled, it was a turning point in the Eighty Years War and gave rise to the expression Bij Alkmaar begint de victorie.
The event is still celebrated every year in Alkmaar on 8 October, the day. In 1799, during the French Revolutionary Wars, an Anglo-Russian expeditionary force captured the city but was defeated in the Battle of Castricum. After that battle, on 18 October 1799, the two opposing sides held the Convention of Alkmaar which met to determine the fate of the defeated Anglo-Russian force; the French victory was commemorated on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris as "Alkmaer". The North Holland Canal, opened in 1824, was dug through Alkmaar. In 1865 and 1867 the railways between Alkmaar and Den Helder and between Alkmaar and Haarlem were built respectively. In the second half of the 20th century, Alkmaar expanded with development of new neighbourhoods. On 1 October 1972, the town of Oudorp and the southern portions of Koedijk and Sint Pancras were added to the municipality of Alkmaar; the municipality of Alkmaar consists of the following cities, towns and districts: Alkmaar, Daalmeer, De Hoef, De Horn, De Nollen, Het Rak, Koedijk, Overdie and Omval.
On 1 January 2015 the municipalities of Graft-De Schermer were merged into Alkmaar. The historical village of De Rijp is thus since a part of Alkmaar; these once separate villages are now all linked together by the suburban sprawl of buildings that arose between the late 1970s and early 1990s. During this time, the population of Alkmaar doubled; the municipal council of Alkmaar consists of 39 seats, which are divided as follows after the 2018 elections: PvdA – 4 seats OPA – 6 seats CDA – 4 seats VVD – 6 seats GroenLinks – 6 seats Leefbaar Alkmaar – 2 seats D66 – 4 seats BAS – 2 seats Senior's Party of Alkmaar – 2 seats ChristenUnie - 1 seat Partij voor de Dieren - 2 seats The A9 motorway runs from Amsterdam to Alkmaar continues on to Den Helder as the N9. There are direct trains to Den Helder, Zaandam, Utrecht, Arnhem, Nijmegen,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven and Haarlem. For exact details see Alkmaar railway station. Alkmaar has two railway stations: Alkmaar Alkmaar NoordThe waterway Noordhollandsch Kanaal, which opened in 1824, runs through Alkmaar.
As of 2017. It can be crossed Koedijkervlotbrug and Rekervlotbrug. Alkmaar has many medieval buildings that are still intact, most notably the tall tower of the Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk, where many people from Alkmaar hold their wedding ceremony; the other main attraction in the summer months, is Alkmaar's cheese market at the Waagplein, one of the country's most popular tourist attractions. The cheese market traditionally takes place on the first Friday in April and the last market of the season is the first Friday in September; every Friday morning the Waagplein is the backdrop for this traditional cheese market. After the old-fashioned way of the hand clap and carriers will weigh the cheeses, it is one of only four traditional Dutch cheese markets still in existence. The traditional fare of this cheese market is those cheeses made in the local area, as opposed to the well-known brands of Dutch cheeses, including the Edam and Gouda cheeses, it is not possible to buy cheese at the market itself, only a demonstration of how this merchants' market operated in times gone by.
However, the demonstration, which takes place in front of the medieval weighing house, is surrounded by many specialized stalls where it is possible to buy all kinds of cheese related products. The Waag is home to the local tourist office and a cheese museum. Alkmaar has 399 registered rijksmonuments. Alkmaar has a big cinema. A red light district is situated at the Achterdam, Alkmaar has a nightlife scene as well which takes place in the pubs in front of the cheesemarket; every year, at the end of May Alkmaar hosts the four-day event Alkmaar Pride, which has a canal pride parade on Saturday. Beatles Museum – dedicated to The Beatles, as John Lennon's first guitar was made in Alkmaar Holland Cheese Museum – located in the historic weigh house National Beer Museum "De Boom" Op ArtMuseum City Museum Alkmaar – for history of the city Alkmaar is home to the professional football team AZ. In 2006, the club moved to a new 17,000 capacity stadium, the DSB Stadion, now named the AFAS St
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and