Oriel College, Oxford
Oriel College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England. Located in Oriel Square, the college has the distinction of being the oldest royal foundation in Oxford. In recognition of this royal connection, the college has been known as King's College and King's Hall; the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom is the official Visitor of the College. The original medieval foundation set up by Adam de Brome, under the patronage of Edward II, was called the House or Hall of the Blessed Mary at Oxford; the first design allowed for a Provost and ten Fellows, called'scholars', the College remained a small body of graduate Fellows until the 16th century, when it started to admit undergraduates. During the English Civil War, Oriel played host to high-ranking members of the King's Oxford Parliament; the main site of the College incorporates four medieval halls: Bedel Hall, St Mary Hall, St Martin Hall and Tackley's Inn, the last being the earliest property acquired by the college and the oldest standing medieval hall in Oxford.
The College has about 300 undergraduates and some 250 graduates. Oriel was the last of Oxford's men's colleges to admit women in 1985, after more than six centuries as an all-male institution. Today, the student body has equal numbers of men and women. Oriel's notable alumni include two Nobel laureates. Among Oriel's more notable possessions are a painting by Bernard van Orley and three pieces of medieval silver plate; as of 2018, the college's estimated financial endowment was £81 million. On 24 April 1324, the Rector of the University Church, Adam de Brome, obtained a licence from King Edward II to found a "certain college of scholars studying various disciplines in honour of the Virgin" and to endow it to the value of £30 a year. Brome bought two properties in 1324, Tackley's Hall, on the south side of the High Street, Perilous Hall, on the north side of Broad Street, as an investment, he purchased the advowson of a church in Aberford. Brome's foundation was confirmed in a charter dated 21 January 1326, in which the Crown, represented by the Lord Chancellor, was to exercise the rights of Visitor.
Under Edward's patronage, Brome diverted the revenues of the University Church to his college, which thereafter was responsible for appointing the Vicar and providing four chaplains to celebrate the daily services in the church. The college lost no time in seeking royal favour again after Edward II's deposition, Edward III confirmed his father's favour in February 1327, but the amended statutes with the Bishop of Lincoln as Visitor remained in force. In 1329, the college received by royal grant a large house belonging to the Crown, known as La Oriole, on the site of what is now First Quad, it is from this property that the college acquired its common name, "Oriel". The word referred to oriel window, forming a feature of the earlier property. In the early 1410s several Fellows of Oriel took part in the disturbances accompanying Archbishop Arundel's attempt to stamp out Lollardy in the University. Disregarding the Provost's authority, Oriel's Fellows fought bloody battles with other scholars, killed one of the Chancellor's servants when they attacked his house, were prominent among the group that obstructed the Archbishop and ridiculed his censures.
In 1442, Henry VI sanctioned an arrangement whereby the town was to pay the college £25 a year from the fee farm in exchange for decayed property worth £30 a year, which the college could not afford to keep in repair. The arrangement was cancelled in 1450. In 1643 a general obligation was imposed on Oxford colleges to support the Royalist cause in the English Civil War; the King called for Oriel's plate, all of it was given, the total weighing 29 lb. 0 oz. 5 dwt. of gilt, 52 lb. 7 oz. 14 dwt. of "white" plate. In the same year the College was assessed at £1 of the weekly sum of £40 charged on the colleges and halls for the fortification of the city; when the Oxford Parliament was assembled during the Civil War in 1644, Oriel housed the Executive Committee of the Privy Council, Parliament being held at neighbouring Christ Church. Following the defeat of the Royalist cause, the University was scrutinised by the Parliamentarians, five of the eighteen Oriel Fellows were removed; the Visitors, on their own authority, elected Fellows between 1648 and October 1652, when without reference to the Commissioners, John Washbourne was chosen.
In 1673 James Davenant, a Fellow since 1661, complained to William Fuller Bishop of Lincoln, about Provost Say's conduct in the election of Thomas Twitty to a Fellowship. Bishop Fuller appointed a commission that included Peter Mews. On 1 August Fell reported to the Bishop that: When this Devil of buying and selling is once cast out, your Lordship will, I hope, take care that he return not again, lest he bring seven worse than himself into the house after'tis swept and garnisht. On 24 January 1674, Bishop Fuller issued a decree dealing with the re
Morgan Valentine Spurlock is an American documentary filmmaker, television producer and playwright. Spurlock's films include Super Size Me, Where in the World Is Osama bin Laden?, POM Wonderful Presents: The Greatest Movie Ever Sold, Comic-Con Episode IV: A Fan's Hope, One Direction: This Is Us. He was the executive star of the reality television series 30 Days. In June 2013, Spurlock became producer of the CNN show Morgan Spurlock Inside Man, he is the co-founder of short-film content marketing company Cinelan, which produced the Focus Forward campaign for GE. Morgan Valentine Spurlock was born on November 7, 1970, in Parkersburg, West Virginia, but was raised in Beckley, West Virginia, his parents and Phyllis Spurlock, raised him as a Methodist. He has said he is of English descent. Spurlock was educated at Woodrow Wilson High School, a public high school in the city of Beckley, West Virginia, he graduated with a BFA in film from New York University's Tisch School of the Arts in 1993. He is a member of the fraternity Phi Gamma Delta.
Before making the 2004 Academy Award nominated Super Size Me, Spurlock was a playwright, winning awards for his play The Phoenix at both the New York International Fringe Festival in 1999 and the Route 66 American Playwriting Competition in 2000. He created I Bet You Will for MTV. I Bet You Will began as a popular Internet webcast of five-minute episodes featuring ordinary people doing stunts in exchange for money. Examples include eating a full jar of mayonnaise, eating a "worm burrito", taking shots of corn oil, Pepto-Bismol, lemon juice, hot sauce, cold chicken broth, cod liver oil; the webcast was a success, with over a million hits in the first five days. MTV bought and aired the show, which Spurlock hosted; the list of documentary films that inspired Spurlock includes Brother's Keeper, Hoop Dreams, The Thin Blue Line, Roger and Me, Harlan County USA, The Last Waltz. He considers Brother's Keeper the greatest documentary of all time. Spurlock's docudrama Super Size Me was released in the U.
S. on May 7, 2004. This production was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature and Spurlock won the first Writers Guild of America Award for Best Documentary Screenplay, he conceived the idea for the film when he was at his parents' house for Thanksgiving, while watching TV saw a news story about a lawsuit brought against McDonald's by two teenage girls who blamed the fast food chain for their obesity. The film depicts an experiment he conducted in 2003, in which he ate three McDonald's meals a day every day for 30 days; the film's title derives from one of the rules of Spurlock's experiment: he would not refuse the "super-size" option whenever it was offered to him and would never ask for it himself. The result, according to Spurlock, was a diet with twice the calories recommended by the USDA. Further, Spurlock attempted to curtail his physical activity to better match the exercise habits of the average American, he was of above average fitness when he started the project.
Spurlock's supervising physicians noted the effects caused by his high-calorie diet—once comparing it to a case of severe binge alcoholism. Following Spurlock's December 2017 claim that he hadn't been "sober for more than a week" in three decades, the claims of his liver dysfunction being caused by eating McDonald's food for 30 days have been called into question. After the completion of the project, it took Spurlock fourteen months to return to his normal weight of 185 pounds, his then-girlfriend, Alexandra Jamieson, took charge of his recovery with her "detox diet", which became the basis for her book, The Great American Detox Diet. Spurlock released a sequel film, Super Size Me 2: Holy Chicken!, in 2017, to be distributed by YouTube Red, but was dropped since Spurlock's admission of sexual assault. Spurlock's second feature documentary, Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? Premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2008. In the film, in interviews, Spurlock explores the fight against terrorism and views the argument from both sides, in which he tries to find Osama Bin Laden.
Spurlock directed The Simpsons 20th Anniversary Special – In 3-D! On Ice!. Freakonomics is an adaptation of the book of the same name by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, which premiered in April 2010. Spurlock was at the helm of this project alongside five directors; the one-hour documentary Committed: The Toronto International Film Festival premiered on AMC on 12 October 2010. The Greatest Movie Ever Sold is a 2011 documentary film about product placement and advertising, itself financed through product placement; the Greatest Movie Ever Sold was shown at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2011. It was released in the US in April 2011, it screened in the New Zealand Film Festival in August 2011 together with an appearance by Spurlock to talk about the movie. In mid-2010, Spurlock worked with Buffy the Vampire Slayer creator Joss Whedon, Ain't It Cool News founder Harry Knowles, comic book creator Stan Lee to create the documentary Comic-Con Episode Four: A Fan's Hope, to cover the stories of convention fans.
Whedon and Knowles served as executive producers. Legendary Pictures' Thomas Tull, who independently financed the documentary, told Variety, ""We look forward to captur
Command and Control (book)
Command and Control: Nuclear Weapons, the Damascus Accident, the Illusion of Safety is a 2013 nonfiction book by Eric Schlosser about the history of nuclear weapons systems in the United States. Incidents Schlosser discusses in the book include the 1980 Damascus Titan missile explosion and the 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash. A review in the New York Times described it as a "disquieting but riveting" book and Schlosser as a "better reporter than policy analyst". Speaking of the book, domestic security adviser Lee H. Hamilton said, "The lesson of this powerful and disturbing book is that the world's nuclear arsenals are not as safe as they should be. We should take no comfort in our skill and good fortune in preventing a nuclear catastrophe, but urgently extend our maximum effort to assure that a nuclear weapon does not go off by accident, mistake, or miscalculation." After Words interview with Schlosser on Command and Control, September 27, 2013, C-SPAN
Reefer Madness (2003 book)
Reefer Madness: Sex and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market is a book written by Eric Schlosser and published in 2003. The book is a look at the three pillars of the underground economy of the United States, estimated by Schlosser to be ten percent of U. S. GDP: marijuana, migrant labor, pornography; the book is divided into three chapters: Chapter 1: Reefer Madness, Schlosser argues, based on usage, historical context, consequences, for the decriminalization of marijuana. Chapter 2: In the Strawberry Fields, he explores the exploitation of illegal aliens as cheap labor, arguing that there should be better living arrangements and humane treatment of the illegal aliens the U. S. is exploiting in the fields of California. Chapter 3: An Empire of the Obscene details the history of pornography in U. S. culture, starting with the eventual business magnate Reuben Sturman. Schlosser closes by arguing that such a widespread black market can only undermine the law and is indicative of the discrepancy between accepted mainstream U.
S. culture and its true nature. Adam & Eve Phil Harvey Eric Schlosser speech on The US Underground Economy - Reefer Madness Booknotes interview with Schlosser on Reefer Madness, June 15, 2003 Presentation by Schlosser on Reefer Madness at the Miami Book Fair, November 9, 2003
Incarceration in the United States
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2016 in the US, there were 655 people incarcerated per 100,000 population; this is the US incarceration rate for people tried as adults. In 2016, 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are inmates. This costs the United States government $80 billion dollars a year. Additionally, 4,751,400 adults in 2013 were on parole. In total, 6,899,000 adults were under correctional supervision in 2013 – about 2.8% of adults in the U. S. resident population. In 2014, the total number of persons in the adult correctional systems had fallen to 6,851,000 persons 52,200 fewer offenders than at the year end of 2013 as reported by the BJS. About 1 in 36 adults were under some form of correctional supervision – the lowest rate since 1996.
On average, the correctional population has declined by 1.0% since 2007. In 2016, the total number of persons in U. S. adult correctional systems was an estimated 6,613,500. From 2007 to 2016, the correctional population decreased by an average of 1.2% annually. By the end of 2016 1 in 38 persons in the United States were under correctional supervision. In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013. Although debtor's prisons no longer exist in the United States, residents of some U. S. states can still be incarcerated for debt as of 2016. The Vera Institute of Justice reported in 2015 that majority of those incarcerated in local and county jails are there for minor violations, have been jailed for longer periods of time over the past 30 years because they are unable to pay court-imposed costs. According to a 2014 Human Rights Watch report, "tough-on-crime" laws adopted since the 1980s, have filled U. S. prisons with nonviolent offenders. However, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that, as of the end of 2015, 54% of state prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year were serving time for a violent offense.
Fifteen percent of state prisoners at year-end 2015 had been convicted of a drug offense as their most serious. In comparison, 47% of federal prisoners serving time in September 2016 were convicted of a drug offense; this policy failed to rehabilitate prisoners and many were worse on release than before incarceration. Rehabilitation programs for offenders can be more cost effective than prison. According to a 2015 study by the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration. Conversely, Steven Levitt showed in a 2004 paper that at least 58% of the violent crime drop in the 1990s was due to incarceration. According to a 2016 analysis of federal data by the U. S. Education Department and local spending on incarceration has grown three times as much as spending on public education since 1980. Throughout the 1500s, the people of England considered idleness to be the cause of many crimes, therefore found the solution to be creating workhouses as a system to rehabilitate criminals.
Though many of the first people in the foundation of these "houses of correction" were vagrants without homes. In the 1700s, English philanthropists began to focus on the reform of convicted criminals in prisons, which they believed needed a chance to become morally pure in order to stop or slow crime. Since at least 1740, some of these philosophers began thinking of solitary confinement as a way to create and maintain spiritually clean people in prisons; as English people immigrated to North America, so did these theories of penology. Spanish colonizers brought ideas on confinement. Spanish soldiers in St. Augustine, Florida built the first substantial prison; some of the first structures built in English-settled America were jails, by the 18th century, every English North American county had a jail. These jails served a variety of functions such as a holding place for debtors, prisoners-of-war, political prisoners, those bound in the penal transportation and slavery systems, of those accused-of but not tried for crimes.
Sentences for those convicted of crimes were longer than three months, lasted only a day. Poor citizens were imprisoned for longer than their richer neighbors, as bail was not accepted. In 1841, Dorothea Dix discovered. Prisoners were chained naked. Others, criminally insane, were placed in cellars, or closets, she insisted on changes throughout the rest of her life. While focusing on the insane, her comments resulted in changes for other inmates. In the United States criminal law is a concurrent power. Individuals who violate state laws and/or territorial laws are placed in state or territorial prisons, while those who violate United States federal law are placed in federal prisons operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, an agency of the United States Department of Justice; the BOP houses adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws due to the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of 2004, state prisons proportionately house more violent felons, so state prisons in general gained a more negative reputation compared to federal prisons.
In 2016 90% of prisoners were in state prisons. At senten
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea