Fast Times at Ridgemont High
Fast Times at Ridgemont High is a 1982 American coming-of-age comedy film directed by Amy Heckerling and written by Cameron Crowe, adapted from his 1981 book of the same title. Crowe wrote about his experiences; the film was the directorial debut of Amy Heckerling and chronicles a school year in the lives of sophomores Stacy Hamilton and Mark Ratner, their respective older friends Linda Barrett and Mike Damone, both of whom believe themselves wiser in the ways of romance than their younger counterparts. The ensemble cast of characters form two subplots with Jeff Spicoli, a perpetually stoned surfer, facing off against uptight history teacher Mr. Hand, Stacy's older brother, Brad, a senior who works at a series of entry-level jobs in order to pay off his car, and, pondering ending his two-year relationship with his girlfriend, Lisa. In addition to Penn, Reinhold and Leigh, the film marks early appearances by several actors who became stars, including Nicolas Cage, Forest Whitaker, Eric Stoltz, Anthony Edwards.
Among these actors, Penn and Whitaker would win the Academy Award for Best Actor, with Penn winning twice. In 2005, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Brad Hamilton is a popular senior at Ridgemont High School and looks forward to his final year of school, he has a job at All-American Burger has his 1960 Buick LeSabre paid off, plans to break up with his girlfriend Lisa, so he can be eligible during the year. Brad, however, is fired for yelling at an obnoxious customer; when trying to tell Lisa how much he needs her, she informs Brad that she wants to break up with him to date other guys. Brad gets a job at Captain Hook Fish & Chips, but quits in humiliation when a beautiful, older woman sees him wearing a pirate costume while making a food delivery and laughs at him. Brad's sister Stacy is a virgin, she works at a pizza parlor at Ridgemont Mall alongside her outspoken friend, the popular and sexually active Linda Barrett.
One night at work, Stacy takes an order from Ron Johnson, a 26-year-old stereo salesman who asks her out after she tells him she's 19. She sneaks out of her house to meet him and they have sex in a dugout at a baseball field. Stacy never tells Linda about losing her virginity. Mike Damone, a bit of a smooth-talking know-it-all who earns money taking bets and scalping concert tickets, fancies himself as a sagacious and worldly ladies' man, his shy but amiable best friend, Mark Ratner, works at the movie theater across from the pizza parlor at the mall. When Mark proclaims his love for Stacy to him, Mike lets Mark in on his five secrets for picking up girls. Mike persuades Mark to ask Stacy out on a date to a German restaurant. Afterwards, at her home, Stacy invites Mark into her bedroom, where they look at her photo album together, they begin to kiss. She mistakenly interprets his shyness as lack of interest. Stacy grows interested in Damone and invites him to go swimming in her pool, which leads to them having sex in the pool house.
Brad, has a huge crush on Linda, which gets all the more intense when he returns home and sees her by the pool in a bikini. She, walks in on him in the bathroom masturbating while fantasizing about her, which leaves them both embarrassed. Stacy informs Damone that she is pregnant, tells him she's scheduled an abortion and wants him to pay half of the bill. On the day of her appointment, embarrassed at not having the money for his share of the bill, begins to ignore Stacy, she asks Brad to drive her to a bowling alley to meet friends, but Brad sees Stacy enter the abortion clinic across the street. Brad waits for Stacy and he confronts her about the abortion. Stacy makes; when Stacy tells Linda, Linda becomes furious at Damone and vandalizes his car and school locker as revenge. Mark confronts Damone about the latter being with Stacy and both get into a fight in the boys' locker room, their gym teacher breaks it up. Jeff Spicoli is a carefree stoner and surfer who runs afoul of strict history teacher Mr. Hand, intolerant of Spicoli's disregard of his classroom rules.
One night, Spicoli wrecks the 1979 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 of Ridgemont star football player Charles Jefferson during a joyride with Jefferson's younger brother. Spicoli decides to park the car in front of the school with slurs painted on it written by Ridgemont's rival Lincoln High; when Ridgemont plays Lincoln, Jefferson thrashes several of Lincoln's players and singlehandedly wins the game for Ridgemont. On the evening of the graduation dance, Mr. Hand shows up at Spicoli's house and informs him that since he has wasted eight hours of class time over the past year, Mr. Hand intends to make up for it that night, they have a one-on-one session that lasts until Mr. Hand is satisfied that Spicoli has understood the lesson. In the end and Stacy start dating and Mark and Damone make peace. Brad is promoted to manager after foiling a robbery. Text that appears on the screen in the closing scene tells the news that Spicoli saved Brooke Shields from drowning and spent the reward money hiring Van Halen to play at his birthday party.
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world's largest arts festival, which in 2018 spanned 25 days and featured more than 55,000 performances of 3,548 different shows in 317 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Edinburgh, Scotland, in the month of August, it is an open access performing arts festival, meaning there is no selection committee, anyone may participate, with any type of performance. The official Fringe Programme categorises shows into sections for theatre, dance, physical theatre, cabaret, children's shows, opera, spoken word and events. Comedy is the largest section, making up over one-third of the programme and the one that in modern times has the highest public profile, due in part to the Edinburgh Comedy Awards; the Festival is supported by the Festival Fringe Society, which publishes the programme, sells tickets to all events from a central physical box office and website, offers year-round advice and support to performers.
The Society's permanent location is at the Fringe Shop on the Royal Mile, in August they manage Fringe Central, a separate collection of spaces in Appleton Tower and other University of Edinburgh buildings, dedicated to providing support for Fringe participants during their time at the festival. The Fringe board of directors is drawn from members of the Festival Fringe Society, who are Fringe participants themselves – performers or administrators. Elections are held once a year, in August, Board members serve a term of four years; the Board appoints the Fringe Chief Executive Shona McCarthy who assumed the role in March 2016. The Chief Executive operates under the chair Professor Sir Timothy O'Shea; the Fringe started life when eight theatre companies turned up uninvited to the inaugural Edinburgh International Festival in 1947. With the International Festival using the city's major venues, these companies took over smaller, alternative venues for their productions. Seven performed in Edinburgh, one undertook a version of the medieval morality play "Everyman" in Dunfermline Abbey, about 20 miles north, across the River Forth in Fife.
These groups aimed to take advantage of the large assembled theatre crowds to showcase their own alternative theatre. Although at the time it was not recognised as such, this was the first Edinburgh Festival Fringe; this meant that two defining features of the future Fringe were established at the beginning – the lack of official invitations to perform and the use of unconventional venues. These groups referred to themselves as the "Festival Adjuncts" and were referred to as the "semi-official" festival, it was not until the following year, 1948, that Robert Kemp, a Scottish playwright and journalist, is credited with coining the title "Fringe" when he wrote during the second Edinburgh International Festival: Round the fringe of official Festival drama, there seems to be more private enterprise than before... I am afraid some of us are not going to be at home during the evenings! The word "fringe" had in fact been used in a review of Everyman in 1947, when a critic remarked it was a shame the show was so far out "on the fringe of the Festival".
In 1950, it was still being referred to in similar terms, with a small'f': On the fringe of the official Festival there are many praiseworthy "extras," including presentations by the Scottish Community Drama Association and Edinburgh University Dramatic Society – Dundee Courier, 24 August 1950 The Fringe did not benefit from any official organisation until 1951, when students of the University of Edinburgh set up a drop-in centre in the YMCA, where cheap food and a bed for the night were made available to participating groups. Late night revues, which would become a feature of Fringes, began to appear in the early 50s; the first one was the New Drama Group's After The Show, a series of sketches taking place after Donald Pleasence's Ebb Tide, in 1952. Among the talent to appear in early Fringe revues were Ned Sherrin in 1955, Ken Loach and Dudley Moore with the Oxford Theatre Group in 1958. Due to many reviewers only being able to attend Fringe events late night after the official festival was finished, the Fringe came to be seen as being about revues.
It was a few years. John Menzies compiled a list of shows under the title "Other Events" in their omnibus festival brochure, but it was printer C. J. Cousland, the first to publish a listings guide, in 1954; this was funded by participating companies and was entitled "Additional Entertainments", since the name "Fringe" was still not yet in regular usage. By that year, the Fringe was attracting around a dozen companies, a meeting was held to discuss creating "a small organisation to act as a brain for the Fringe", or what The Scotsman called an "official unofficial festival". A first attempt was made to provide a central booking service in 1955 by students from the university, although it lost money, blamed on those who had not taken part. Formal organisation progressed with the formation of the Festival Fringe Society; the push for such an organisation was led by director of Oxford Theatre Group. A constitution was drawn up, in which the policy of not vetting or censoring shows was set out, the Society produced the first guide to Fringe shows.
Nineteen companies participated in the Fringe in that year. By that time it provided a "complete... counter-festival programme". Not long after came the first complaints that the Fringe had become too big. Director Gerard Slevin claimed in 1961 that "it would be much better if only ten
Helen Elizabeth Hunt is an American actress and screenwriter. She rose to fame portraying Jamie Buchman in the sitcom Mad About You, for which she won three Golden Globe Awards and four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series. Hunt won the Academy Award for Best Actress for starring as Carol Connelly in the romantic comedy As Good as It Gets, while her portrayal of Cheryl Cohen-Greene in The Sessions, garnered her an additional Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress, her other notable films are Twister, Cast Away, What Women Want, Pay It Forward, Soul Surfer and The Miracle Season. Hunt made her directorial film debut with Then She Found Me, has since directed the film Ride and episodes of such television series as House of Lies, This Is Us, Feud: Bette and Joan and American Housewife. Helen Hunt was born in California, her mother, Jane Elizabeth, worked as a photographer, her father, Gordon Hunt, was a film and stage director and acting coach. Her uncle, Peter H. Hunt, is a director.
Her maternal grandmother, Dorothy Fries, was a voice coach. Hunt's paternal grandmother was from a German Jewish family, while Hunt's other grandparents were of English descent, with a Methodist religious background; when she was three, Hunt's family moved to New York City, where her father directed theatre and Hunt attended plays as a child several times a week. Hunt studied ballet, attended UCLA. Hunt began working as a child actress in the 1970s, her early roles included an appearance as Murray Slaughter's daughter on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, alongside Lindsay Wagner in an episode of The Bionic Woman, an appearance in an episode of Ark II called "Omega", a regular role in the television series The Swiss Family Robinson. She appeared as a marijuana-smoking classmate on an episode of The Facts of Life. In 1982, Hunt played a young woman who, while on PCP, jumps out of a second-story window, in a made-for-television film called Desperate Lives, she was cast on the ABC sitcom It Takes Two, which lasted only one season.
In 1983, she starred in Bill: On His Own, with Mickey Rooney and played Tami Maida in the fact-based production Quarterback Princess. She had a recurring role on St. Elsewhere as Clancy Williams, the girlfriend of Dr. Jack "Boomer" Morrison, had a notable guest appearance as a cancer-stricken mother-to-be in a two-part episode of Highway to Heaven. By the mid and late 1980s, Hunt had begun appearing in studio films aimed at a teenage audience, her first major film role was that of a punk rock girl in the sci-fi film Trancers. She played the friend of an army brat in the comedy Girls Just Want to Have Fun, with Sarah Jessica Parker and Shannen Doherty, appeared as the daughter of a woman on the verge of divorce in Francis Ford Coppola's Peggy Sue Got Married, alongside Kathleen Turner. In 1987, Hunt starred with Matthew Broderick in Project X, as a graduate student assigned to care for chimpanzees used in a secret Air Force project. In 1988, she appeared in Stealing Home, as Hope Wyatt, the sister of Billy Wyatt, played by Mark Harmon and a cast featuring Jodie Foster and Harold Ramis.
Next of Kin featured her as the pregnant wife of a respectable lawman, opposite Patrick Swayze and Liam Neeson. In 1990, Hunt appeared with Tracey Ullman and Morgan Freeman in a Wild West version of The Taming of the Shrew, at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park. In 1991, Hunt starred in Trancers II, the direct-to-video sequel to Trancers, played the lead female role in the sitcom My Life and Times, which only aired for 6 episodes, she appeared in “Into the Badlands” with Bruce Dern, Mariel Hemingway and Dylan McDermott. In 1992, she would appear in the drama The Waterdance as a married woman having an affair with a writer. Trancers III, the second sequel of the Trancers series, was among her five film releases in 1992. Hunt came to prominence in North America with the successful sitcom Mad About You, in which she starred opposite Paul Reiser, as a public relations specialist and one half of a couple in NYC, she went on to win Emmy Awards for her performances in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. For the show's final season and Hunt received $1 million per episode.
She directed several episodes of Mad including the series finale. In 1995, Hunt played the wife of an ex-con living in Queens, alongside Nicolas Cage, in Kiss of Death, a loosely based remake of the 1947 film noir classic of the same name. In the disaster action film Twister, Hunt starred with Bill Paxton as storm chasers researching tornadoes. Both actors were temporarily blinded by bright electronic lamps halfway through filming, needed hepatitis shots after shooting in a unsanitary ditch. Twister was the second-highest-grossing film of 1996 domestically, with an estimated 54,688,100 tickets sold in the US, it made US$494.5 million around the globe. Hunt went on to win the Academy Award for Best Actress in the romantic comedy As Good as It Gets, in which she took on the role of a waitress and single mother who finds herself falling in love with a misanthropic obsessive-compulsive romance novelist, played by Jack Nicholson. Hunt and Nicholson got along well during the filming, they c
Michael J. Fox
Michael Andrew Fox, known professionally as Michael J. Fox, is a Canadian-American actor, comedian and film producer with a film and television career spanning from the 1970s, he starred in the Back to the Future trilogy. Other notable roles have included Mike Flaherty on the ABC sitcom Spin City and his portrayal of Alex P. Keaton on the American sitcom Family Ties, he has won five Primetime Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a Grammy Award and two Screen Actors Guild Awards. Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in 1991 at age 29, disclosed his condition to the public in 1998, he retired from acting in 2000 as the symptoms of his disease worsened. He has since become an advocate for research toward finding a cure. Since 1999, Fox has worked as a voice-over actor in films such as Stuart Little and Disney's Atlantis: The Lost Empire. On the CBS TV show The Good Wife, he earned Emmy nominations for three consecutive years for his recurring role as crafty attorney Louis Canning, he has taken recurring guest roles and cameo appearances in Boston Legal, Curb Your Enthusiasm, Rescue Me, Designated Survivor.
He has written 3 books: Lucky Man: A Memoir, Always Looking Up: The Adventures of an Incurable Optimist, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Future: Twists and Turns and Lessons Learned. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2010, he was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame in 2000. Michael Andrew Fox was born on June 9, 1961, in Edmonton, Canada, to Phyllis, an actress/payroll clerk, William Fox, a police officer and Canadian Forces member. Fox's family lived in various towns across Canada because of his father's career, their family moved to Burnaby, a large suburb of Vancouver, British Columbia, when his father retired in 1971. His father died on January 1990, from a heart attack. Fox attended Burnaby Central Secondary School, now has a theatre named for him at Burnaby South Secondary. At age 15, Fox starred in the Canadian television series Leo and Me, produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, in 1979, at age 18, he moved to Los Angeles to further his acting career.
Shortly after his marriage, he decided to move back to Vancouver. Fox is one of four members of the Leo and Me cast and crew who developed Parkinson's disease in mid-life, an unusually high number that led to some investigation as to whether an environmental factor may have played a role. Fox was discovered by producer Ronald Shedlo and made his American television debut in the television film Letters from Frank, credited under the name "Michael Fox." He intended to continue to use the name, but when he registered with the Screen Actors Guild, which requires unique registration names to avoid credit ambiguities, he discovered that Michael Fox, a veteran character actor, was registered under the name. As he explained in his autobiography, Lucky Man: A Memoir and in interviews, he needed to come up with a different name, he did not like the sound of "Michael A. Fox" during a time when "fox" was coming to mean "attractive" and because his middle initial sounded too much like the Canadian "eh?" He didn't like the sound of "Andrew" or "Andy," so he decided to adopt a new middle initial and settled on "J," as a tribute to actor Michael J. Pollard.
Fox's first feature film roles were Midnight Madness and Class of 1984, credited in both as Michael Fox. Shortly afterward, he began playing "Young Republican" Alex P. Keaton in the show Family Ties, which aired on NBC for seven seasons from 1982–89. In an interview with Jimmy Fallon in April 2014, Fox stated he negotiated the role at a payphone at Pioneer Chicken, he received the role. Family Ties had been sold to the television network using the pitch "Hip parents, square kids", with the parents intended to be the main characters. However, the positive reaction to Fox's performance led to his character becoming the focus of the show following the fourth episode. At its peak, the audience for Family Ties drew one-third of America's households every week. Fox won three Emmy awards for Family Ties in 1986, 1987, 1988, he won a Golden Globe Award in 1989. Brandon Tartikoff, one of the show's producers, felt that Fox was too short in relation to the actors playing his parents, tried to have him replaced.
Tartikoff said that "this is not the kind of face you'll find on a lunch-box." After his successes, Fox presented Tartikoff with a custom-made lunch-box with the inscription "To Brandon, this is for you to put your crow in. Love and Kisses, Michael J. Fox." Tartikoff kept the lunch-box in his office for the rest of his NBC career. While filming Family Ties, Fox met his wife, Tracy Pollan, who portrayed his girlfriend, Ellen; when Fox left the TV series Spin City, his final episodes made numerous allusions to Family Ties: Michael Gross portrays Mike Flaherty's therapist, there is a reference to an off-screen character named "Mallory". When Flaherty becomes an environmental lobbyist in Washington, D. C. he meets a conservative senator from Ohio named Alex P. Keaton, in one episode Meredith Baxter played Mike's mother; as a consequence of working in Family Ties, as well as his acting in Teen Wolf and Back to the Future, Fox became a teen idol. VH1's show The Greatest naming him among their "50 Greatest Teen Idols
The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde. First performed on 14 February 1895 at the St James's Theatre in London, it is a farcical comedy in which the protagonists maintain fictitious personæ to escape burdensome social obligations. Working within the social conventions of late Victorian London, the play's major themes are the triviality with which it treats institutions as serious as marriage, the resulting satire of Victorian ways; some contemporary reviews praised the play's humour and the culmination of Wilde's artistic career, while others were cautious about its lack of social messages. Its high farce and witty dialogue have helped make The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde's most enduringly popular play; the successful opening night marked the climax of Wilde's career but heralded his downfall. The Marquess of Queensberry, whose son Lord Alfred Douglas was Wilde's lover, planned to present the writer with a bouquet of rotten vegetables and disrupt the show.
Wilde was tipped off and Queensberry was refused admission. Their feud came to a climax in court, where Wilde's homosexuality was revealed to the Victorian public and he was sentenced to imprisonment. Despite the play's early success, Wilde's notoriety caused the play to be closed after 86 performances. After his release from prison, he published the play from exile in Paris, but he wrote no further comic or dramatic work; the Importance of Being Earnest has been revived many times since its premiere. It has been adapted for the cinema on three occasions. In The Importance of Being Earnest, Dame Edith Evans reprised her celebrated interpretation of Lady Bracknell. After the success of Wilde's plays Lady Windermere's Fan and A Woman of No Importance, Wilde's producers urged him to write further plays. In July 1894, he mooted his idea for The Importance of Being Earnest to George Alexander, the actor-manager of the St James's Theatre. Wilde spent the summer with his family at Worthing, where he wrote the play in August.
His fame now at its peak, he used the working title Lady Lancing to avoid preemptive speculation of its content. Many names and ideas in the play were borrowed from people or places the author had known. Wilde scholars agree the most important influence on the play was W. S. Gilbert's 1877 farce Engaged, from which Wilde borrowed not only several incidents but "the gravity of tone demanded by Gilbert of his actors". Wilde continually revised the text over the next months. No line was left untouched and the revision had significant consequences. Sos Eltis describes Wilde's revisions as refined art at work; the earliest and longest handwritten drafts of the play labour over farcical incidents, broad puns, nonsense dialogue and conventional comic turns. In revising, "Wilde transformed standard nonsense into the more systemic and disconcerting illogicality which characterises Earnest's dialogue". Richard Ellmann argues Wilde had reached his artistic maturity and wrote more and rapidly. Wilde hesitated about submitting the script to Alexander, worrying it might be unsuitable for the St James's Theatre, whose typical repertoire was more serious, explaining it had been written in response to a request for a play "with no real serious interest".
When Henry James's Guy Domville failed, Alexander agreed to put on Wilde’s play. After working with Wilde on stage movements with a toy theatre, Alexander asked the author to shorten the play from four acts to three. Wilde combined elements of the second and third acts; the largest cut was the removal of the character of Mr. Gribsby, a solicitor who comes from London to arrest the profligate "Ernest" for unpaid dining bills; the four-act version is still sometimes performed. Some consider the three-act structure more effective and theatrically resonant than the expanded published edition; the play was first produced at the St James's Theatre on Valentine's Day 1895. It was freezing cold but Wilde arrived dressed in "florid sobriety", wearing a green carnation; the audience, according to one report, "included many members of the great and good, former cabinet ministers and privy councillors, as well as actors, writers and enthusiasts". Allan Aynesworth, who played Algernon Moncrieff, recalled to Hesketh Pearson that "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never remember a greater triumph than first night".
Aynesworth was himself "debonair and stylish", Alexander, who played Jack Worthing, "demure". The cast was: John Worthing, J. P.—George Alexander Algernon Moncrieff—Allan Aynesworth Rev. Canon Chasuble, D. D.—H. H. Vincent Merriman—Frank Dyall Lane—F. Kinsey Peile Lady Bracknell—Rose Leclercq Hon. Gwendolen Fairfax—Irene Vanbrugh Cecily Cardew—Evelyn Millard Miss Prism—Mrs. George CanningeThe Marquess of Queensberry, the father of Wilde's lover Lord Alfred Douglas, had planned to disrupt the play by throwing a bouquet of rotten vegetables at the playwright when he took his bow at the end of the show. Wilde and Alexander learned of the plan, the latter cancelled Queensberry's ticket and arranged for policemen to bar his entrance, he continued harassing Wilde, who launched a private prosecution against the peer for criminal libel, triggering a series of trials ending in Wilde's imprisonment for gross indecency. Alexander tried, unsuccessfully, to save the production by removing Wilde's name from the billing, but t
Back to the Future
Back to the Future is a 1985 American science fiction film directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale. It stars Michael J. Fox as teenager Marty McFly, who accidentally travels back in time to 1955, where he meets his future parents and becomes his mother's romantic interest. Christopher Lloyd portrays the eccentric scientist Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown, inventor of the time-traveling DeLorean, who helps Marty repair history and return to 1985. Zemeckis and Gale wrote the script after Gale wondered whether he would have befriended his father if they had attended school together. Film studios rejected it until the financial success of Zemeckis' Romancing the Stone. Zemeckis approached Steven Spielberg, who agreed to produce the project at Amblin Entertainment, with Universal Pictures as distributor. Fox was the first choice to play Marty, but he was busy filming his television series Family Ties, Eric Stoltz was cast. Back to the Future was released on July 3, 1985 and it grossed over $381 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1985.
It won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film, the Academy Award for Best Sound Effects Editing. It received three Academy Award nominations, five BAFTA nominations, four Golden Globe nominations, including Best Motion Picture. In 2007, the Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry, in June 2008 the American Film Institute's special AFI's 10 Top 10 designated it the 10th-best science fiction film; the film began a franchise including two sequels, Back to the Future Part II and Back to the Future Part III, an animated series, theme park ride, several video games. In 1985 Hill Valley, teenager Marty McFly and his girlfriend, Jennifer Parker, are chastised by the school principal for lateness. Marty is rejected for being too loud. At home, Marty's father George is bullied by his supervisor, Biff Tannen, while his mother Lorraine is an overweight, depressed alcoholic. Lorraine recalls. Marty is invited by his friend, eccentric inventor Dr. Emmett Brown, to meet him in a parking lot in the early hours.
Doc unveils a time machine built from a modified DeLorean and powered by plutonium stolen from terrorists. Preparing to demonstrate the time machine, Doc sets the date to November 5, 1955: the day he conceived a time travel device; the terrorists shoot Doc. Marty inadvertently activates the time machine. Marty finds himself in 1955 without enough plutonium to return, he encounters the teenaged George, bullied by his classmate Biff. After Marty saves George from an oncoming car, he is knocked unconscious and awakens to find himself tended to by Lorraine, infatuated with him. Marty tracks down Doc's younger self for help. With no plutonium, Doc explains that the only power source capable of generating the necessary 1.21 gigawatts of electricity for the time machine is a bolt of lightning. Marty shows Doc a flyer from the future that recounts a lightning strike at the town's courthouse due the coming Saturday night. Doc instructs Marty to not leave his house or interact with anyone, as he could inadvertently alter the future.
When they realize that he has prevented his parents from meeting by saving George from the car, Doc warns Marty that he must find a way to introduce George to Lorraine or he will be erased from existence. Doc formulates a plan to harness the power of the lightning, while Marty sets about introducing his parents. After Lorraine asks Marty to the school dance, Marty concocts a plan: he will feign inappropriate advances on Lorraine, allowing George to "rescue" her; the plan goes awry. George, knocks out Biff, Lorraine accompanies him to the dance floor, where they kiss while Marty performs with the band; as the storm arrives, Marty returns to the clock tower and the lightning strikes, sending Marty back to 1985. Doc has survived the shooting, as he had worn a bullet-proof vest. Doc takes Marty home and departs to the future. Marty awakens the next morning to find that George is a successful author, Lorraine is fit and happy, Biff is now an obsequious auto valet; as Marty reunites with Jennifer, the DeLorean appears with Doc, insisting they accompany him to 2015 to resolve a problem with their future children.
The trio board the DeLorean, upgraded with hover technology, warp to the future. Michael J. Fox as Marty McFly Christopher Lloyd as Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown Lea Thompson as Lorraine Baines-McFly Crispin Glover as George McFly Thomas F. Wilson as Biff Tannen Claudia Wells as Jennifer Parker James Tolkan as Gerald Strickland Marc McClure as Dave McFly Wendie Jo Sperber as Linda McFly Billy Zane as henchman Writer and producer Bob Gale conceived Back to the Future after he visited his parents in St. Louis, Missouri after the release of Used Cars. Searching their basement, Gale found his father's high school yearbook and discovered he was president of his graduating class. Gale had not known the president of his own graduating class, wondered whether he would have been friends with his father if they went to high school together; when he returned to California, Gale told director Robert Zemeckis about the idea. Zemeckis thought of a mother claiming she never kissed a boy at school when, in fact, she had been promiscuous.
The two to
Kicking and Screaming (1995 film)
Kicking and Screaming is a 1995 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Noah Baumbach in his feature directorial debut. It tells of a group of college graduates who refuse to move on with their lives, each in their own peculiar way; the film stars Josh Hamilton, Chris Eigeman, Carlos Jacott, features Eric Stoltz, Olivia d'Abo and Parker Posey. Much of the film was shot at Occidental College. Jason Blum, Baumbach's college roommate, producing a film for the first time, obtained financing after receiving a letter from family acquaintance Steve Martin endorsing the script. Blum attached the letter to copies of the script he sent around Hollywood; the film premiered in 1995 at the New York Film Festival to critical acclaim. Baumbach was chosen as one of Newsweek's "Ten New Faces of 1996"; the film appeared in several "Top Ten" lists, had a lengthy run playing on the Sundance Film Channel. The Criterion Collection DVD was released August 22, 2006 in the U. S. Kicking and Screaming received positive reviews, with many critical assessments describing it as remarkably competent for a directorial and writing debut, expecting that Baumbach would "graduate to better things."
On review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 55% based on 38 reviews, with an average rating of 6.4/10. On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 75 out of 100, based on reviews from 18 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Roger Ebert praised a terrific ear. Reviews mentioned the thin and meandering plot, but most noted this as a facet of the characters' life stage. Janet Maslin of The New York Times stated, "Kicking and Screaming occupies its postage-stamp size terrain with confident comic style."According to Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times, "you begin to wonder why you're bothering to watch the aimless lives of these four unfold... At 25 he may be too close to the material to achieve the detachment from which irony and meaning flow." Kicking and Screaming on IMDb Kicking and Screaming at AllMovie Kicking and Screaming at Rotten Tomatoes Reasons for Kicking and Screaming an essay by Jonathan Rosenbaum at the Criterion Collection