United States Navy SEAL selection and training
The average member of the United States Navy's Sea, Land Teams spends over a year in a series of formal training environments before being awarded the Special Warfare Operator Naval Rating and the Navy Enlisted Classification 0052 Combatant Swimmer or, in the case of commissioned naval officers, the designation 1600 Naval Special Warfare Officer. All Navy SEALs must attend and graduate from their rating's 24-week "A" School known as Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL school, a basic parachutist course and the 26-week SEAL Qualification Training program. All sailors entering the SEAL training pipeline chosen by Naval Special Warfare Command must attend the 6-month SEAL specific Special Operations Tactical Medic course in Stennis, MS and subsequently earn the NEC SO-5393 Naval Special Warfare Medic before joining an operational Team. Once outside the formal schooling environment SEALs entering a new Team at the beginning of an operational rotation can expect 18 months of training interspersed with leave and other time off before each 6-month deployment.
Entering training to become a Navy SEAL is voluntary, officers and enlisted men train side-by-side. To volunteer, SEAL candidates must be between 18 and 29 years old, US citizens in the U. S. Navy. Personnel from foreign armed forces allied with the United States will be invited to take part in BUDS training. For a period of two years, of an initial seven planned, members of the Coast Guard were allowed to attend SEAL training until the exchange program was suspended in 2011. Waivers are available for 17-year-olds with parental permission and on a case-by-case basis for 29- and 30-year-olds. Academically, all applicants must have the equivalent of a high school education, have a composite score of at least 220 on the ASVAB and be proficient in all aspects of the English language. Medically, all potential applicants must have at least 20/75 vision, correctable to 20/20, be able to pass the SEAL Physical Screening Test and have no recent history of drug abuse. Lastly applicants must have "good moral character" as determined by his history of criminal convictions and civil citations.
Since December 2015, women have been eligible to enter the SEAL training pipeline provided they can meet the same acceptance guidelines as men. Women accepted into the program undergo the same training regimen; as of November 2018, one woman has entered the training pipeline but dropped out during the 3-week Indoctrination phase prior to entering BUD/S. The policy is under review. Assignment to BUD/S is conditional on the SEAL Physical Screening Test. Prospective trainees are expected to exceed the minimums; the minimum requirements are 500 yd swim using breast or combat sidestroke in under 12:30 with a competitive time of 9:00 or less, at least 50 push-ups in 2 minutes with a competitive count of 90 or more, at least 50 sit-ups in 2 minutes with a competitive count of 90 or more, at least 10 pull-ups from a dead hang with a competitive count of 18 or more, run 1.5 mi in running shorts and boots in under 10:30 with a competitive time of 9:30 or less. The training curriculum begins at Naval Special Warfare Preparatory School in Illinois.
Here, aspiring SEALs are given a crash course in the physical standards required to attempt to become a SEAL. It starts with the initial Physical Screening Test and ends with a more demanding Physical Screening Test, one that includes a timed four-mile run and a timed 1,000-meter swim; the goal is to increase the SEAL candidates' physical readiness between the two tests so that they are ready to move on to Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL Training. Those unable to pass the final test are removed from the SEAL training pipeline and reclassified into other jobs in the Navy. BUD/S is a 24-week training challenge that develops the SEAL candidates' mental and physical stamina and leadership skills; each BUD/S phase includes timed physical condition tests, with the time requirements becoming more demanding each week. BUD/S consists of a three-week orientation followed by three phases, covering physical conditioning, combat diving, land warfare respectively. Officer and enlisted personnel go through the same training program.
It is designed to develop and test their stamina and ability to work as a team. BUD/S INDOC is a three-week course that introduces candidates to Coronado, the Naval Special Warfare Center and the BUD/S lifestyle. During INDOC, Navy SEAL instructors introduce candidates to BUD/S physical training, the obstacle course and other unique training aspects; this part of training is designed to prepare candidates for day one of the first phase. The first phase of BUD/S assesses SEAL candidates in physical conditioning, water competency and mental tenacity. Physical conditioning utilizes running and calisthenics and grows harder and harder as the weeks progress. Candidates will participate in weekly four mile timed runs in boots and timed obstacle courses, swim distances up to two miles wearing fins in the ocean and learn small boat seamanship; the first two weeks of basic conditioning prepare candidates for the third week known as "Hell Week." During Hell Week, candidates participate in five and a half days of continuous training.
Each candidate sleeps at most four hours during the entire week, runs more than 200 miles, does physical training for more than 20 hours per day. The remaining four weeks involve the acquisition of various methods of conducting hydrographic surveys and creating a hydrographic chart; because of its challenging requirements, many candidates begin questioning their decision to come to BUD/S during First Phase, with a significant number deciding to D
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3
Yankee Stadium is a baseball park located in Concourse, New York City. It is the home field for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball, New York City FC of Major League Soccer; the $2.3 billion stadium, built with $1.2 billion in public subsidies, replaced the original Yankee Stadium in 2009. It is located one block north on the 24-acre former site of Macombs Dam Park; the stadium incorporates replicas of some design elements from the original Yankee Stadium, like its predecessor, it has hosted additional events, including college football games, soccer matches, two outdoor NHL games, concerts. Although Yankee Stadium's construction began in August 2006, the project spanned many years and faced many controversies, including the high public cost and the loss of public parkland; the overall price tag makes the new Yankee Stadium the most expensive stadium built. New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for a new stadium in the early 1980s, just a few years after the remodeled Yankee Stadium opened.
Steinbrenner at the time was considering a move to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in New Jersey. New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean in 1984 authorized the use of land for a new baseball stadium in the Meadowlands, but the state legislature did not provide financing for the stadium. In a statewide referendum in 1987, New Jersey taxpayers rejected $185 million in public financing for a baseball stadium for the Yankees. Despite the rejection from New Jersey, Steinbrenner used a threatened move there as leverage in negotiations with New York City. In 1988, Mayor Ed Koch agreed to have city taxpayers spend $90 million on a second renovation of Yankee Stadium that included luxury boxes and restaurants inside the stadium and parking garages and traffic improvements outside. Steinbrenner agreed in principle, but backed out of the deal. In 1993, Mayor David Dinkins expanded on Koch's proposal by offering his Bronx Center vision for the neighborhood, including new housing, a new courthouse, relocating the Police Academy nearby.
In 1993, New York Governor Mario Cuomo proposed using the West Side Yard, a 30-acre rail yard along the West Side of Manhattan and owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, as the location for a new stadium for the Yankees. However, Cuomo lost his re-election bid a few months later. By 1995, Steinbrenner had rejected 13 proposals to keep the Yankees in the Bronx. In 1998, Bronx Borough President Fernando Ferrer proposed spending $600 million in public money to add dozens of luxury boxes to the stadium, to improve highway and public transportation access, to create a Yankee Village, with shops, a museum. Steinbrenner rejected this as well; that same year, Mayor Rudy Giuliani unveiled a plan to relocate the Yankees to the West Side Yard for a $1 billion stadium. However, with most of the funding coming from taxpayers, Giuliani tabled the proposal, fearing rejection in a citywide referendum; the West Side Stadium plan resurfaced in December 2001, by January 2002, months after the September 11 attacks, Giuliani announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums.
He estimated that both stadiums would cost $2 billion, with city and state taxpayers contributing $1.2 billion. Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement. At the time, Bloomberg said. Bloomberg's blueprint for the stadium was unveiled in 2004, at the same time as the plan for the Mets' new stadium, Citi Field; the final cost for the two stadiums was more than $3.1 billion. Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.
The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street. The community was left without parkland for five years. During construction of the new stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey; the Yankees organization donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and associated with Ted Williams. The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it; these attempts didn't have much effect upon the home team, though: the Yankees went on to win the 2009 World Series at the end of their first MLB season in the new stadium.
The new stadium is meant to evoke elements of the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovati
Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3
Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
The Battle of Mogadishu, or Day of the Rangers, was part of Operation Gothic Serpent. It was fought on 3–4 October 1993, in Mogadishu, between forces of the United States—supported by UNOSOM II—and Somali militiamen loyal to the self-proclaimed president-to-be Mohamed Farrah Aidid; the battle is referred to as the First Battle of Mogadishu, to distinguish it amongst the nine major Battles of Mogadishu during the decades-long Somali Civil War. The initial U. S. Joint Special Operations force, Task Force Ranger, was a collaboration of various elite special forces units from Army Special Operations Command, Air Force Special Operations Command and Navy Special Warfare Command. Task Force Ranger was dispatched to seize two of Aidid's high-echelon lieutenants during a meeting in the city; the goal of the operation was achieved, though conditions spiraled into the deadly Battle of Mogadishu. The initial operation of 3 October 1993, intended to last an hour, became an overnight standoff and rescue operation extending into the daylight hours of 4 October.
Task Force Ranger was created in August 1993, deployed to Somalia. It consisted of various elite special operations units from Army, Air Force and Navy special services: U. S. Army Rangers from Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion 75th Ranger Regiment; as a multi-disciplinary joint special forces operation, Task Force Ranger reported to Joint Special Operations Command, led by Major General William F. Garrison. On 3 October 1993, Task Force Ranger began an operation that involved traveling from their compound on the city's outskirts to the center with the aim of capturing the leaders of the Habr Gidr clan, led by Mohamed Farrah Aidid; the assault force consisted of nineteen aircraft, twelve vehicles, 160 men. The operation was intended to last no longer than one hour. Shortly after the assault began, Somali militia and armed civilian fighters shot down two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters; the subsequent operation to secure and recover the crews of both helicopters extended the initial operation into an overnight standoff and daylight rescue operation on 4 October.
The battle resulted in 18 deaths, 73 wounded and one helicopter pilot captured among the U. S. raid rescue forces. At least one Pakistani soldier and one Malaysian soldier were killed as part of the rescue forces on day two of the battle. American sources estimate between 3,000 Somali casualties, including civilians. During the operation, two U. S. Black Hawk helicopters were shot down by RPGs and three others were damaged; some of the wounded survivors were able to evacuate to the compound, but others remained near the crash sites and were isolated. An urban battle continued throughout the night. Early the next morning, a combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiers, it contained soldiers from the Pakistan Army, the Malaysian Army and the U. S. Army's 10th Mountain Division, they assembled over one hundred vehicles, including Pakistani tanks and Malaysian Condor armored personnel carriers and were supported by U. S. MH-6 Little Bird and MH-60L Black Hawk helicopters; this task force rescued the survivors.
The second crash site had been overrun by hostile Somalis during the night. Delta snipers Gary Gordon and Randy Shughart had volunteered to hold them off until ground forces arrived. A Somali mob with thousands of combatants had overrun the two men; that site's lone surviving American, pilot Michael Durant, had been taken prisoner but was released. The exact number of Somali casualties is unknown, but estimates range from several hundred to well over a thousand militiamen and others killed, with injuries to another 3,000–4,000; the International Committee of the Red Cross estimated that 200 Somali civilians were killed and several hundred wounded in the fighting, with reports that some civilians attacked the Americans. The book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War estimates more than 700 Somali militiamen dead and more than 1,000 wounded, but the Somali National Alliance in a Frontline documentary on American television acknowledged only 133 killed in the whole battle; the Somali casualties were reported in The Washington Post as 814 wounded.
The Pentagon reported five American soldiers were killed, but the toll was 18 American soldiers dead and 73 wounded. Two days a 19th soldier, Delta operator SFC Matt Rierson, was killed in a mortar attack. Among U. N. forces, one Malaysian and one Pakistani died. At the time the battle was the bloodiest involving U. S. troops since the Vietnam War, it remained so until the Second Battle of Fallujah in 2004. On 24 July 1996, Aidid was wounded during a firefight between his militia and forces loyal to former Aidid allies, Ali Mahdi Muhammad and Osman Ali Atto, he suffered a fatal heart attack on 1 August 1996, either during or after surgery to treat his wounds. The following day, General Garrison retired. In January 1991, Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans, precipitating the Somali Civil War; the Somali National Army concurrently disbanded, some former soldiers reconstituted as irregular regional forces or joined the clan militias. The main rebel group in the capital Mogadishu was the United Somali Congress, which divided into two arm
United States Special Operations Command
The United States Special Operations Command is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Component Commands of the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force of the United States Armed Forces. The command is part of the Department of Defense and is the only Unified Combatant Command legislated into being by the U. S. Congress. USSOCOM is headquartered at MacDill Air Force Base in Florida; the idea of an American unified special operations command had its origins in the aftermath of Operation Eagle Claw, the disastrous attempted rescue of hostages at the American embassy in Iran in 1980. The ensuing investigation, chaired by Admiral James L. Holloway III, the retired Chief of Naval Operations, cited lack of command and control and inter-service coordination as significant factors in the failure of the mission. Since its activation on 16 April 1987, U. S. Special Operations Command has participated in many operations, from the 1989 invasion of Panama to the ongoing Global War on Terrorism.
USSOCOM conducts several covert and clandestine missions, such as direct action, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, unconventional warfare, psychological warfare, civil affairs, counter-narcotics operations. Each branch has a Special Operations Command, unique and capable of running its own operations, but when the different special operations forces need to work together for an operation, USSOCOM becomes the joint component command of the operation, instead of a SOC of a specific branch; the unworkable command and control structure of separate U. S. military special operations forces, which led to the failure of Operation Eagle Claw in 1980, highlighted the need within the Department of Defense for reform and reorganization. Since the incident, the Army Chief of Staff, General Edward C. "Shy" Meyer, called for a further restructuring of special operations capabilities helping to create the U. S. Delta Force. Although unsuccessful at the joint level, Meyer went on to consolidate Army SOF units under the new 1st Special Operations Command in 1982, a significant step to improve the U.
S. Army's SOF. By 1983, there was a small but growing sense in the Congress for the need for military reforms. In June, the Senate Armed Services Committee began a two-year-long study of the Defense Department, which included an examination of SOF spearheaded by Senator Barry Goldwater. With concern mounting on Capitol Hill, the Department of Defense created the Joint Special Operations Agency on 1 January 1984; the Joint Special Operations Agency thus did little to improve SOF readiness, capabilities, or policies, therefore was insufficient. Within the Defense Department, there were a few staunch SOF supporters. Noel Koch, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, his deputy, Lynn Rylander, both advocated SOF reforms. At the same time, a few on Capitol Hill were determined to overhaul United States Special Operations Forces, they included Senators Sam Nunn and William Cohen, both members of the Armed Services Committee, Representative Dan Daniel, the chairman of the United States House Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness.
Congressman Daniel had become convinced that the U. S. military establishment was not interested in special operations, that the country's capability in this area was second rate, that SOF operational command and control was an endemic problem. Senators Nunn and Cohen felt that the Department of Defense was not preparing adequately for future threats. Senator Cohen agreed that the U. S. needed a clearer organizational focus and chain of command for special operations to deal with low-intensity conflicts. In October 1985, the Senate Armed Services Committee published the results of its two-year review of the U. S. military structure, entitled "Defense Organization: The Need For Change." Mr. James R. Locher III, the principal author of this study examined past special operations and speculated on the most future threats; this influential document led to the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. By spring 1986, SOF advocates had introduced reform bills in both houses of Congress. On 15 May, Senator Cohen introduced the Senate bill, co-sponsored by Senator Nunn and others, which called for a joint military organization for SOF and the establishment of an office in the Defense Department to ensure adequate funding and policy emphasis for low-intensity conflict and special operations.
Representative Daniel's proposal went further—he wanted a national special operations agency headed by a civilian who would bypass the Joint Chiefs and report directly to the Secretary of Defense. Congress held hearings on the two bills in the summer of 1986. Admiral William J. Crowe Jr. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, led the Pentagon's opposition to the bills, he proposed, as a new Special Operations Forces command led by a three-star general. This proposal was not well received on Capitol Hill—Congress wanted a four-star general in charge to give SOF more clout. A number of retired military officers and others testified in favor of the need for reform. By most accounts, retired Army Major General Richard Scholtes gave the most compelling reasons for change. Scholtes, who commanded the joint special operations task force in Grenada, explained how conventional force leaders misused SOF during the operation, not allowing them to use their unique capabilities, which resulted in high SOF casualties.
After his formal testimony, Scholtes met with a small number of Senators t