The Swedish nobility has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse. The archaic term for nobility, frälse, included the clergy, today the nobility does not maintain its former privileges although family names and coats of arms are still protected. The Swedish nobility consists of introduced and unintroduced nobility, where the latter has not been formally introduced at the House of Nobility. The House of Nobility still maintains a fee for members over the age of 18 for upkeep on pertinent buildings in Stockholm. Belonging to the nobility in present-day Sweden may still carry some informal social privileges, Sweden has, long been a modern democratic society and meritocratic practices are supposed to govern all appointments to state offices by law. However, this role is today, according to the instrument of government, from 1974 the monarch can not confer nobility. Until 2003 the nobility was regulated by a government statute but in year the statute was lifted.
The House of Nobility is now an institution, run as any private corporation under civil commercial law. The two last classes contains the so-called untitled nobility, the division into classes has roots in the Middle Ages when the nobility frälse was divided into lords in the Privy Council and esquires. Until 1719 the three classes voted separately, but in the Age of Liberty all classes were voting together with one vote for each family head and this made the vast majority of the untitled nobility in power, for example officers and civil servants were represented. In 1778 Gustav III restored the classes and class voting and at the time he reformed the Class of Knights. Originally this class only contained family descendants of Privy Councillors and was the smallest class of the three classes. No more commander families were introduced in the House of Knights after 1809, and thereafter the voting was abolished. A Swedish duke has almost always been of royal status and counted as such, an exception in medieval times was Benedict, Duke of Halland.
Two men were created princes in the 18th century, Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein and Vilhelm Putbus. In 1866 the Nobility was formally separated from government and incorporated as a separate institution and this last link to the government and state was abolished in 2003. The Palace of the Nobility served as official representation for the nobility and was regulated by the Swedish government, the membership roster is published every three years. The archaic Swedish term for nobility, frälse, included the clergy with respect to their exemption from tax, the nobility grew from wealthier or more powerful members of the peasantry, those who were capable of assigning work or wealth to provide the requisite cavalrymen
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots, known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley.
After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman.
This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve
Charles IX of Sweden
Charles IX, was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I and his wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III. The Swedish kings Eric XIV and Charles IX took their numbers according to a fictitious History of Sweden and he was actually the third Swedish king called Charles. He came into the throne by championing the Protestant cause during the tense times of religious strife between competing sects of Christianity. In just over a decade, these would break out as the Thirty Years War and these conflicts had already caused the dynastic squabble rooted in religious freedom that deposed his nephew and brought him to rule as king of Sweden. His reign marked the start of the chapter of both the Reformation and Counter-reformation. With his brothers death in November 1592, the throne of Sweden went to his nephew and Habsburg ally, Sigismund of Poland, during these tense political times, Charles viewed the inheritance of the throne of Protestant Sweden by his devout Roman Catholic nephew with alarm.
Thus, several years of controversy and discord followed. During the period, he and the Swedish privy council ruled in Sigismunds name while he stayed in Poland, after various preliminaries, the Riksens ständer forced Sigismund to abdicate the throne to Charles IX in 1595. In fact, it worsened European politics to the abandonment or prevention of settling events by diplomacy, in 1568 he was the real leader of the rebellion against Eric XIV. However, he took no part in the designs of his brother John III against the king after his deposition. Charless relations with John were always more or less strained and he had no sympathy with Johns High-Church tendencies on the one hand, and he sturdily resisted all the kings endeavours to restrict his authority as Duke of Södermanland on the other. The nobility and the majority of the Riksdag of the Estates supported John, however, in his endeavours to unify the realm, and Charles had consequently to resign his pretensions to autonomy within his duchy.
But, steadfast Calvinist as he was, on the question he was immovable. The matter came to a crisis on the death of John III in 1592, the heir to the throne was Johns eldest son, Sigismund III Vasa, already king of Poland and a devoted Catholic. Under the agreement and the Swedish Privy Council shared power, in the ensuing years 1593—1595, Charless task was extraordinarily difficult. Finally, the Riksdag at Linköping,24 February 1604 declared that Sigismund abdicated the Swedish throne and he was declared king as Karl IX. Charless short reign was one of uninterrupted warfare, in all these struggles, he was more or less unsuccessful, owing partly to the fact that he and his forces had to oppose superior generals and partly to sheer ill-luck
Anna of Saxony
Anna of Saxony was the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. Maurices only son, died in infancy, Anna was the second wife of William the Silent. Anna was born and died in Dresden and her wealth drew many suitors, before the proposal of Orange in 1560, there were negotiations with the Swedish royal house. She accepted the suit of William I of Orange, and they were married on 25 August 1561, after the death of her younger brother Albert, Anna grew up as an only child, and might have been spoiled by her parents, particularly her mother. There are indications that Anna suffered from a physical deformity and that she might have walked with a limp, after her fathers death on 11 July 1553, his younger brother, succeeded him as Elector of Saxony, resulting in a loss of Annas in rank. Shortly afterwards, Annas mother married Duke Johann Friedrich II of Saxony, on 4 November 1555, six months after her second marriage, her mother died under mysterious circumstances.
The 11-year-old orphan returned to her late fathers Dresden court and was placed under the guardianship of her uncle August and his wife, Anne of Denmark, sources indicate that the young princess chafed under her aunts regime, was often unhappy and felt alone. At the same time, she was described as proud, due to her late parents legacies, Anna was considered the wealthiest heiress in Germany at the time. In 1556, son of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, sought her hand in marriage, a marriage with a rich heiress and relation to the important electoral houses of Germany for him seemed of great value. Money may have not been one of the motives for the marriage. Annas maternal grandfather, Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse, was opposed to the marriage, first, he did not consider William of Orange, already having a male heir, as befitting for an electors daughter, believing she could marry someone of even higher rank. Secondly, there would have too much debt incurred in the event of Williams death. Philips negative attitude delayed the marriage for a full year, however, the decisive factor was probably that William was a valuable ally for Germany and his Dutch resources for the Protestant cause.
On 2 June 1561 the marriage contract was signed in Torgau, Annas dowry would be the large sum of 100,000 thalers. The wedding took place on 24 August 1561 in Leipzig, on 1 September 1561 William of Orange, along with his young wife, relocated to the Netherlands. The marriage produced five children, of three survived to adulthood, Anna. Anna, married on 25 November 1587 to Count William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg, Prince of Orange and Governor of the Netherlands. Emilia, married on 7 November 1597 to Prince Emanuel of Portugal, just a few months after the wedding, in 1562 difficulties arose between her and her husband
The nobles, among them three members of the influential Sture family, had been charged with conspiracy against the king and some were previously sentenced to death. Eriks old tutor, who did not belong to group, was killed when he tried to calm the king after the initial murders. In the 1560s, Erik XIV of Sweden was involved in the Livonian War, since he led many campaigns in person, his secretary Jöran Persson was left in charge of the administration. The king and his secretary used the High Court not only to enforce their financial, war-related demands on the nobles, though Erik distrusted the nobility as a whole, he became particularly suspicious of Nils Svantesson Sture, who was arrested and tried. Despite his many children, Erik lacked a legal heir. The Stures were an influential family, and Erik projected an astrological reading on Nils Sture saying that he would be succeeded by a light-haired man. His frustrations and anxieties gradually began to center on one person, Erik sent Nils Sture to Lorraine, where he was to arrange the marriage of princess Renata to Erik.
Secretary rule, reduction of the influence on politics. In July 1566, several influential nobles met near Stockholm, according to Geijer, this was a farewell party for Nils Sture, while Peterson refers to the meeting as a secret gathering where the magnates fear and hatred turned to organized resistance. Erik feared a conspiracy against him, particularly by the Sture family and their relatives, while Persson continued to collect evidence against Eriks perceived and real opponents, Erik summoned a riksdag in Uppsala in May 1567 to settle the quarrels. On their way to the riksdag, several magnates were invited by Erik to Svartsjö Castle, Erik was present in Svartsjö, and though the invitation letters were written in an innocent style, the invited were to be arrested and tried before the High Court. Arrested at Svartsjö were, in order of their arrival, Nils Stures brother Erik Svantesson Sture, Abraham Stenbock, Sten Banér, Ivar Ivarsson, Sten Eriksson, the trial in Svartsjö is not documented, but the verdict that the estates were to sign at Uppsala has survived.
Abraham Stenbock was forced to sign a letter to Josua Genewitz. According to Peterson, Erik Sture was sentenced to death, all prisoners were sent to Uppsala Castle for further investigation. Martha sent an appeal to Karin Månsdotter to speak to the King in favor of the prisoners, when the prisoners were transferred to Uppsala, Martha were taken there under guard and placed in house arrest in a house belonging to the Sture family. Also present in Uppsala were Ebba Månsdotter, married to Erik Leijonhufvud, when Erik XIV arrived at Uppsala on 16 May 1567, according to Robert Nisbet Bain he was in a condition of incipient insanity. The riksdag had meanwhile assembled, but only twenty nobles were among the attendees, on 19 May, when the death sentences were supposed to be endorsed by the riksdag, Erik collapsed after losing his notes for his speech and failing to manage without them. Two days later, Nils Sture was arrested upon his return from Lorraine by Persson, on 22 May, Erik wrote a letter to Svante Sture, rejecting the charges of treason brought up against the Sture family and announcing their reconciliation
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Gustav I of Sweden
Initially of low standing, Gustav rose to lead the rebel movement following the Stockholm Bloodbath, in which his father perished. As King, Gustav proved an administrator with a ruthless streak not inferior to his predecessors. He worked to raise taxes, end Feudalism and bring about a Swedish Reformation, replacing the prerogatives of local landowners and clergy with centrally appointed governors and bishops. Due to a vibrant dynastic succession, his three sons, Erik and Karl IX, all held the kingship at different points, Gustav I has subsequently been labelled the founder of modern Sweden, and the father of the nation. Gustav liked to compare himself to Moses, whom he believed to have liberated his people. As a person, Gustav was known for ruthless methods and a bad temper and he founded one of the now oldest orchestras of the world, the Kungliga Hovkapellet. Royal housekeeping accounts from 1526 mention twelve musicians including wind players, today the Kungliga Hovkapellet is the orchestra of the Royal Swedish Opera.
Gustav Eriksson, a son of Cecilia Månsdotter Eka and Erik Johansson Vasa, was born in 1496. The birth most likely place in Rydboholm Castle, northeast of Stockholm. The newborn got his name, from Eriks grandfather Gustav Anundsson, Erik Johanssons parents were Johan Kristersson and Birgitta Gustafsdotter of the dynasties Vasa and Sture respectively, both dynasties of high nobility. Birgitta Gustafsdotter was the sister of Sten Sture the Elder, regent of Sweden, being a relative and ally of uncle Sten Sture, Erik inherited the regents estates in Uppland and Södermanland when the latter died in 1503. Although a member of a family with considerable properties since childhood, according to genealogical research, Birgitta Gustafsdotter and Sten Sture were descended from King Sverker II of Sweden, through King Sverkers granddaughter Benedikte Sunesdotter. One of King Gustavs great-grandmothers was a half-sister of King Charles VIII of Sweden, since the end of the 14th century, Sweden had been a part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway.
The Danish dominance in this union led to uprisings in Sweden. During Gustavs childhood, parts of the Swedish nobility tried to make Sweden independent and his father Erik supported the party of Sten Sture the Younger, regent of Sweden from 1512, and its struggle against the Danish King Christian II. Following the battle of Brännkyrka in 1518, where Sten Stures troops beat the Danish forces, it was decided that Sten Sture and King Christian would meet in Österhaninge for negotiations. To guarantee the safety of the king, the Swedish side sent six men as hostages to be kept by the Danes for as long as the negotiations lasted. However, Christian did not show up for the negotiations, violated the deal with the Swedish side, the six members of the kidnapped hostage were Hemming Gadh, Lars Siggesson, Jöran Siggesson, Olof Ryning, Bengt Nilsson – and Gustav Eriksson
Johannes Magnus was the last functioning Catholic Archbishop in Sweden, and a theologian and historian. Johannes Magnus was born in Linköping, son of the burgess Måns Pedersson, Magnus was selected by Gustav I Vasa to become Archbishop, in 1523. The papal bull declared the deposition of Trolle unlawful, Gustav Trolle was deemed a traitor to the country, and Gustav Vasa could not reinstate him. Instead he ignored the bull and took it upon himself to install Magnus without papal acceptance. Before long, Johannes Magnus rebelled by declaring his discontent with the Lutheran teachings spread by the brothers Olaus and Laurentius Petri, the King sent him off to Russia as a diplomat in 1526. Johannes Magnus was careful not to return home during that time, Gustav Vasa appointed a new archbishop, Laurentius Petri, in 1531, and Johannes realized that his time as archbishop was over. His brother, Olaus Magnus, had travelled to Rome to explain the matter of Gustav Trolle to the Pope. In 1533 the Pope finished investigating the Trolle matter and decided that Magnus was the most appropriate successor, however, as Sweden now no longer took direction from the Vatican, both brothers remained in Italy for the remainder of their lives.
After the death of Johannes in 1544, the line of Swedish archbishops consecrated by the Pope ended, the Historia de omnibus Gothorum Sueonumque regibus is a work on Swedish history, which was printed posthumously in Rome in 1554, by Johannes brother Olaus Magnus. Olaus sent it to Sweden with a dedication to the dukes Eric, Magnus and it was subsequently republished several times. It appeared in a Swedish translation by Er, schroderus for the first time in 1620. It is an unreliable source for early Swedish history. Johannes Magnus made creative use of Jordanes Getica and of Saxo Grammaticus to depict a history of the Swedish people, of their kings and he states that Magog, son of Japheth, was Swedens first king. Johannes Magnus invented a list of kings of Sweden with six Erics before Eric the Victorious and he invented six kings of the name Charles before Charles Sverkersson. This is how Gustav I Vasas sons could style themselves as Eric, while the work describes these fictional Erics and Charles in generally positive terms, it includes a few invented tyrants with names similar to Gustav.
The work is exceedingly patriotic and suggests that Denmark was populated by convicts exiled from Sweden, ballad of Eric List of Archbishops of Uppsala F. F. V. Söderberg, Johannes Magnus, Nordisk familjebok Herman Hofberg, Frithiof Heurlin, Viktor Millqvist, Olof Rubenson, Johannes, Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon, II, p.115
John III of Sweden
John III was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. He was the son of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud and he was also, quite autonomously, the ruler of Finland, as Duke John from 1556 to 1563. In 1581 he assumed the title Grand Prince of Finland and he attained the Swedish throne after a rebellion against his brother Eric XIV. He is mainly remembered for his attempts to close the gap between the newly established Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Catholic church and his first wife was Catherine Jagellonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family, and their son Sigismund eventually ascended both the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish thrones. He was the son of Gustav Vasa. His mother was Margareta Leijonhufvud, a Swedish noblewoman, as a Duke of Finland, he opposed his half-brother Eric XIV of Sweden and was imprisoned in 1563. After his release from prison, probably because of his brothers insanity, John again joined the opposition, deposed Eric and his important ally was his maternal uncle Sten Leijonhufvud, who at deathbed was made Count of Raseborg.
Shortly after this John executed his brothers most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, after two more years of fighting, this war was concluded without many Swedish concessions in the Treaty of Stettin. During the following years he successfully fought Russia in the Livonian War, concluded by the Treaty of Plussa in 1583, as a whole his foreign policy was affected by his connection to Poland of which country his son Sigismund III Vasa was made king in 1587. In domestic politics John showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his Polish queen and he launched the Red Book, which reintroduced several Catholic customs and resulted in the Liturgical Battle, which was not to end for twenty years. In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again, from time to time he was at odds with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia. John III was a patron of art and architecture. In January 1569, John was recognized as king by the riksdag that forced Eric XIV off the throne.
But this recognition was not without influence from John, Duke Karl received confirmation on his dukedom without the restrictions of his power that the Arboga articles imposed, the nobilities power and rights were extended and their responsibilities lessened. John was still concerned about his position as king as long as Eric was alive. The fear of a liberation of the locked up king worried him to the point that in 1571 he ordered the guards to, in any suspicion of liberation attempt. It is possible this is how his life ended in 1577, John married his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland, house of Jagiello, in Vilnius on 4 October 1562. In Sweden, she is known as Katarina Jagellonica and she was the sister of king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland
Estonia under Swedish rule
Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia were under Swedish rule. At the conclusion of hostilities in 1583, Sweden was in control of the parts of modern Estonia and Hiiumaa island. Following renewed wars between Poland and Sweden, the parts of present-day Estonia were incorporated into Sweden by the Treaty of Altmark in 1629. In 1645, Sweden conquered the island of Ösel from Denmark, the time of Swedish rule came to an effective end in 1710, when all the Swedish Baltic provinces capitulated to Russian troops during the end-stages of the Great Northern War. Russian hegemony was formalized in 1721, the reasons for Swedish involvement in Estonia were economical as well as political and military. The Swedish Crown was not least interested in getting a share of the profits from the trade with Russia. At the same time, assertions in Estonia can seen as a way of preventing Russia. The time of Swedish rule is sometimes referred to as the good old Swedish times.
At least since the Viking Age there have been contacts between the inhabitants of present-day Sweden and Estonia, for example, a runestone in Roslags-Bro Church in Sweden commemorates a man who was killed in Estonia during the 11th century. There has been a Swedish minority in Estonia at least since the Middle Ages, during the Northern Crusades, Swedish crusaders made a failed attempt to conquer Estonia. Instead, mainly German crusading knights conquered the area and established the State of the Teutonic Order there, with the decline of the Teutonic Order and its state, Swedish political ambitions returned to Estonia. The future King John III had already as Grand Duke of Finland in the 1550s ambitions to establish Swedish rule in Estonia, the Livonian War, in which Sweden now became involved, would last to 1583. For Sweden, it resulted in Sweden keeping the territory that had in 1561 sought Swedish protection and it was not until the early 20th century that the term Estonia began to be used to signify all the lands were Estonian-speaking people lived.
Sweden started to reorganise the government in the new duchy only after the conclusion of the treaty with Russia in 1583. Like the Livonian estates, Estonian aristocracy and towns had surrendered on condition that their privileges be retained, unlike in Livonia, where Poland soon violated the agreement, Swedish kings kept their promises to the city of Tallinn and the local nobility. The Swedish monarchy was represented by the lieutenant, governor. For administration, these lands were divided into fiefdoms, subdivided into crown manors headed by bailiffs, the Swedish kings generously gave lands into private possession — in reward both for merit and for service. For that reason most of Estonian lands were in ownership by the end of the 16th century
Northern Seven Years' War
The Northern Seven Years War was the war between the Kingdom of Sweden and a coalition of Denmark–Norway, Lübeck and Poland, fought between 1563 and 1570. The war was motivated by the dissatisfaction of King Frederick II of Denmark with the dissolution of the Kalmar Union, the fighting continued until both armies had been exhausted, and many men died. The resulting Treaty of Stettin was a stalemate, with neither party gaining any new territory, the Danish-ruled Nordic Kalmar Union lasted on and off from 1397 to 1523, until it finally collapsed following the continued Swedish resentment of Danish domination. A successful rebellion in 1471 led to Swedish victory at the Battle of Brunkeberg, in 1520, Christian II of Denmark reconquered Sweden and took a bloody revenge on the anti-Union faction at the Stockholm Bloodbath. More than 80 noble men and ladies, including leading citizens of Stockholm, were executed, the violence elicited strong reactions in Sweden for years to come, and the Union was broken by the successful Swedish War of Liberation from 1521 to 1523.
Christian II was condemned by the Pope, and he abdicated in 1523, under Vasa, the Kalmar Union was finally dissolved, and Sweden began establishing itself as a rival power of Denmark–Norway. Furthermore, Denmark controlled the Baltic, limiting Swedish movement there, Gustav Vasa took an action which did not bear immediate fruit in the Nordic Seven Years War, but was to have a lasting impact on Sweden’s fortune, he changed the military structure in Sweden. In 1544 he used the old Scandinavian concept of Uppbåd to establish the first native standing army in Europe, the men served in standby, remaining at home in peacetime, and being paid by tax concessions, but were required to assemble and drill. This system was expanded as the Swedish allotment system. By 1560 when Gustav Vasa died, every ten peasants were required to one soldier who must serve anywhere domestic or foreign as required by the king. After the deaths of Christian III and Gustav Vasa – in 1559 and 1560, Frederick II envisioned the resurrection of the Kalmar Union under Danish leadership, while Eric wanted to finally break the dominating position of Denmark.
During the next year, the Danish expansion continued with the possession of the Baltic Sea island of Ösel, during this conflict, King Eric of Sweden successfully obstructed the Danish plans to conquer Estonia. In February 1563, Swedish messengers were sent to Hesse to negotiate Erics marriage with Christine of Hesse, in retaliation, Eric added the insignia of Norway and Denmark to his own coat of arms, and refused Danish requests to remove these symbols. Lübeck, upset over obstacles of trade that Eric had introduced to hinder the Russian trade and withdrawn trade privileges, the Polish–Lithuanian union joined, desiring control of the Baltic trade. Skirmishes broke out in May 1563, before war was declared in August that year. In May, the first movements of the war started, a Danish fleet under Jakob Brockenhuus sailed towards the Baltic. At Bornholm, on 30 May 1563, the Danish fleet fired on the Swedish navy under Jakob Bagge even though war had not officially been declared, a battle arose that ended with Danish defeat.
German royal emissaries were sent to negotiate a peace, but at the place of Rostock no Swedes appeared
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic