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320th Special Tactics Squadron

The 320th Special Tactics Squadron is a Special Tactics unit of the United States Air Force Special Operations Command, based at Kadena Air Base. The 320th was constituted in 1943 during World War II as an aircraft warning unit, the 320th Fighter Control Squadron; the squadron was sent to the Pacific at the end of 1943 and served there until its inactivation and disbandment after the end of the war. It reactivated in 1992 at Kadena as the 320th Special Tactics Squadron. With the 720th Special Tactics Group, it was soon transferred to the 353d Special Operations Group; the 320th STS was constituted as the 320th Fighter Control Squadron, an aircraft warning unit, during World War II on 30 March 1943. It was activated on 1 April, part of the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics at Orlando Army Air Base. After completing air defense training, it became part of the Orlando Fighter Wing on 1 November. Between 20 November and 11 December, the 320th staged at Camp Stoneman was shipped to Guadalcanal, where it arrived on 30 December, becoming part of XIII Fighter Command.

Between 24 July and 14 November 1944, the squadron was attached to the 13th Air Warning Group. On 30 September, it was moved forward to Toem, on 15 December the 320th relocated to Wakde; the squadron relocated to Biak on 11 February 1945 to Mindoro on 22 February. On 1 March, it moved to Puerto Princesa, was under the 85th Fighter Wing's operational control between 1 April and 1 June; the 320th was transferred to the 85th Fighter Wing on 15 June, but was under the operational control of the Thirteenth Air Force until 14 July. In October it was transferred to XIII Fighter Command, on 29 October moved to Luzon; the squadron became part of XIII Bomber Command on 2 November and left Luzon for Vancouver Barracks on 30 November. After arriving at Vancouver Barracks on 14 December, it was inactivated on 18 December; the 320th was disbanded on 8 October 1948. The squadron was reconstituted and redesignated as the 320th Special Tactics Squadron on 20 February 1992, activated at Kadena Air Base with the 720th Special Tactics Group on 31 March.

The 320th included Combat Controllers, Combat Weathermen, Survival, Evasion and Escape specialists. On 1 January 1993, it was transferred to the 353d Special Operations Group. During Operation Unified Assistance, the relief effort after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the squadron's combat controllers surveyed airfields for the reception of humanitarian relief. 320th STS personnel deployed alongside United States Army Special Forces to the War in Afghanistan. On 28 February 2006, squadron Master Sergeant David Beals' team was ambushed during a convoy operation, trapping the entire team in the insurgent kill zone. Beals was credited with saving the lives of the entire team by repulsing the attack with his Humvee's M240 machine gun and 40mm grenades from his M203 grenade launcher, was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with "V" device. On 26 September 2008, squadron personnel cooperated with the 1st Special Operations Squadron and 31st Rescue Squadron to rescue two crewmen injured in a crane accident aboard container ship Occam's Razor.

A joint team of pararescuemen and combat controllers landed on the vessel from an MC-130H Combat Talon II and evacuated the men to a hospital on Guam. Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, in Operation Tomodachi, the relief effort, pararescuemen from the 320th flew numerous search and rescue missions. Constituted as 320th Fighter Control Squadron on 30 March 1943Activated on 1 April 1943 Inactivated on 18 December 1945 Disbanded on 8 October 1948Reconstituted and redesignated 320th Special Tactics Squadron on 20 February 1992Activated on 31 March 1992 Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics, 1 April 1943 Orlando Fighter Wing, 1 November 1943 XIII Fighter Command, 30 December 1943 85th Fighter Wing, 15 June 1945 XIII Fighter Command, October 1945 XIII Bomber Command, 2 November 1945 Unknown, 30 November–18 December 1945 720th Special Tactics Group, 31 March 1992 353d Special Operations Group, 1 January 1993–present Orlando Army Air Base, 1 April 1943 Camp Stoneman, 20 November–11 December 1943 Guadalcanal, 30 December 1943 Toem, New Guinea, 30 September 1944 Wakde, 15 December 1944 Biak, 11 February 1945 Mindoro, 22 February 1945 Puerto Princesa, 1 March 1945 Luzon, 29 October–30 November 1945 Vancouver Barracks, 14–18 December 1945 Kadena Air Base, 31 March 1992–present

MotoCzysz E1pc

The MotoCzysz E1pc is the American motorcycle manufacturer MotoCzysz's electric motorcycle that won the 2010 TT Zero electric motorcycle race at the Isle of Man TT competition breaking the previous speed record. Michael Czysz said in an interview on the history of this electric motorcycle: "In less than five months we took a suggestion and turned it into a motorcycle. "A motorcycle, unlike anything I have ridden. No gas, no oil, no clutch, no need to warm up the engine – no engine. "Gone is the age-old ritual of rhythmical throttle blips that can audible seduce a motorcyclist into a pre-ride trance – now your bike waits for you. Enter what may be the next big thing in motorcycles; as of August 2010, the MotoCzysz team for the TTXGP was listed on the eGrandPrix website as: Michael Czysz: Technical Director & Designer Adrian Hawkins: Lead Engineer Marty Schmitz: Machinist Terry Czysz: Mechanic Levi Patton: Engineer Josh Gedlick: Modelerwith assistance from: Heath Knapp: Fabricator Loni Hull: Electrical Technician Andrea Pretzler: Surface Modeler Seth McBlair: Body Work / Paint The MotoCzysz E1pc is described as having "10 times the battery capacity of a Toyota Prius and 2.5 times the torque of a Ducati 1198 a package that looks like something out of a 24th-century Thunderdome."

The E1pc is powered by "10 individual lithium polymer cells that each weigh 19.5 Lbs and produce 12.5 kWh" and operates close to the maximum allowable 500 volts system. The motive force is provided by a "DC internal permanent magnet motor'D1g1tal Dr1ve' small enough to hide within the swingarm beneath the rear shock." The motor is oil-cooled developing 100 250 Lb-Ft of torque, continuously. In June 2009, Mark Miller rode the E1pc in the TTXGP race on the 37.733-mile mountain course of the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy but did not finish the race. On June 10, 2010, US racer Mark Miller won the TT Zero race on the same course riding a redesigned E1pc with a time of 23 minutes 22.89 seconds and an average speed of 96.820 mph. Beyond the electric motorcycle technical accomplishment, this is "the first time an American-made bike has won a race at the Isle of Man since Indian debuted a two-speed gearbox in 1911," ridden by Briton Oliver Cyril Godfrey, "and only the second time an American rider has finished first there."On Wednesday June 6th 2012 Michael Rutter and Team Segway Racing MotoCzysz made history on the Isle of Man by becoming the first team to record a 100mph lap of the course in the SES TT Zero race in what is being hailed as one of the greatest achievements in the event's one hundred and five year history.

Rutter crossed the line in 21:45.33 followed by John McGuinness on the Team Mugen Shinden machine. Rutter's MotoCzysz teammate Mark Miller finished third, with all three breaking the prestigious 100mph mark, first achieved in 1957 by Scotsman Bob McIntyre on a conventional bike. For the 2013 TT races, Rutter on the MotoCzysz again won from McGuinness on a Mugen, with second MotoCzysz rider Mark Miller suffering mechanical breakdown just after Ballaugh one-half distance around the road course Electric motorcycle Electric motorsport MotoCzysz Official website