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Erich Maria Remarque

Erich Maria Remarque was a 20th-century German novelist. His landmark novel All Quiet on the Western Front, about the German military experience of World War I, was an international best-seller which created a new literary genre, was subsequently made into the cinema film All Quiet on the Western Front. Erich Maria Remarque was born on 22 June 1898 into a working class Roman Catholic family in the German city of Osnabrück to Peter Franz Remark and Anna Maria. Research by Remarque's childhood and lifelong friend Hanns-Gerd Rabe proved that in fact Remarque had French ancestors—his great-grandfather Johann Adam Remarque, born in 1789, came from a French family in Aachen. During World War I, Remarque was conscripted into the German Imperial Army at the age of 18. On 12 June 1917, he was transferred to the Western Front, 2nd Company, Field Depot of the 2nd Guards Reserve Division at Hem-Lenglet. On 26 June 1917 he was posted to the 15th Reserve Infantry Regiment, 2nd Company, Engineer Platoon Bethe, fought in the trenches between Torhout and Houthulst.

On 31 July 1917 he was wounded by shell shrapnel in the left leg, right arm and neck, after being medically evacuated from the field was repatriated to an army hospital in Germany where he spent the rest of the war recovering from his wounds, before being demobilized from the army. After the war he continued his teacher training and worked from 1 August 1919 as a primary school teacher in Lohne, at that time in the county of Lingen, now in the county of Bentheim. From May 1920 he worked in Klein Berssen in the former County of Hümmling, now Emsland, from August 1920 in Nahne, a part of Osnabrück since 1972. On 20 November 1920 he applied for leave of absence from teaching. Remarque worked at a number of different jobs in this phase of his life, including librarian, businessman and editor, his first paid writing job was as a technical writer for the Continental Rubber Company, a German tire manufacturer. Remarque had made his first attempts at writing at the age of 16. Among them were essays and the beginnings of a novel, finished and published in 1920 as The Dream Room.

When he published All Quiet on the Western Front, he had his surname reverted to an earlier spelling – from Remark to Remarque – to dissociate himself from his novel Die Traumbude. In 1927 he published the novel Station at the Horizon, it was serialised in the sports journal Sport im Bild for which Remarque was working.. All Quiet on the Western Front, his career defining work, was written in 1927. Remarque was at first unable to find a publisher for it, its text described the experiences of German soldiers during World War 1. On publication it became a landmark work in 20th Century literature, it inspired a new genre of veterans writing about conflict, the commercial publication of a wide variety of war memoirs. It inspired dramatic representations of the war in theatre and cinema, in Germany as well as in countries that had fought in the conflict against the German Empire the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Riding on the tail of the success of All Quiet on the Western Front, a number of similar works followed from Remarque.

In simple, emotive language, they described the postwar years in Germany. In 1931, after finishing The Road Back, he bought a villa in Porto Ronco, Switzerland with the substantial financial wealth that his published works had brought him, he planned to live both there and in France. After Adolf Hitler seized governmental power in Germany in March 1933, he was granted sweeping powers, creating a de-facto dictatorship. On 10 May 1933, at the initiative of the Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, Remarque's writing was publicly declared as "unpatriotic" and was banned in Germany. Copies were removed from all libraries and restricted from being sold or published anywhere in the country. Germany was descending into a totalitarian society, leading to mass arrests of elements of the population that the new governing order disapproved of. Remarque left Germany to live at his villa in Switzerland. Remarque's French background as well as his Catholic faith were publicly attacked by the Nazis, they continued to decry his writings in his absence, proclaiming that anyone who would change the spelling of his name from the German "Remark" to the French "Remarque" could not be a true German.

The Nazis further made the false claim that Remarque had not seen active service during World War 1. In 1938 Remarque's German citizenship was revoked. In 1939 he and his ex-wife were remarried to prevent her repatriation to Germany. Just before the outbreak of World War 2 in Europe, they left Porto Ronco, Switzerland for the United States, they became naturalised citizens of the United States in 1947. Remarque continued to write about the German experience after WW1, his next novel, Three Comrades, spans the years of the Weimar Republic, from the hyperinflation of 1923 to the end of the decade. His fourth novel, first appeared in a serial version in English translation in Collier's magazine in 1939, he spent another year revising the text for its book publication in 1941, both in English and German. His next work, the novel Arch of Triumph, was first published in 1945 in English, the next year in German as Arc de Triomphe. Another instant bestseller, it reached worldwide sales of nearly five million.

His final novel was Sh

Poorna Jagannathan

Poorna Jagannathan is an Indian-American actress and producer. She is best known for her portrayal of Safar Khan in HBO's Emmy and Golden Globe-nominated show, The Night Of, as well as playing the lead in the Bollywood cult comedy film Delhi Belly, she initiated and produced the play Nirbhaya and directed by Yael Farber, which dealt with breaking the silence about sexual violence. Her play won the 2013 Amnesty International Award and was called by The Telegraph as the "One of the most powerful pieces of theater you'll see", she is a series regular on Mindy Kaling's new show "Never Have I Ever", slated for a 2020 release on Netflix. She was a series regular on Gypsy, part of the ensemble cast for HBO's new anthology series, Room 104, by the Duplass brothers, her new film, directed by Pippa Bianco and produced by A24, was released in 2019 on HBO. Jagannathan was featured among the top 10 in Femina magazine's "India's 50 most beautiful women" in 2012 and in 2014, she was named among the top 50 most powerful women in India.

The daughter of an Indian diplomat, Jagannathan was born in Tunis and grew up in Pakistan, India and Argentina. She speaks English, Portuguese and Tamil, she graduated in journalism from the University of Maryland, College Park after doing some college at the University of Brasília, Brazil. On a scholarship, she began her Master of Fine Arts in acting at the Actors Studio Drama School. Although she dropped out after the first year, she continued to study acting under her mentor, Elizabeth Kemp, whom she met there. Jagannathan has appeared on several high-profile TV shows like Better Call Saul, she played Blacklister #44 on The Blacklist, appeared as the guest lead on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit for their 18th year's double-season-finale episodes. Her recent film credits include playing one of the leads in A24's film Share. Share premiered at the 2019 Sundance Film Festival, was acquired by HBO. Jagannathan is an established theater actress and is a board and company member of The Barrow Group in New York City.

In 2012, reported that Jagannathan had joined the cast of HBO's new show The Night Of as a series regular. The ensemble cast was led by James Gandolfini and was written and directed by Steven Zaillian and Richard Price. After Gandolfini's death, John Turturro stepped in to replace him. Filming ended in March 2015 in New York City; the Night Of was released on HBO on July 2016 to critical acclaim. It has a score of 94% on Rotten Tomatoes with an average rating of 8.5/10 based on 56 reviews. The Netflix produced series was led by Naomi Watts and released on June 30, 2017 but wasn't renewed for another season. In May 2018, Deadline announced that Jagannathan had joined the cast of the HBO series Big Little Lies as a recurring character names Katie Richmond, she is a series regular on Mindy Kaling's new show "Never Have I Ever", slated for a 2020 release on Netflix. Jagannathan lent her voice to three podcasts in the Good Night Stories for Rebel Girls series, based on The New York Times Best Seller list books by Elena Favilli and Francesca Cavallo.

She read the stories of Margaret Hamilton and Madam C. J. Walker; the series was named among the 50 best podcasts for 2018 by Time and won the 2019 People’s Choice Podcast Award. Moved by a sensational gang rape and murder in Delhi on December 16, 2012, Jagannathan initiated and produced a testimonial play called Nirbhaya; the play uses the rape and death of Jyoti Singh Pandey as a catalyst to break the silence about sexual violence. She collaborated with Yael Farber. Nirbhaya opened at the Assembly Hall in August 2013 during the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, it won the coveted 2013 Amnesty International Award as well as the Scotsman Fringe First and Herald Angel Awards. It got 5 star reviews from The Telegraph and The Herald, it got 4 star reviews from The Scotsman, the London Evening Standard and Time Out. The Sunday Herald called Nirbhaya "One of the most powerful and urgent pieces of human rights theatre made". In March 2014, Nirbhaya was the centerpiece performance for Southbank's "Women of the World" festival where it played to sold out houses in the UK.

After a successful Kickstarter campaign to fund an India tour, Nirbhaya opened to critical acclaim in India on March 17, 2014, playing to sold out houses in Mumbai and Bangalore. In August 2014, The Guardian audiences voted Nirbhaya among the top 10 "best fringe moments" in the Edinburgh Festival's history. Nirbhaya opened to rave reviews at The Culture Project in New York City in May 2015, rose to become the NYT Critics' Pick; the play toured for three years in multiple cities in Ireland, the UK, India and the U. S. Many reviewers stated that it was one of the most political and moving pieces of theater made. Jagannathan's performance received positive reviews for The Night Of. Vikram Murthi from Vulture wrote "Poorna Jagannathan's subtle performance shines.... Her facial reactions convey such a profound array of emotions." And Variety's Sonia Saraiya wrote, "The Night Of" is its most brilliant when it leans on the weakest members of the ensemble with t

1954 Divizia B

The 1954 Divizia B was the 15th season of the second tier of the Romanian football league system. The format has been changed to three series, each of them having 13 teams. At the end of the season the winners of the series promoted to Divizia A and last two places from each series relegated to District Championship; this was the fifth season played in the spring-autumn system, a system imposed by the new leadership of the country which were in close ties with the Soviet Union. CA Câmpulung Moldovenesc, CA Cluj and CA Craiova were excluded from the championship; the army teams were abolished except for CCA București. Voința București, in fact, the Romania national youth team, was enrolled directly in the second division. Flamura Roșie Pitești was renamed as Flacăra Pitești. Libertatea Sibiu was renamed as Progresul Sibiu. Dinamo Turnu Măgurele was renamed as Dinamo Bârlad. 1954 Divizia A


Ittigen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The municipality was formed in 1983 when it and Ostermundigen were separated from territory once part of Bolligen, its placename is derived from the Alemannic German "at the people of the Ito", first appeared in print in 1318 as Yttigen. In 1326 it was mentioned as villa de Ittigen. Traces of prehistoric settlements have been found at Worblaufen, in the Papiermühle neighborhood, Neuhaus and in Wydacker. While the small hamlets of Papiermühle, Neuhaus, Badhaus developed on the valley floor, the farming villages of Ittigen and Worblaufen grew up on terraces in the low mountains above the valley; the two farming villages took advantage of extensive arable land for individual fields and shared common farm land and common forests. A number of scattered small farms grew up around the two villages and had a share of the common land. While the villages in the mountains remained agricultural, the hamlets on the valley floor were local centers for trade and industry.

A paper mill opened in Papiermühle followed by a toll house and an inn. There was a mill at Schermen, a toll house and inn in Neuhaus and a 15th-century spa and inn in Badhaus. A paper mill and several hammer mills opened in Worblaufen. Around the 17th and 18th centuries, the agricultural villages focused on providing fruits and hay for the weekly markets in the nearby city of Bern; the area's sunny weather and proximity to Bern encouraged several wealthy families to build country estates in Ittigen including Mannenberg in Ittigen village and Sandhof and Lindenhof in Worblaufen. In the 19th century, agriculture remained important, but small workshops and cottage industry work provided jobs for many of the residents. A pasta factory opened in Schermen in 1831 followed by a chocolate factory in 1917; until 1983, Ittigen was part of Bolligen. Within the Bolligen parish and the surrounding villages formed a semi-independent congregation and elected their own member of the church council; the congregation fulfilled many of the essential municipal functions such as caring for the poor and orphans, providing education and collecting taxes.

However, it remained subject to the municipality of Bolligen. In 1774 Ittigen attempted, unsuccessfully. In 1813 the village school was founded though it opened five years in 1818. With the school the village got a measure of independence. In 1834 it became one of the four quarters within the municipality of Bolligen; the quarters were responsible for the fire department, maintaining roads and primary education while the municipality handled finances and secondary education. Throughout the 20th century the municipality voted on whether they should be incorporated into Bern, centralize all municipal functions or split into separate municipalities. In 1978 the residents voted to divide into independent municipalities and between 1980 and 1983 the new municipality took over functions from Bolligen. Ittigen has an area of 4.2 km2. Of this area, 1.03 km2 or 24.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.6 km2 or 14.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 2.54 km2 or 60.3 % is settled, 0.04 km2 or 1.0 % is either lakes.

Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.0% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 33.7% and transportation infrastructure made up 18.5%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.4% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 1.7%. Out of the forested land, 12.4% of the total land area is forested and 1.9% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 18.5% is used for growing crops and 5.5% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located in the Worblental on a terrace on the Mannenberg in the agglomeration of Bern. In 1983 the municipality was created. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Bern-Mittelland; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Quartered Gules and Or in second a Grenade Sable inflamed of the first and in third a Mill Wheel of the third.

Ittigen has a population of 11,351. As of 2010, 19.6% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -2.4%. Migration accounted for -1.3%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.1%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Italian is the second most common and French is the third. There are 4 people; as of 2008, the population was 51.3 % female. The population was made up of 1,130 non-Swiss men. There were 1,018 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 1,701 or about 15.5% were born in Ittigen and lived there in 2000. There were 4,723 or 43.0% who were born in the same canton, while 2,104 or 19.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 2,034 or 18.5% were born outside of Switzerland. As of

Climbing hold

A climbing hold is a shaped grip, attached to a climbing wall so climbers can grab or step on it. On most walls, climbing holds are arranged in paths, called routes, by specially trained route setters. Climbing holds come in a large array of sizes and shapes to provide different levels of challenge to a climber. Climbing holds are either bolted to a wall via hex-head bolts and existing t-nuts or they are screwed on with several small screws. In extreme cases, concrete anchors may be used. Early climbing holds. While the feel of these holds is realistic, rock holds can polish with heavy use. Rock holds are difficult to manufacture. Wood was another early hold-making material because it was inexpensive and easy to carve into various shapes, it is still used today in various forms for homemade and commercially produced hand holds. Wood holds are smooth and pleasant to grab, though they are difficult to wash and splintering may become a problem with age. Wolfgang Güllich made the first campus board with wooden rungs to help him train for his 9a route Action Directe.

In recent years wooden holds. These are used for steep training boards, though some climbing walls do use wooden holds alongside their resin holds In the early days, most companies that manufactured holds used a resin mixture. Early mixtures of polyester resin had issues with wear and tear becoming chipped and cracked; the chipped or broken edge of a resin hold can provide an unintended place to grab that can be sharp or otherwise dangerous to the climber. Because resin holds are not flexible, they may crack if they are being tightened down on a wall, not flat. Modern polyester mixes have overcome these problems. A final problem is the weight of resin holds; as hold sizes have grown and grown, in many cases resin has become an impractical material to use. However, using a process known as hollow-backing the weight of the hold can be reduced. Modern production methods such as hollow-backing are keeping polyester as the preferred choice for many climbing walls and hold production companies. Machined natural stone holds are intended to give climbers a real stone feel.

Due to processing costs, they are more expensive than resin holds and require extra care when installing. They are purported to be more environmentally friendly, to bring the feeling of outdoor climbing to indoor climbing walls. A rubber-like backing may be placed on each hold in an effort to prevent the holds from spinning; this technique has had mixed success, as the rubber backing begins to peel away from the wall, providing a similar unintended handhold as the chipped resin might. The softer mixture is more durable than a brittle resin, but with uneven climbing walls and overtightening these holds develop slow cracks that render the hold useless. "Synthetic rock" combined with slippery hard plastic is another innovation. The texture of these holds is quite like outdoor rock, allowing hold shapes that would be dangerous with a more slippery material. Corn and soy based resins are being developed for use in climbing holds; the goal is an "environmentally friendly" hold material, light and durable.

A large quantity of commercial holds are made of polyurethane or a polyurethane mixture. PU is lighter, more flexible, less prone to chipping and breakage than polyester or natural materials. Like polyester, PU mixtures can vary, different mixtures have different textures and strengths. It's simple to make a quality polyester recipe, but much harder to make a top quality polyurethane. If the polyurethane is too soft it will split apart when the hold is tightened, or the bolt might get pulled through the hold, or the hold will flex on the wall or could polish quickly. If the polyurethane is too hard it will be brittle and the edges could chip or it could crack when tightened; some climbers believe polyurethane can become warm with intensive use, though a few moments of not being held and some brushing solves the problem. PU holds are a lot lighter than Polyester holds as PU tolerates a much thinner wall so it can be hollowed out and maintain strength whereas PE holds need to be solid or have thick walls or they are much more prone to breaking.

Polyurethane is the leading hold material in the USA. However, there is an Atlantic split with most of Europe preferring Polyester mixes. There are many reasons for this that PU is a newer material and Europe only has been exposed to quality PU mixes. Additionally, PU is more expensive than PE. In an effort to improve the durability of climbing holds, many materials have been experimented with. Thin, hollow fiberglass holds are light and strong. A desirable texture is overlaid onto the fibreglass using various methods. Early fibreglass holds had a texture made from sand mixed into paint, progressing to sand embedded into various types of resin. Modern companies have developed techniques to place polyester resin over the fibreglass, giving a hold which has all the benefits of both resin types without the downsides; the main issue with this texture is the complexity in manufacture means few companies have the ability to produce them and the cost of these holds is high. Texture longevity is an issue.

T-Nuts may be embedded in the fibreglass so additional holds can be bolte

Lyudmyla Yosypenko

Lyudmyla Dmytrivna Yosypenko is a Ukrainian heptathlete. She came fourth at the 2012 London Olympics with a personal best of 6618 points, she was the winner of the Decastar competition that September. In December 2012, the World Anti-Doping Agency notified Yosypenko that levels of haemoglobin in blood samples she had given differed from those described in her biological passport, she competed in the Ukrainian national championships in July 2013, but the Ukrainian Athletic Federation disqualified her the following day and imposed a four-year ban. Yosypenko protested, saying the changes in her haemoglobin levels were a result of medical treatments and that she would appeal the ban; the IAAF confirmed the ban in September 2013. Her results from 25 August 2011 onwards were disqualified. Lyudmyla Yosypenko at World Athletics