Erie, Pennsylvania

Erie is a city on the south shore of Lake Erie and the county seat of Erie County, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American Erie people who lived in the area until the mid-17th century, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania, as well as the largest city in Northwestern Pennsylvania, with a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census; the estimated population in 2018 had decreased to 96,471. The Erie metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of 276,207 residents; the Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area has a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census. Erie is halfway between the cities of Buffalo, New York, Cleveland and due north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Erie's manufacturing sector remains prominent in the local economy, though healthcare, higher education, service industries, tourism are emerging as significant economic drivers. Over four million people visit Erie during summer months for recreation at Presque Isle State Park, as well as attractions such as Waldameer Park.

Erie is known as the "Flagship City" because of its status as the home port of Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship Niagara. Erie won the All-America City Award in 1972, in 2012 hosted the Perry 200, a commemoration, celebrating 200 years of peace between Britain and Canada following the War of 1812 and Battle of Lake Erie. Indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs in this area for thousands of years, taking advantage of the rich resources; the Sommerheim Park Archaeological District in Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania west of the city, includes artifacts from the Archaic period in the Americas, as well as from the Early and Middle Woodland Period a span from 8,000 BCE to 500 CE. The historic Iroquoian-speaking Erie Nation occupied this area before being defeated by the five nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the 17th century during the Beaver Wars; the Iroquois tribes had developed and five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century.

The Erie area became controlled by the Seneca, "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were based in present-day New York. Europeans first arrived as settlers in the region when the French constructed Fort Presque Isle near present-day Erie in 1753, as part of their effort to defend New France against the encroaching British colonists; the name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term "presque-isle" means peninsula; when the French abandoned the fort in 1760 during the French and Indian War, it was the last post they held west of Niagara. The British established a garrison at the fort at Presque Isle that same year, three years before the end of the French and Indian War. Erie is in what was the disputed Erie Triangle, a tract of land comprising 202,187 acres in the northwest corner of Pennsylvania fronting Lake Erie, claimed after the American Revolutionary War by the states of New York, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.

The Iroquois claimed ownership first so a conference was arranged for on January 9, 1789 wherein representatives from the Iroquois signed a deed relinquishing their ownership of the land. The price for it was $1,200 from the federal government; the Seneca Nation separately settled land claims against Pennsylvania in February 1791 for the sum of $800. It became a part of Pennsylvania on March 3, 1792, after Connecticut and New York relinquished their rights to the land and sold the land to Pennsylvania for 75 cents per acre or a total of $151,640.25 in continental certificates. The General Assembly of Pennsylvania commissioned the surveying of land near Presque Isle through an act passed on April 18, 1795. Andrew Ellicott, who completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's survey of Washington, D. C. and helped resolve the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, arrived to begin the survey and lay out the plan for the city in June 1795. Initial settlement of the area began that year. Lt. Colonel Seth Reed and his family moved to the Erie area from New York.

They became the first European-American settlers of Erie, settling at what became known as "Presque Isle". President James Madison began the construction of a naval fleet during the War of 1812 to gain control of the Great Lakes from the British. Daniel Dobbins of Erie and Noah Brown of Boston were notable shipbuilders who led construction of four schooner−rigged gunboats and two brigs. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry arrived from Rhode Island and led the squadron to success in the historic Battle of Lake Erie. Erie was an important shipbuilding and railroad hub during the mid-19th century; the city was the site. While the delays engendered cargo troubles for commerce and travel, they provided much-needed local jobs in Erie; when a national standardized gauge was proposed, those jobs, the importance of the rail hub itself, were put in jeopardy. In an event known as the Erie Gauge War, the citizens of Erie, led by the mayor, set fire to bridges, ripped up track and rioted to try to stop the standardization.

On August 3, 1915, the Mill Creek flooded downtown Erie. A culvert, or a tunnel, was blocked by debris, collapsed. A four-block reservoir, caused by torrential downpours, had formed behind it; the resulting deluge killed 36 people. After the flood, Mayor Miles Brown Kitts had the Mill Creek directed into another larger culvert, constructed under more than 2 miles of city, before emptying into Presque Isle Bay on the city's lower east side. Downtow

Philippine Sea Plate

The Philippine Sea Plate or the Philippine Plate is a tectonic plate comprising oceanic lithosphere that lies beneath the Philippine Sea, to the east of the Philippines. Most segments of the Philippines, including northern Luzon, are part of the Philippine Mobile Belt, geologically and tectonically separate from the Philippine Sea Plate. Philippine Sea plate is bordered by convergent boundaries: To the north, the Philippine Sea Plate meets the Okhotsk Plate at the Nankai Trough; the Philippine Sea Plate, the Amurian Plate, the Okhotsk Plate meet at Mount Fuji in Japan. The thickened crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc colliding with Japan constitutes the Izu Collision Zone. To the east, Philippine Sea Plate meets the Pacific Plate, subducting at the Izu-Ogasawara Trench; the east of the plate includes the Izu-Ogasawara and the Mariana Islands, forming the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc system. There is a divergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the small Mariana Plate which carries the Mariana Islands.

To the south, the Philippine Sea Plate is bounded by the Caroline Bird's Head Plate. To the west, the Philippine Sea Plate subducts under the Philippine Mobile Belt at the Philippine Trench and the East Luzon Trench. To the northwest, the Philippine Sea Plate meets Taiwan and the Nansei islands on the Okinawa Plate, southern Japan on the Amurian Plate. List of earthquakes in Guam List of earthquakes in Japan List of earthquakes in the Philippines Hall, Robert. "The Philippine Sea Plate' Magnetism and Reconstructions". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved October 9, 2014. High-resolution map of Tectonic Plate Boundaries Map showing Seismicity of the Earth, 1900‒2012: Philippine Sea Plate and Vicinity United States Geological Survey

Howard Fast

Howard Melvin Fast was an American novelist and television writer. Fast wrote under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson. Fast was born in New York City, his mother, was a British Jewish immigrant, his father, Barney Fast, was a Ukrainian Jewish immigrant who shortened his name from Fastovsky upon arrival in America. When his mother died in 1923 and his father became unemployed, Howard's youngest brother, went to live with relatives, while he and his older brother, sold newspapers. Howard credited his early voracious reading to a part-time job in the New York Public Library. Fast began writing at an early age. While hitchhiking and riding railroads around the country to find odd jobs, he wrote his first novel, Two Valleys, published in 1933 when he was 18, his first popular work was a fictional account of the life of Thomas Paine. Always interested in American history, Fast wrote The Last Frontier and Freedom Road; the novel Freedom Road is based on a true story and was made into a miniseries of the same name starring Muhammad Ali, who, in a rare acting role, played Gideon Jackson, an ex-slave in 1870s South Carolina, elected to the U.

S. House and battles the Ku Klux Klan and other racist organizations to keep the land that they had tended all their lives. Fast is the author of the prominent "Why the Fifth Amendment?" essay. This essay explains in detail the purpose of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. Fast uses the context of the Red Scare to illustrate the purpose of the "Fifth." Fast spent World War II working with the United States Office of War Information, writing for Voice of America. In 1943, he joined the Communist Party USA and in 1950, he was called before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. While he was at Mill Point Federal Prison, Fast began writing his most famous work, Spartacus, a novel about an uprising among Roman slaves. Blacklisted by major publishing houses following his release from prison, Fast was forced to publish the novel himself, it was a success. He subsequently established the Blue Heron Press, which allowed him to continue publishing under his own name throughout the period of his blacklisting.

Just as the production of the film version of Spartacus is considered a milestone in the breaking of the Hollywood blacklist, the reissue of Fast's novel by Crown Publishers in 1958 ended his own blacklisting within the American publishing industry. In 1952, Fast ran for Congress on the American Labor Party ticket. During the 1950s he worked for the Communist newspaper, the Daily Worker. In 1953, he was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize; that decade, Fast broke with the Party over issues of conditions in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. In the mid-1950s, Fast moved with his family to New Jersey. In 1974, Fast and his family moved to California, where he wrote television scripts, including such television programs as How the West Was Won. In 1977, he published the first of a six-part series of novels. Fast died in Connecticut. Fast married his first wife, Bette Cohen, on June 6, 1937, their children were Rachel. Bette died in 1994. In 1999, he married Mercedes O'Connor, who had three sons. Fast's son Jonathan Fast, himself a novelist, was married to novelist Erica Jong.

The writer Julius Fast was his younger brother. Two Valleys Strange Yesterday Place in the City Conceived in Liberty The Last Frontier Haym Solomon: Son of Liberty Lord Baden-Powell of the Boy Scouts The Romance of a People Goethals and the Panama Canal The Picture-book History of the Jews The Tall Hunter The Unvanquished Citizen Tom Paine Freedom Road The American: a Middle Western legend Clarkton The Children My Glorious Brothers The Proud and the Free Spartacus ISBN 1-56324-599-X Fallen Angel. Under the pseudonym Walter Ericson Tony and the Wonderful Door The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti Silas Timberman The Story of Lola Gregg Moses, Prince of Egypt The Winston Affair The Golden River April Morning Power Agrippa's Daughter Torquemada The Crossing Series:The Crossing Bunker Hill. PrequelThe Hessian Lavette Family Series:The Immigrants Second Generation The Establishment The Legacy The Immigrant's Daughter An Independent Woman Max The Outsider The Dinner Party The Pledge The Confession of Joe Cullen The Trial of Abigail Goodman Seven Days in June The Bridge Builder's Story Redemption Greenwich ISBN 0-15-100620-2 In the Beginning: The Story of Abraham The Patriarchs: The Story of Abraham and Jacob The Coat of Many Colors: The Story of Joseph Sylvia Phyllis Alice Shirley Helen Harvey Krim:Lydia Cyntia John Gomaday and Larry Cohen:Penelope, adapte