Port Robinson, Ontario
Port Robinson is a small community in the southernmost part of Thorold, Canada. The community is divided in half by the Welland Canal, as there is no bridge in the immediate vicinity to connect the two halves of the community. In the summer, a small free ferry for pedestrians and cyclists runs across the canal. In the winter, residents must use the bridge on Highway 20, which results in a 13.3 km trip to get to the other side. Like all the ports on the first Welland Canal, Port Robinson was named after a member of the Family Compact that once ruled Upper Canada, as Ontario was named. Sir John Beverly Robinson was Attorney General of Upper Canada at the time the first Canal was built, the port was named Port Beverly. Bridge St in Port Robinson was linked by a vertical lift bridge, numbered as Bridge 12 by the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority. On August 25, 1974, the 600-foot ore carrier Steelton, travelling northbound on the canal and destroyed the bridge; the east tower of the bridge toppled over.
The bridge span was pushed into the water deformed. The damage to the bridge was estimated as between $15 and $20 million, it was scrapped in its entirety. The removal of the towers from the canal the counterweights, necessitated the use of a special heavy-duty floating crane; the canal was closed until September 9 for the repairs. The Steelton suffered damage to its pilot house, estimated at about $1 million; the repairs were made at the southern terminus of the Welland Canal. There was no loss of life; the bridge master, Albert Beaver, a watchman on the ship suffered minor injuries. The ensuing investigation concluded that the ship failed to blow the whistle to signal its approach and the bridge could not be raised in time. After the accident, rebuilding the bridge or building a tunnel to replace it was considered. In the end, it was concluded that the volume of local vehicular traffic was not sufficient to warrant such an expense. Instead, a passenger ferry service was launched in early 1977; the ferry can transport people and bicycles, but is not big enough for cars, thus forcing residents who want to use a car to take the long route.
In 2015, amid debate about discontinuing the ferry, it was estimated that the ferry carries 2000 pedestrians and 6000 touring cyclists per year. A similar accident occurred at Bridge 11 in Allanburg in 2001; that bridge was lowered onto the passing bulk carrier Windoc. The ship was a total loss, but no injuries were reported, Bridge 11 suffered minor damage and was repaired. While repairs were underway, Port Robinson residents wishing to travel by car to other side of the community had to drive farther than usual to use the Main Street Tunnel in Welland. Aftermath of Welland Canal Bridge 12 Collision The Welland Public Library's Canal history pages contain many newspaper clippings and photos documenting the Canal's history in general, the Port Robinson bridge accident in particular. Pictures of the canal's bridges are available, including some of the destroyed bridge. Images from the Historic Niagara Digital Collections at the Niagara Falls Public Library Whaddya Mean, I Have to Wait for the Green Light?
- Marine History of the Great Lakes website Port Robinson at Natural Resources Canada Geographical Names
Auburn, New York
Auburn is a city in Cayuga County, New York, United States, located at the north end of Owasco Lake, one of the Finger Lakes, in Central New York. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 27,687, it is the county seat of Cayuga County, the site of the maximum-security Auburn Correctional Facility, as well as the William H. Seward House Museum and the house of abolitionist Harriet Tubman; the region around Auburn had been Haudenosaunee territory for centuries before European contact and historical records. Auburn was founded during the post-Revolutionary period of settlement of western New York; the founder, John L. Hardenbergh, was a veteran of the Sullivan-Clinton campaign against the Iroquois during the American Revolution. Hardenbergh settled in the vicinity of the Owasco River with his infant daughter and two African-American slaves and Kate Freeman. After his death in 1806, Hardenbergh was buried in Auburn's North Street Cemetery, was re-interred in 1852 in Fort Hill Cemetery – the first burial in the city's newly opened burial ground.
The community grew up around Hardenbergh's sawmill. Known as Hardenbergh's Corners in the town of Aurelius, the settlement was renamed Auburn in 1805 when it became the county seat, it became an incorporated village in 1815, was chartered as a city in 1848. It was only a few miles from the Erie Canal, which opened in 1825 and allowed local factories to inexpensively ship goods north or south. In 1871, the Southern Central Railroad, financed by the Lehigh Valley Railroad, completed a line to carry coal from Athens, through Auburn to wharves on Lake Ontario at Fair Haven. From 1818 to 1939, Auburn was home to Auburn Theological Seminary, once one of the preeminent theological seminaries in the United States. In 1939, facing financial difficulties as a result of the Great Depression, the seminary moved to the campus of Union Theological Seminary in New York City; the only building from the Auburn Theological Seminary that stands today is Willard Memorial Chapel and the adjacent Welch Memorial Hall on Nelson Street, designed by Andrew Jackson Warner of Rochester, with stained-glass windows and interior decoration by Louis Comfort Tiffany.
It is the only unaltered Tiffany chapel interior known to exist. In 1816, Auburn Prison was founded as a model for the contemporary ideas about treating prisoners, known now as the Auburn system. Visitors were charged a fee for viewing its inmates. On August 6, 1890, the first execution by the electric chair was carried out at Auburn Prison. In 1901 Leon Czolgosz, assassin of President William McKinley, was executed there. Although the ideas of the Auburn System have been abandoned, the prison continues to serve as a maximum security facility, is one of the most secure prisons in the continental United States. Auburn is located at the north end of Owasco Lake, one of the Finger Lakes, drained by the Owasco Outlet – known as the Owasco River – which runs north through the city on its way to the Seneca River. A dam and operated by the city, controls the outflow of the lake, used for drinking water and recreation; the city is required to keep a sufficient amount of water in the river to deal with the effluent from its waste disposal treatment facility.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.4 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 0.89%, is water. US 20 is an important east-west highway passing through the city, New York State Route 34 and New York State Route 38 are north-south highways that intersect US-20 in Auburn. Seneca Falls is 15 miles west on US 20, Syracuse is 26 miles to the northeast via New York State Route 5; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Auburn has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 28,574 people, 11,411 households, 6,538 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,405.3 people per square mile. There were 12,637 housing units at an average density of 1,506.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.57% White, 7.59% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.41% from other races, 1.55% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.82% of the population. There were 11,411 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.7% were non-families. 36.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,281, the median income for a family was $41,169. Males had a median income of $32,349 versus $23,330 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,083.
About 12.5% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. The Auburn Enlarged City School District is the public school system serving Aubur
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied; the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to be dubbed the "Age of Fishes." The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placoderms began dominating every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins evolved into legs.
In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Late Ordovician. The first ammonites, species of molluscs, appeared. Trilobites, the mollusc-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common; the Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, the early formation of the small continent of Euramerica in between; the period is named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale. The Great Devonian Controversy was a long period of vigorous argument and counter-argument between the main protagonists of Roderick Murchison with Adam Sedgwick against Henry De la Beche supported by George Bellas Greenough.
Murchison and Sedgwick named the period they proposed as the Devonian System. While the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous 358.9 Mya. In nineteenth-century texts the Devonian has been called the "Old Red Age", after the red and brown terrestrial deposits known in the United Kingdom as the Old Red Sandstone in which early fossil discoveries were found. Another common term is "Age of the Fishes", referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, the latter three of which are placed in the Devonian; the Devonian has erroneously been characterised as a "greenhouse age", due to sampling bias: most of the early Devonian-age discoveries came from the strata of western Europe and eastern North America, which at the time straddled the Equator as part of the supercontinent of Euramerica where fossil signatures of widespread reefs indicate tropical climates that were warm and moderately humid but in fact the climate in the Devonian differed during its epochs and between geographic regions.
For example, during the Early Devonian, arid conditions were prevalent through much of the world including Siberia, North America, China, but Africa and South America had a warm temperate climate. In the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common; the Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions. The rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early DevonianThe Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ± 2.8 to 407.6 ± 2.5, was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began, 393.3± 2.7 million years ago. During this time, the first ammonoids appeared. Ammonoids during this time period differed little from their nautiloid counterparts; these ammonoids belong to the order Agoniatitida, which in epochs evolved to new ammonoid orders, for example Goniatitida and Clymeniida.
This class of cephalopod molluscs would dominate the marine fauna until the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Middle DevonianThe Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions: first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387.7± 2.7 million years ago. During this time the jawless agnathan fishes began to decline in diversity in freshwater and marine environments due to drastic environmental changes and due to the increasing competition and diversity of jawed fishes; the shallow, oxygen-depleted waters of Devonian inland lakes, surrounded by primitive plants, provided the environment necessary for certain early fish to develop such essential characteristics as well developed lungs, the ability to crawl out of the water and onto the land for short periods of time. Late DevonianFinally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian, 382.7 ± 2.8 to 372.2 ± 2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the fossil record in the ensuing Famennian subdivisi
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz, metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, become hard and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties; the distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists use 4–5 μm, colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 silt particles as being larger. Mixtures of sand and less than 40% clay are called loam. Loam is used as a building material. Clay minerals form over long periods of time as a result of the gradual chemical weathering of rocks silicate-bearing, by low concentrations of carbonic acid and other diluted solvents; these solvents acidic, migrate through the weathering rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the weathering process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of clay deposits: secondary. Primary clays remain at the site of formation. Secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with low energy depositional environments such as large lakes and marine basins.
Depending on the academic source, there are three or four main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a separate group within the phyllosilicates. There are 30 different types of "pure" clays in these categories, but most "natural" clay deposits are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by seasonal deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion and organic content; this type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes. When fine sediments are delivered into the calm waters of these glacial lake basins away from the shoreline, they settle to the lake bed; the resulting seasonal layering is preserved in an distribution of clay sediment banding. Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Northern Ireland, Sweden, it is a sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction, involved in several deadly landslides.
Powder X-ray diffraction can be used to identify clays. The physical and reactive chemical properties can be used to help elucidate the composition of clays. Clays exhibit plasticity. However, when dry, clay becomes firm and when fired in a kiln, permanent physical and chemical changes occur; these changes convert the clay into a ceramic material. Because of these properties, clay is used for making pottery, both utilitarian and decorative, construction products, such as bricks and floor tiles. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware and porcelain. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay; some of the earliest pottery shards recovered are from Japan. They are associated with the Jōmon culture and deposits they were recovered from have been dated to around 14,000 BC. Clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Scribes wrote by inscribing them with cuneiform script using a blunt reed called a stylus. Purpose-made clay balls were used as sling ammunition.
Clays sintered in fire were the first form of ceramic. Bricks, cooking pots, art objects, smoking pipes, musical instruments such as the ocarina can all be shaped from clay before being fired. Clay is used in many industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, chemical filtering; until the late 20th century, bentonite clay was used as a mold binder in the manufacture of sand castings. Clay, being impermeable to water, is used where natural seals are needed, such as in the cores of dams, or as a barrier in landfills against toxic seepage. Studies in the early 21st century have investigated clay's absorption capacities in various applications, such as the removal of heavy metals from waste water and air purification. Traditional uses of clay as medicine goes back to prehistoric times. An example is Armenian bole, used to soothe an upset stomach; some animals such as parrots and pigs ingest clay for similar reasons. Kaolin clay and attapulgite have been used as anti-diarrheal medicines.
Clay as the defining ingredient of loam is one of the oldest building materials on Earth, among other
Urban heat island
An urban heat island is an urban area or metropolitan area, warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The temperature difference is larger at night than during the day, is most apparent when winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the winter; the main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces. Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor; as a population center grows, it tends to increase its average temperature. The term heat island is used. Monthly rainfall is greater downwind of cities due to the UHI. Increases in heat within urban centers increases the length of growing seasons, decreases the occurrence of weak tornadoes; the UHI decreases air quality by increasing the production of pollutants such as ozone, decreases water quality as warmer waters flow into area streams and put stress on their ecosystems. Not all cities have a distinct urban heat island. Mitigation of the urban heat island effect can be accomplished through the use of green roofs and the use of lighter-colored surfaces in urban areas, which reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat.
Concerns have been raised about possible contribution from urban heat islands to global warming. While some lines of research did not detect a significant impact, other studies have concluded that heat islands can have measurable effects on climate phenomena at the global scale; the phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon. There are several causes of an urban heat island; this causes a change in the energy budget of the urban area leading to higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas. Another major reason is the lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas; the U. S. Forest Service found in 2018 that cities in the United States are losing 36 million trees each year. With a decreased amount of vegetation, cities lose the shade and evaporative cooling effect of trees. Other causes of a UHI are due to geometric effects; the tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight, increasing the efficiency with which urban areas are heated.
This is called the "urban canyon effect". Another effect of buildings is the blocking of wind, which inhibits cooling by convection and prevents pollutants from dissipating. Waste heat from automobiles, air conditioning and other sources contributes to the UHI. High levels of pollution in urban areas can increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radiative properties of the atmosphere. UHI not only raises urban temperatures but increases ozone concentrations because ozone is a green house gas whose formation will accelerate with the increase of temperature; some cities exhibit largest at night. Seasonally, UHI shows up both in winter; the typical temperature difference is several degrees between the center of the city and surrounding fields. The difference in temperature between an inner city and its surrounding suburbs is mentioned in weather reports, as in "68 °F downtown, 64 °F in the suburbs". "The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8–5.4 °F warmer than its surroundings.
In the evening, the difference can be as high as 22 °F."The UHI can be defined as either the air temperature difference or the surface temperature difference between the urban and the rural area. These two show different diurnal and seasonal variability and have different causes The IPCC stated that "it is well-known that compared to non-urban areas urban heat islands raise night-time temperatures more than daytime temperatures." For example, Spain is 0.2 °C cooler for daily maxima and 2.9 °C warmer for minima than a nearby rural station. A description of the first report of the UHI by Luke Howard in the late 1810s said that the urban center of London was warmer at night than the surrounding countryside by 3.7 °F. Though the warmer air temperature within the UHI is most apparent at night, urban heat islands exhibit significant and somewhat paradoxical diurnal behavior; the air temperature difference between the UHI and the surrounding environment is large at night and small during the day. The opposite is true for skin temperatures of the urban landscape within the UHI.
Throughout the daytime when the skies are cloudless, urban surfaces are warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Surfaces in the urban areas tend to warm faster than those of the surrounding rural areas. By virtue of their high heat capacities, urban surfaces act as a giant reservoir of heat energy. For example, concrete can hold 2,000 times as much heat as an equivalent volume of air; as a result, the large daytime surface temperature within the UHI is seen via thermal remote sensing. As is the case with daytime heating, this warming has the effect of generating convective winds within
The Welland Canal is a ship canal in Ontario, connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. It forms a key section of Great Lakes Waterway. Traversing the Niagara Peninsula from Port Weller to Port Colborne, it enables ships to ascend and descend the Niagara Escarpment and bypass Niagara Falls; the canal carries about 3,000 ships. It was a major factor in the growth of the city of Ontario; the original canal and its successors allowed goods from Great Lakes ports such as Cleveland and Chicago, as well as industrialized areas of the United States and Ontario, to be shipped to the port of Montreal or to Quebec City, where they were reloaded onto ocean-going vessels for international shipping. The Welland Canal eclipsed other, narrower canals in the region, such as the Trent-Severn Waterway and the Erie Canal by providing a shorter, more direct connection to Lake Erie; the southern, Lake Erie terminus of the canal is 99.5 metres higher than the northern terminus on Lake Ontario. The canal includes eight 24.4-metre-wide ship locks.
Seven of the locks raise passing ships by between 13 and 15 m each. The southernmost lock, is 349.9 m in length. The Garden City Skyway passes over the canal, restricting the maximum height of the masts of the ships allowed on this canal to 35.5 m. All other highway or railroad crossings of the Welland Canal are either movable bridges or subterranean tunnels; the maximum permissible length of a ship in this canal is 225.5 metres. It takes ships an average of about eleven hours to traverse the entire length of the Welland Canal. Before the digging of the Welland Canal, shipping traffic between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie used a portage road between Chippawa and Queenston, both of which are located on the Niagara River—above and below Niagara Falls, respectively; the Welland Canal Company was incorporated by the Province of Upper Canada, in 1824, after a petition by nine "freeholders of the District of Niagara". One of the petitioners was William Hamilton Merritt, in part looking to provide a regular flow of water for his many water-powered industries along the Twelve Mile Creek in Thorold.
The construction began at Allanburg, Ontario, on November 30, at a point now marked as such on the west end of Bridge No. 11. This canal opened for a trial run on November 30, 1829. After a short ceremony at Lock One, in Port Dalhousie, the schooner Anne & Jane made the first transit, upbound to Buffalo, N. Y. with Merritt as a passenger on her deck. The first canal ran from Port Dalhousie, Ontario on Lake Ontario south along Twelve Mile Creek to St. Catharines. From there it took a winding route up the Niagara Escarpment through Merritton, Ontario to Thorold, where it continued south via Allanburg to Port Robinson, Ontario on the Welland River. Ships went east on the Welland River to Chippawa, at the south end of the old portage road, where they made a sharp right turn into the Niagara River, upstream towards Lake Erie; the section between Allanburg and Port Robinson was planned to be carried in a subterranean tunnel. However, the sandy soil in this part of Ontario made a tunnel infeasible, a deep open-cut canal was dug instead.
A southern extension from Port Robinson opened with the founding of Port Colborne. This extension followed the Welland River south to Welland, split to run south to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. A feeder canal ran southwest from Welland to another point on Lake Erie, just west of Rock Point Provincial Park in Port Maitland. With the opening of the extension, the canal stretched 44 km between the two lakes, with 40 wooden locks; the minimum lock size was 33.5 by 6.7 m, with a minimum canal depth of 2.4 m. Deterioration of the wood used in the 40 locks and the increasing size of ships led to demand for the Second Welland Canal, which used cut stone locks, within just a few years. In 1839 the government of Upper Canada approved the purchase of shares in the private canal company in response to the company's continuing financial problems in the face of the continental financial panic of 1837; the public buyout was completed in 1841, work began to deepen the canal and to reduce the number of locks to 27, each 45.7 by 8.1 m.
By 1846, a 2.7 m deep path was completed through the Welland Canal, by 1848 that depth was extended the rest of the way to the Atlantic Ocean via the future path of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Competition came in 1854 with the opening of the Erie and Ontario Railway, running parallel to the original portage road. In 1859, the Welland Railway opened, parallel with the same endpoints, but this railway was affiliated with the canal, was used to help transfer cargoes from the lake ships, which were too large for the small canal locks, to the other end of the canal. Smaller ships called "canallers" took a part of these loads. Due to this problem, it was soon apparent. In 1887, a new shorter alignment was completed between Port Dalhousie. One of the