A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy as a symbol of an award to give an outstanding student some financial freedom. Others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO and various academic societies. While some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold. Before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. Before the establishment of standard military awards, e.g. the Medal of Honor, it was common practice to have a medal specially created to provide national recognition for a significant military or naval victory or accomplishment.
In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible. The commanding officer would receive his officers silver medals. Medals have been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the following metals: Gold Silver BronzeOccasionally, Platinum medals can be awarded; these metals designate the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods, the Silver Age, where youth lasted a hundred years, the Bronze Age, the era of heroes. The custom of awarding the sequence of gold and bronze medals for the first three highest achievers dates from at least the 18th century, with the National Association of Amateur Athletes in the United States awarding such medals as early as 1884; this standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given, not medals.
At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a gold medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, an olive wreath made of wild olive leaves from a sacred tree near the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. Herodotus describes a story that explains why there were only a few Greek men at the Battle of Thermopylae since "all other men were participating in the Olympic Games" and that the prize for the winner was "an olive-wreath"; when Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader: "Good heavens! What kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour". Hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal and the second-place finisher received a bronze medal.
In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller; the use of gold declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of solid gold were awarded at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92.5% silver, must contain a minimum of 6 grams of gold. All Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host. From 1928 through 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli of Greek goddess Nike with Rome's Colloseum in the background and text naming the host city. From the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheater for what were Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
For the 2008 Beijing Olympics medals had a diameter of 70mm and were 6mm thick, with the front displaying a winged figure of victory and the back showed a Beijing Olympics symbol surrounded by an inset jade circle. Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design; the silver and bronze medals have always borne the same designs. The award of a gold medal coupled with the award of silver and bronze medals to the next place finishers, has been adopted in other sports competitions and in other competitive fields, such as music and writing, as well as some competitive games. Bronze medals are awarded only to third place, but in some contests there is some variety, such as International barbershop music contests where bronze medals are awarded for third and fifth place. List of gold medal awards Medals: Going For Gold! - Minerals Council of Australia Royal Canadian Mint Interactive 3D Tour of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Medals
Scrubs (TV series)
Scrubs is an American medical comedy-drama television series created by Bill Lawrence that aired from October 2, 2001, to March 17, 2010, on NBC and ABC. The series follows the lives of employees at the fictional Sacred Heart Hospital, which becomes a Teaching Hospital; the title is a play on surgical scrubs and a term for a low-ranking person because at the beginning of the series, most of the main characters are medical interns. The series was noted for its fast-paced slapstick and surreal vignettes presented as the daydreams of the central character, Dr. John "J. D." Dorian, played by Zach Braff. The main cast for all but its last season consisted of Braff, Sarah Chalke, Donald Faison, Neil Flynn, Ken Jenkins, John C. McGinley, Judy Reyes; the series featured multiple guest appearances by film actors, such as Brendan Fraser, Heather Graham, Colin Farrell. Although season eight's "My Finale" was conceived and filmed as a series finale, the show was rebooted for a ninth season, with the setting moved to a medical school, new cast members introduced.
Of the original cast, only Braff, McGinley remained regular cast members, while the others, with the exception of Reyes, made guest appearances. Scrubs, produced by the television production division of Walt Disney Television, premiered on October 2, 2001, on NBC; the series received a Peabody Award in 2006. During the seventh season, NBC announced; the ninth season premiered on December 1, 2009, on May 14, 2010, ABC cancelled the series. Scrubs focuses on the unique point of view of its main character and narrator, Dr. John Michael "J. D." Dorian for the first eight seasons, with season nine being narrated by the new main character Lucy Bennett. Most episodes feature multiple story lines thematically linked by voice-overs done by Braff, as well as the comical daydreams of J. D. According to Bill Lawrence, "What we decided was, rather than have it be a monotone narration, if it's going to be Zach's voice, we're going to do everything through J. D.'s eyes. It opened up a visual medium that those of us as comedy writers were not used to."
Actors were given the chance to improvise their lines on set with encouragement by series creator Bill Lawrence, with Neil Flynn and Zach Braff being the main improvisors. Every episode title for the first eight seasons begins with the word "My". Bill Lawrence says. A few episodes are told from another character's perspective and have episode titles such as "His Story" or "Her Story". Apart from a brief period of narration from J. D. at the beginning and the end, these episodes contain internal narration from other characters besides J. D; the transfer of the narration duties occurs at a moment of physical contact between two characters. Starting with season nine, the episode titles start with "Our..." as the focus has shifted from the perspective of J. D. to a new group of medical students. The webisodes that accompanied season eight, Scrubs: Interns were named "Our...". For the first eight seasons, the series featured seven main cast members, with numerous other characters recurring throughout the course of the series.
Starting with the ninth season, many of the original cast left as regular characters, while four new additions were made to the main cast. Zach Braff portrays John Michael "J. D." Dorian, the show's protagonist and narrator. J. D. is a young attending physician. His voice-over to the series comes from his internal thoughts and features surreal fantasies. J. D. describes himself as a "sensi", being a lover of hugs. Over the course of the series, J. D. rises the ranks of the hospital before leaving Sacred Heart to become the Residency Director at St. Vincent Hospital, before returning to become a teacher at Winston University. J. D. has a child with wife Elliot Reid. Sarah Chalke portrays Elliot Reid, another intern and private-practice physician, her relationship with J. D. becomes romantic on several occasions throughout the series, resulting in them marrying and having a child together. As the series progresses, despite an initial dislike of each other, she becomes friends with Carla. Elliot is driven by a neurotic desire to prove her worth to her family, her peers, herself.
She is described as book-smart, while her social abilities were somewhat lacking. Her social skills develop throughout the seasons. Donald Faison portrays Christopher Turk, J. D.'s best friend and surgeon, who rises from intern to chief of surgery as the series progresses. Turk and J. D. were roommates when they attended the College of William and Mary, as well as in medical school, the two have an close relationship. Turk is driven and competitive while always remaining loyal. During the course of the series, Turk forms a relationship with Carla. In season nine, he is a teacher at Winston University while continuing his duties as chief of surgery. Neil Flynn portrays the hospital's custodian. An incident in the pilot episode establishes an antagonistic relationship between J. D. an
CHiPs is an American crime drama television series that aired on NBC from September 15, 1977 to May 1, 1983. It followed the lives of two motorcycle officers of the California Highway Patrol; the series ran for 139 episodes over six seasons, plus one reunion TV movie in October 1998. CHiPs is an action crime drama in a standard hour-long time slot, which at the time required 48 minutes of actual programming. Over-the-top freeway pileups, which occurred especially in the seasons, were a signature of the show. For filming, traffic on Los Angeles freeways was non-existent and most chase scenes were done on back roads; the show was created by Rick Rosner, starred Erik Estrada as macho, rambunctious Officer Francis Llewellyn "Ponch" Poncherello and Larry Wilcox as his straitlaced partner, Officer Jonathan Andrew Baker. With Ponch the more trouble-prone of the pair, Jon the more level-headed one trying to keep him out of trouble with the duo's gruff yet fatherly immediate supervisor Sergeant Joseph Getraer, the two were Highway Patrolmen of the Central Los Angeles office of the California Highway Patrol.
As real-life CHP motor officers ride in pairs, in early episodes this was explained away by placing the trouble-prone Ponch on probationary status, with Jon assigned as his field training officer. By the end of the first season, this subplot faded away as audiences were used to seeing the two working as a team. Larry Wilcox as Officer Jonathan Andrew "Jon" Baker / 7-Mary-3, he is the partner of "Ponch". Erik Estrada as Officer Francis Llewelyn "Ponch" Poncherello / 7-Mary-4, he is the partner of Jon. Robert Pine as Sergeant Joseph Getraer / S-4 Lew Saunders as Officer Gene Fritz / 5-David-5 Brodie Greer as Officer Barry "Bear" Baricza / 7-Adam Paul Linke as Officer Arthur "Grossie" Grossman / 7-Mary-5 Lou Wagner as Harlan Arliss, Automobile/Motorcycle Mechanic, CHP Brianne Leary as Officer Sindy Cahill / 7-Charles Randi Oakes as Officer Bonnie Clark / 7-Charles Michael Dorn as Officer Jedediah Turner / 7-David Bruce Jenner as Officer Steve McLeish Tom Reilly as Officer Bobby "Hot Dog" Nelson / 15-Mary-7 Tina Gayle as Officer Kathy Linahan / 7-Mary-10 Bruce Penhall as Cadet/Officer Bruce Nelson / 15-Mary-8 Clarence Gilyard, Jr. as Officer Benjamin Webster / 15-Adam-9 In the fifth season, Estrada went on strike over a dispute over syndication profits.
As a result, he did not appear in seven episodes. Despite their successful pairing on-screen and Estrada did not always get along behind the camera. However, it was Wilcox's falling-out with the producers over what he saw as continual favoritism toward Estrada that saw Wilcox not return for the sixth and final season. Wilcox was replaced by Tom Reilly. Bruce Penhall, a native of Balboa Island, Newport Beach and a motorcycle speedway rider who had won the 1981 and 1982 Speedway World Championships, was introduced as cadet–probationary officer Bruce Nelson, Bobby's younger brother in 1982–83; the season 6 episode "Speedway Fever" centered on Penhall's character Nelson winning the 1982 Speedway World Final at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, with scenes filmed in the pits during the meeting. The episode used television coverage of the final, with dubbed commentary. Penhall admitted that having a bodyguard and having to have makeup done in the pits in full view of his competitors at the World Final only added to the pressure he was under both as a rider and a rookie actor and that it felt weird having to "buddy up to Ponch" in front of the other riders while the World Final was taking place.
In order to become a full-time member of the CHiPs cast, Penhall had announced his retirement from speedway racing on the podium of the 1982 World Final. According to a 1998 TV Guide article, show creator Rick Rosner was a reserve deputy with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. During a coffee break on an evening patrol shift in the mid-1970s he saw two young CHP officers on motorcycles which gave him the idea for this series, he created 240-Robert, which seemed like a hybrid of CHiPs and Emergency!. Episodes reference Jon Baker's service in Vietnam; this makes his character one of the earliest regular portrayals of a Vietnam veteran on television. Indeed, Larry Wilcox served 13 months in Vietnam as a Marine artilleryman. Despite the Ford Motor Company's credit as a vehicle provider for four of the series' six seasons and trucks were supplied by several manufacturers. All of the police cars were Dodge models, as they were actual CHP cruisers bought at police auction for the show. Although doubles were used for far-off shots and various stunt or action sequences and Estrada did a great deal of their own motorcycle riding, performed many smaller stunts themselves.
Although Wilcox emerged injury-free, Estrada suffered various injuries several times throughout the run of the series. In several early first-season episodes, a huge bruise or scab can be seen on his arm after he was flung from one of the motorcycles and skidded along the ground, but his worst accident came when he was injured in a motorcycle accident while filming a season three episode in August 1979, fracturing several ribs and breaking both wrists. The accident and Estrada's subsequent hospitalization was incorporated into the series' storyline. Prior to being cas
Adult Swim is the adult-oriented nighttime programming block of the American children's cable network Cartoon Network and its own television production studio Williams Street Productions. It broadcasts every night from 8 p.m.-6 a.m.. Williams Street produces Toonami, block-within-a-block, on Adult Swim and produced Miguzi. Debuting in 2001, Adult Swim serves as the nighttime identity of Cartoon Network, was established as alternative programming during the late night hours when Cartoon Network's primary target audience, children between the ages of 6–15, would be sleeping. Much of Adult Swim's general content is known for their experimental, risqué, crude and improvisational humor, along with purposefully cheap-looking animation, bizarre presentation. In 2005, the block was granted its own Nielsen ratings report from Cartoon Network due to targeting a separate demographic; the block features stylistically varied animated and live-action shows including original programming, syndicated series consisting of Fox animated programming, short films, original video animation, anime with minimal or no editing for content.
In the United States, Adult Swim has aired adult animation features, mockumentaries, sketch comedy, live action, pilots. Shows may have sexual themes, frank sexual discussion, strong language, graphic violence. While the network features comedic and dramatic programs of all types, many of its programs are aesthetically experimental, transgressive and surrealist in nature. Thus, Adult Swim has become a source of conflict, with some saying that it is too controversial, while others noting that its ability to question the norm brings a level of surrealism and experimentalism, welcome. Adult Swim has contracted with various studios known for their productions in absurd and shock comedy; as with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim's reach through various services totals 94 million American households. Cartoon Network's original head programmer, Mike Lazzo, conceived Adult Swim; the block grew out of Cartoon Network's previous attempts at airing content appropriate for teenagers and young adults who might be watching the channel after 11 pm.
The network began experimenting with its late night programming by airing anthology shows like ToonHeads, The Bob Clampett Show, The Tex Avery Show, Late Night Black and White, O Canada, which all presented uncensored classic cartoon shorts, as well as blocks such as Toonami Midnight Run. In numerous interviews, it had been stated that at the time, one third of Cartoon Network's audience were adults. During the 1990s, prime time animation geared at adults started growing popular due to the success of Fox's hit show The Simpsons; this was followed by a trend of other adult-oriented animated shows throughout the decade, such as: Liquid Television and Butt-Head, Aeon Flux, The Brothers Grunt, The Critic, The Maxx, King of the Hill, South Park, Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist, The Oblongs, Clerks: The Animated Series, Mission Hill, Home Movies, Family Guy, more. Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Cartoon Network's first foray into original programming, was created in 1994 for late night adult audiences.
The series was created by Mike Lazzo's Ghost Planet Industries, which became Williams Street Studios, the eventual producers and programmers of Adult Swim. Between 4:00 am and 5:00 am on December 21, December 30, 2000, several new Williams Street series made unannounced "stealth" premieres. Sealab 2021, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, Aqua Teen Hunger Force and The Brak Show all premiered unannounced. Prior to that, in Entertainment Weekly, it was stated that Michael Ouweleen's next project was working on the Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law Pilot with J. J. Sedelmaier. In a 1999 interview, the indie pop rock band Calamine stated they had recorded the theme song for Sealab 2021. While entertaining pitches for a variety of adult cartoons, Lazzo realized the potential for packaging them as a complete adult-focused block. Different names were considered, including “ibiso”, said to be Spanish for “stop”, “Parental Warning", but he settled on "Adult Swim". In June 2001, TV Guide had recorded an interview with Cartoon Network's former president, Betty Cohen.
She stated there was a new programming block coming out in September, aimed for an adult audience. During this month at the Cartoon Network Confidential, "Cartoon Network's best originals and outrageous animated shorts for discriminating adults" in New York City, an upcoming episode of Space Ghost Coast to Coast titled "Kentucky Nightmare", the stealth pilots from December, Captain Linger, an episode of Home Movies were screened for free; the screening was part of the Toyota Comedy Festival. On Saturday, July 21, 2001, the Space Ghost Coast to Coast panel at San Diego Comic Con had a trivia game in which the winners won a promotional CD that had the theme songs to the upcoming Adult Swim Shows. Everybody who attended got a free Adult
Bad Religion is an American punk rock band that formed in Los Angeles, California in 1980. The band is noted for covering several topics in their lyrics, such as society in general, criticism of religion, equal rights, the media, personification, mental disorder and the use of drugs. Musically, they are noted for their melodic sensibilities and extensive use of three-part vocal harmonies; the band has experienced multiple line-up changes, with singer Greg Graffin being the band's only constant member, though fellow founding members Jay Bentley and Brett Gurewitz have since rejoined, guitarist Brian Baker has performed with the group since 1994. The most recent additions to the band are guitarist Mike Dimkich and drummer Jamie Miller, who joined in 2013 and 2015 respectively. To date, Bad Religion has released sixteen studio albums, two live albums, three compilation albums, three EPs, two live DVDs, they are considered to be one of the best-selling punk rock acts of all time, having sold over five million albums worldwide.
By the time they were signed to Atlantic Records in 1993, Bad Religion had built an underground following with their early albums, including Suffer, No Control, Against the Grain and Generator. The band first reached substantial commercial success with their seventh studio album and Atlantic debut Recipe for Hate, which peaked at number 14 on Billboard's Heatseekers chart, spawned one of their most popular songs "American Jesus". Recipe for Hate was followed a year by Stranger than Fiction, which spawned their biggest hits "Infected" and the re-recorded version of "21st Century", was certified gold in both the United States and Canada. Shortly before the release of Stranger than Fiction, Gurewitz left Bad Religion to run his label Epitaph on a full-time basis, was replaced by Brian Baker. Since Gurewitz's return to the band and their split with Atlantic in 2001, they have undergone a resurgence in popularity, with their sixteenth studio album True North becoming Bad Religion's first album to crack the top 20 on the Billboard 200 chart, where it peaked at number 19.
The band's seventeenth studio album, Age of Unreason, will be released May 3, 2019. Bad Religion was formed in Los Angeles, California in 1980 by high school students Greg Graffin, Jay Bentley, Jay Ziskrout, Brett Gurewitz, their first public performance was playing 6 or 8 songs at a Fullerton, California or Santa Ana, California warehouse opening for Social Distortion. Their first official show was on November 1980 at Joey Kills Bar in Burbank, California. In 1981, the band released their initial eponymous album on the newly formed label, Epitaph Records, continues to be managed and owned by Gurewitz. In 1981, the band began recording their first full-length album, How Could Hell Be Any Worse?. During the recording of this album, drummer Jay Ziskrout quit the band, was replaced by Peter Finestone. Released in 1982, How Could Hell Be Any Worse? was distributed by the band under the Epitaph label, sold 12,000 copies. In 1983, the band released Into the Unknown, a keyboard-driven progressive hard rock album with a slower pace.
All of the albums the band produced were sold out of the warehouse they were housed in without the band's knowledge, after which this album went out of print. This incident, as well as band members' divergent personal lives, led to the band's temporary dissolution shortly after the album's release. Soon after, Graffin reassembled Bad Religion with Circle Jerks guitarist Greg Hetson replacing Gurewitz, who had gone into rehab for his drug problem. Bad Religion returned to a somewhat mellower and roll version of their original sound with the Back to the Known EP; the band split toward the middle of 1985. Bad Religion reformed in 1986 out of the Back to the Known line-up when Graffin called Bentley and asked him to return. Bentley's response was tentative, but after being assured that the setlist consisted of tracks from How Could Hell Be Any Worse?, he agreed to return for one show, ended up staying on because he had so much fun. A freshly rehabilitated Gurewitz was convinced to come back aboard, with Pete Finestone returning on drums and Greg Hetson on second guitar.
This lineup recorded the band's third album, released in 1988. Although the album did not chart on the Billboard 200, it received some positive reviews, was voted Best Album of the Year by publications such as Trust, Maximum Rocknroll and Flipside. During the Suffer tour in 1988, Bad Religion began writing new material. In early 1989, while the band was on break from touring, they commenced work on their next album, entered the Westbeach Recorders studio in June of that year to record it; the resulting album, No Control, was released in November 1989, was Bad Religion's best-selling album at the time selling more than 80,000 copies. Bad Religion's hardcore punk style continued with their next album, Against the Grain, released in 1990. While the album still did not break the band into mainstream audiences, it was the first 100,000 seller, showed how they were growing. "21st Century", one of the tracks off the album, is regarded as the band's most well-known song, has been played at every live show.
Drummer Pete Finestone left Bad Religion again in April 1991 to focus on his other band, the Fishermen, which had signed with a major label, Bobby Schayer joined the band as his replacement. In May 1991, Bad Religion entered the Westbeach Recorders studio to begin recording material for their s
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the Santa Monica Mountains; the neighborhood touches Studio City, Universal City and Burbank on the north, Griffith Park on the north and east, Los Feliz on the southeast, Hollywood on the south and Hollywood Hills West on the west. It includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US 101; the neighborhood is bounded on the northwest and north by the Los Angeles city line, on the east by a fireroad through Griffith Park, continuing on Western Avenue, on the south by Franklin Avenue and on the west by an irregular line that includes Outpost Drive. The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools.
Hollywood Hills contains several neighborhoods: A total of 21,588 people lived in the neighborhood's 7.05 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 3,063 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city or the county. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008; the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the county's highest; the neighborhood is "not diverse" for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites is considered high, at 74.1%. Latinos make up 9.4%, Asians are at 6.7%, African American at 4.6% and others at 5.3%. In 2000, Mexico and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 22.8% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a low percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county.
The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 1.8 people was low. Renters occupied 56.5% of the housing units, homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6.9%, a rate, low in both the county and the city. In 2000, 54.8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. There are five secondary or elementary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: Immaculate Heart High and Middle School, private, 5515 Franklin Avenue Valley View Elementary School, LAUSD, 6921 Woodrow Wilson Drive The Neilson Academy, private, 2528 Canyon Drive Cheremoya Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6017 Franklin Avenue The Oaks, private elementary, 6817 Franklin AvenueThe American Film Institute is at 2021 North Western Avenue The neighborhood includes: The Hollywood Bowl The John Anson Ford Amphitheatre A portion of Griffith Park, including Hollywoodland Camp Forest Lawn Memorial Park Elisha Cuthbert, actress Ben Affleck, actor Christina Aguilera, singer Earle D. Baker, Los Angeles City Council member Halle Berry, actress Jolene Blalock, actress Gisele Bundchen, Victoria's Secret supermodel, bought her three-bedroom house in the Hollywood Hills for close to $2 million Sam Cooke, singer Kevin Costner, actor Robert Culp, actor William De Los Santos, poet, producer, film director Richard Dreyfuss, actor Anna Faris, actress Errol Flynn, actor David Giuntoli, actor Stuart Hamblen, country singer Salma Hayek, actress Niall Horan, Irish pop singer Helen Hunt, actress Billy Idol, English rock musician Tom Leykis and internet talk show personality Demi Lovato, actress and songwriter Tobey Maguire paid more than $2 million for a modern home in the Hollywood Hills Johnny Mathis, singer Joel McHale, American actor and comedian Simon Monjack, producer, writer Brittany Murphy, actress Kristin Nelson and painter Ricky Nelson, actor and songwriter Tracy Nelson, actress Matthew Perry, actor Joaquin Phoenix, actor Chris Pratt, Keanu Reeves actor, bought a house in May 2003 for $4.5 million Kevin Smith, actor and comedian Sage Stallone and son of Sylvester Stallone Robert and Peggy Stevenson, Los Angeles City Council members Quentin Tarantino, film director Justin Timberlake, American singer, songwriter and record producer Bitsie Tulloch, actress Anna Kendrick, singer Rebel Wilson, actress and singer Lloyd G. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills