Bertel Geismar Haarder was the Danish Minister for Culture and Church until 2016. He is the longest serving Danish minister since 1901, he represents a Danish centre-right party. From November 2001 to February 2005 he was Minister for Refugees and Integration in the Cabinet of Anders Fogh Rasmussen I, enacted a policy of tough measures designed to limit the number of immigrants coming to Denmark. From February 2005 until February 2010 Haarder was once more the Education Minister in the Cabinet of Anders Fogh Rasmussen II. From February 2010 to October 2011 he was Interior and Health Minister in the Lars Løkke Rasmussen I Cabinet Furthermore, from February 2005 to November 2007 he was minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs and from November 2007 until February 2010 the Minister of Nordic Cooperation in the Cabinet of Anders Fogh Rasmussen III. In February 2010 the veteran minister took over as Interior and Health Minister until October 2011. From 10 September 1982 to 25 January 1993 he was Education Minister in various cabinets of Poul Schlüter.
From 10 September 1987 to 25 January 1993 he was the Minister for Science and Progress. Haarder was first elected to the Folketing in 1975; until 1977 he was a member of the Folketing representing North Jutland County constituency, from 1977 to 1999 he was a member of the Folketing from Copenhagen County constituency. From 2005 to 2007, he was a member from Vestsjælland County constituency, since 2007 he has been a member from Greater Copenhagen greater constituency, he was a Member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 2001, he served as Vice-Chairman of the European Parliament from 1997 to 1999. CV – from the website of the Danish Folketing Bertel Haarder Den Store Danske, Gyldendals åbne encyclopædi
Møn is an island in south-eastern Denmark. Until 1 January 2007, it was a municipality in its own right but it is now part of the municipality of Vordingborg, after merging with the former municipalities of Langebæk, Præstø, Vordingborg; this has created a municipality with an area of 615 km2 and a total population of 46,307. It belongs to the Region Sjælland. Møn is one of Denmark's most popular destinations for tourists with its white chalk cliffs, sandy beaches and the market town of Stege. In June 2017, UNESCO designated Møn as Denmark's first biosphere reserve, consisting of "a series of islands and islets in the southern Baltic Sea, over 45,118 hectares, its landscapes include woodlands, meadows, coastal areas and steep hills." Møn is located just off the south-eastern tip of Zealand from which it is separated by the waters of the Hølen strait between Kalvehave and the island of Nyord, at the northern end of Møn. Further south is Stege Bay. At the narrowest point between the two islands, the waters are referred to as Wolf Strait, the primary strait separating Møn from Zealand.
To the southwest is Stubbekøbing on the island of Falster, separated from Møn by the Grønsund. There are a number of islands in the waters off Møn, including Nyord and Bogø, the smaller island of Farø, as well as the islands of Langø, Tærø and Lilleø off the coast of Zealand; the island of Lindholm in Stege Bugt is state-owned, is the location for the State Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. Møn is connected to Zealand at the town of Kalvehave by the Queen Alexandrine Bridge; the bridge opened for traffic on 30 May 1943, is named after Queen Alexandrine, the Queen Consort of King Christian X. The bridge is 746 metres long and considered to be one of Denmark's most attractive bridges. At the south-western corner, Møn disconnects by causeway to the 5 km × 7 km island of Bogø. From Bogø another causeway connects to the small island of Farø, which acts as the centre point for the Farø Bridges carrying the motorway between Zealand and Falster; the north Farø bridge has a span of 1.5 km, the south bridge a span of 1.7 km with a 290-metre-long central span for shipping.
The central span is supported by cables from two 95 m pylons which raise the bridge 26 metres above sea level. The bridge forms part of Euroroute E47 from Copenhagen to Lübeck. At the north-western tip of Møn there is a narrow bridge to the small island of Nyord. Stege, the largest town on the island of Møn, is situated at the centre point of the island at the mouth of Stege Nor, a lake which connects directly to the sea; the population is around 4,000. The town has a great deal of charm with historic buildings, a marina and several restaurants and cafes. Stege Church built in the Romanesque style dates from the early 13th century; the annual "Stege Festival" takes place every Tuesday in July, the first Tuesday in August. Møn is known for its natural environment, sandy beaches, fresco-decorated churches, Stone Age and Bronze Age passage graves and monuments, Møns Klint, the island's most popular attraction; the cliffs, c. 6 km long and up to 128 metres tall, are Denmark's highest, support a unique set of natural habitats.
Access to the narrow beach is via a flight of 500 steps from the parking area set within the beech forest behind the cliffs. The GeoCenter Møns Klint, a geological museum tracing the origins of Denmark and the formation of the cliffs opened there in May 2007; the combination of chalk in the subsoil with a dry local climate, its agricultural use consisting of cattle grazing, has created some of Denmark's richest meadowlands. The chalk was transported to Møn during the fourth, most recent, major ice age. Another attraction close to the cliffs is Liselund, the romantic summer residence erected in the 1790s by French nobleman Antoine de Bosc de la Calmette for his wife, Lise; the miniature thatched palace and grounds were designed by Andreas Kirkerup, one of the foremost landscape architects of the times. A larger house was constructed in the park in 1887 by Baron Fritz Rosenkrantz, now a hotel; the park is open to the public and includes the original thatched manor house, Swiss cottage, Chinese tea house and Norwegian log cabin.
Calmette was responsible for the park at Marienborg, to the west of Stege. At the north-western corner of Møn is a narrow bridge to the island of Nyord; the small village on the island has a number of quaint cottages and farmhouses as well as a unique octagonal church and a small harbour. Nyord is an important habitat for geese and other wading birds. There is a bird-watching tower for the use of visitors. At the south-western corner, Møn connects by causeway to the 5 by 7 km island of Bogø; the island has an old bording school and a summer ferry to Stubbekøbing. Møn has a number of interesting churches decorated with frescos. Fanefjord Church dates back to the 13th century, has a set of restored frescos painted in 1450 by the Elmelunde Master. Frescos can be seen in Elmelunde Church, the oldest church on the island, with parts dating from the start of the 12th century. Keldby Church has a unique altarpiece and is richly decorated with frescos. Another interesting church is the one at Damsholte, it is one of the finest Rococo buildings in Denmark and the only village church built in the Rococo style.
The oldest and most impressive burial mound on Møn is Grønsalen near Fanefjord Church. The 100 m by 10 m ba
Vilhelm Buhl was Prime Minister of Denmark from 4 May 1942 to 9 November 1942 as head of the Unity Government during the German occupation of Denmark of World War II, until the Nazis ordered him removed. He was Prime Minister again from 5 May 1945 to 7 November 1945 as head of a unity government after the liberation of Denmark by the British Field Marshal Montgomery. Vilhelm Buhl was a member of the Social Democrats, had held the post of Finance Minister in the cabinets of Thorvald Stauning from 20 July 1937 to 4 May 1942. During Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark, Thorvald Stauning had created a unity government; when Thorvald Stauning died in May 1942, Vilhelm Buhl succeeded him. This government only lasted six months, because of a diplomatic incident, the Telegram Crisis, in which King Christian X sent a short and formal reply to a long birthday telegram from Adolf Hitler. Hitler was outraged by this insult, as a result Vilhelm Buhl was replaced by Erik Scavenius. Werner Best was sent to Denmark as a new tough Nazi commander.
After the liberation of Denmark on 5 May 1945, the politicians and the resistance fighters formed a unity government. Many Danes were dissatisfied with the politicians because of their policy of cooperation with the Germans that had dominated at the start of the war, hence the inclusion of the resistance fighters. Notable members of the cabinet included Aksel Larsen, Hans Hedtoft, H. C. Hansen, Knud Kristensen and John Christmas Møller. In social policy, the government presided over the passage of the Housing Obligation Act of August 1945, introduced obligatory allocation of vacant housing to ensure that vacant flats were let in the first instance to those with low incomes, while establishing tight rent controls; the government presided over the trials of the people who had cooperated with the Germans, as a result of which 45 persons were executed. After the elections in October 1945 Knud Kristensen became the new prime minister. Kristian Hvidt, Statsministre i Danmark fra 1913 til 1995 Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Volume 4 edited by Peter Flora Newspaper clippings about Vilhelm Buhl in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Easter Crisis of 1920
The Easter Crisis of 1920 was a constitutional crisis and a significant event in the development of constitutional monarchy in Denmark during the Easter in March–April that year. It began with the dismissal of the elected government by the reigning monarch, King Christian X, a reserve power, granted to him by the Danish constitution; the immediate cause was a conflict between the king and the cabinet over the reunification with Denmark of Schleswig, a former Danish fiefdom, lost to Prussia during the Second War of Schleswig. Danish claims to the region persisted to the end of World War I, at which time the defeat of the Germans made it possible to resolve the dispute. According to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the disposition of Schleswig was to be determined by two Schleswig Plebiscites: one in Northern Schleswig, the other in Central Schleswig. No plebiscite was planned for Southern Schleswig, as it was dominated by an ethnic German majority and, in accordance with prevailing sentiment of the times in favor of the nation state, remained part of the post-war German state.
In Northern Schleswig, 75 % voted for reunification with 25 % for remaining with Germany. In Central Schleswig, the situation was reversed with 20 % for Denmark. In light of these results, the government of Prime Minister Carl Theodor Zahle determined that reunification with Northern Schleswig could go forward, while Central Schleswig would remain under German control. Many Danish nationalists felt that Central Schleswig should be returned to Denmark regardless of the plebiscite's results motivated by a desire to see Germany permanently weakened in the future. Christian agreed with these sentiments, ordered Prime Minister Zahle to include Central Schleswig in the re-unification process; as Denmark had been operating as a parliamentary democracy since the Cabinet of Deuntzer in 1901, Zahle felt he was under no obligation to comply. He refused the order and resigned several days after a heated exchange with the king. Subsequently, Christian dismissed the rest of the government and replaced it with a de facto conservative care-taker cabinet under Otto Liebe.
The dismissal caused demonstrations and an revolutionary atmosphere in Denmark, for several days the future of the monarchy seemed much in doubt. In light of this, negotiations were opened between the king and members of the Social Democrats. Faced with the potential overthrow of the Danish crown, Christian backed down and dismissed his own government, installing as a compromise cabinet under Michael Pedersen Friis until elections could be held that year; this was the most recent time that a sitting Danish monarch took political action without the full support of parliament. Following the crisis, Christian accepted his drastically reduced role as symbolic head of state. King–Byng Affair 1975 Australian constitutional crisis Christian X
Landstinget was the upper house of the Rigsdag, from 1849 until 1953, when the bicameral system was abolished in favor of unicameralism. Landstinget had powers equal to the Folketing, which made the two houses of parliament hard to distinguish. Membership and the electorate was restricted, the members were conservatives. Membership of the house was restricted to certain sectors of society: only males with a certain net worth could hold a seat. In 1915, these restrictions were removed, a few new members were appointed by the existing members. Ting means assembly, it first came into being during Viking times and was formed by the freemen of the community, it numbered about a hundred men. Tings were necessary in the clan-based society of Northern Germany and Scandinavia, because they allowed for inter-clan wars to be resolved or prevented through the mediation of the ting, it served as the place for religious rites and trade negotiations. Landstinget is the Danish name for the modern Parliament of Greenland.
Under the Constitution of 1849, the requirements for the right to vote was the same for the two houses, however the requirements for electability were stricter for Landstinget. The house had 51 members, all elected indirectly; the voters elected a group of electors for each constituency, the electors elected the members of the house. The members were elected for a term of eight years. With the Constitution of 1866, the electoral system was reformed; the number of seats was increased to 66 of which twelve were appointed by the king for a period of twelve years, one by the Faroese Løgting. The remaining 53 were elected indirectly. In Copenhagen, half the electors were elected by the voters paying the largest amount of tax, the other half by all the voters. In the rest of the country, one elector was elected by the voters in each parish in the countryside and half as many electors were elected in the market towns by the same system as in Copenhagen. For each elector elected in the parishes and the market towns, one elector was found among those that paid the greatest amount of tax in the parishes.
As the main direct tax of the time was based on real estate and its value as farmland, this system favored manor owners. The result was a conservative majority lasting 35 years, until the 1902 election; the next reform of the electoral system came with the Constitution of 1915, the first election under this system was the 1918 election. Women were given the right to vote, the number of seats was increased to 72, the number of constituencies was reduced to seven, the system of royally appointed members was replaced by 18 members elected by the resigning Landsting for a period of eight years. Although a 1939 referendum that would have replaced Landstinget with another chamber—the Rigsting—and simplified the legislative process, failed due to a low voter turnout, the bicameral system and thereby Landstinget was abolished when the current constitution was approved in a 1953 referendum. Danish politics Government of Denmark Government of the Faroe Islands Government of Greenland List of Speakers of the Folketing Ting
The Danevirke is a system of Danish fortifications in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. This important linear defensive earthwork across the neck of the Cimbrian peninsula was initiated by the Danes in the Nordic Iron Age at some point before 500 AD, it was expanded multiple times during Denmark's Viking Age. The Danevirke was last used for military purposes in 1864 during the Second War of Schleswig; the Danevirke consists of several walls and the Schlei Barrier. The walls stretch for 30 km, from the former Viking trade centre of Hedeby near Schleswig on the Baltic Sea coast in the east to the extensive marshlands in the west of the peninsula. One of the walls, between the Schlei and Eckernförde inlets, defended the Schwansen peninsula. According to written sources, work on the Danevirke was started by the Danish King Gudfred in 808. Fearing an invasion by the Franks, who had conquered heathen Frisia over the previous 100 years and Old Saxony in 772 to 804, Godfred began work on an enormous structure to defend his realm, separating the Jutland peninsula from the northern extent of the Frankish empire.
The Danes however, were in conflict with the Saxons south of Hedeby during the Nordic Iron Age and recent archaeological excavations have revealed that the Danevirke was initiated much earlier than King Gudfred's reign, around 500 AD and well before that even. Legend has it, she was the wife of the first recognized king of Denmark, Gorm the Old. With the emergence of national states in Europe during the 1800s, the Danevirke became a powerful symbol for Denmark and for the idea of a unique Danish people and Danish culture. Throughout the nineteenth century and Germany struggled politically and militarily for possession of the territory variously known as Sønderjylland or Slesvig by the Danes and Schleswig by the Germans. Two wars were fought, the First Schleswig War and the Second Schleswig War resulting in a Danish defeat and subsequent German annexation. In this hostile context, the Danevirke played an important role, at first as a mental cultural barrier against Germany, but soon as a concrete military fortification, when it was strengthened with cannon emplacements and entrenchments in 1850 and again in 1861.
In the early 1800s Dannevirke was adopted as the title of several Danish nationalist journals dealing with the question of Danish autonomy vis-à-vis Germany, the most notable of these being published by N. F. S. Grundtvig in 1816–19. In earlier times, the Danevirke had indeed defined a cultural and linguistic border between Danish and German fiefdoms, but the cultural and linguistic frontiers had moved north, by the 19th century territory as far north as Flensburg was predominantly German-speaking, but remained part of Denmark. Archaeological excavations in 1969–75 established, with the help of dendrochronology, that the main structure of the Danevirke had been built in three phases between AD 737 and 968, it is, contemporary with Offa's Dyke, another great defensive structure of the late 8th century. Recent investigations suggest that the Danevirke was not only, not primarily, built for military purposes; the archaeologist Henning Hellmuth Andersen found that in an early stage the main "wall" consisted of a ditch between two low embankments.
The historian argued that the Kograben south of the main wall consists of an embankment accompanied by a ditch on its northern side, which would have been counterproductive for a Danish fortification. Rather, the main construction, in its earliest stage, the Kograben would have been shipping canals; the existence of a shortcut for shipping between the Baltic and the North Sea via the Schlei in the east and the rivers Treene and Eider in the west had long been recognized, but historians had believed that boats had been moved between the Schlei and Treene by portage on rollers. New carbon-14 dating in 2013 has revealed that the second stage started around 500 AD, the oldest fortifications are older than that. Previous carbon-14 dating had dated some of the early constructions to the second half of the 7th century, dendrochronology suggests that the examined constructions began not long after 737, a few decades before the reign of king Gudfred; the Danevirke is about 30 kilometres long overall, with a height varying between 6 metres.
During the Middle Ages, the structure was reinforced with palisades and masonry walls, was used by Danish kings as a gathering point for Danish military excursions, including a series of crusader raids against the Slavs of the south Baltic. In particular, the 12th-century King Valdemar the Great reinforced parts of the Danevirke with a brick wall, which enabled a continued military use of this strategically important structure; the reinforced parts of the structure are known in Danish as Valdemarsmuren. Danevirke 1 – Hovedvolden, Nordvolden, Østervolden The first Danevirke was built in five stages, starting about 650, according to carbon-14 dating; the first three stages were simple ramparts of soil, the fourth stage was a palisade rampart with heavy timber front, built in 737. In the final stages the timber palisade was reinforced with a heavy stone wall around the timber. Work said to have been started by Angantyr, continued by Siegfried, ended by Guðfrið according to annales in 808. Hovedvolden: From Rejde Å to a small lake called Danne
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (