The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, includes families of plants such as the grasses and sedges. Sixteen plant families are recognized by botanists to be part of Poales; the flowers are small, enclosed by bracts, arranged in inflorescences. The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the APG III system accepts the order within a monocot clade called commelinids, accepts the following 16 families: The earlier APG system adopted the same placement of the order, although it used the spelling "commelinoids". It did not include the Bromeliaceae and Mayaceae, but had the additional families Prioniaceae and Hydatellaceae; the morphology-based Cronquist system did not include an order named Poales, assigning these families to the orders Bromeliales, Hydatellales, Juncales and Typhales. In early systems, an order including the grass family did not go by the name Poales but by a descriptive botanical name such as Graminales in the Engler system and in the Hutchinson system, Glumiflorae in the Wettstein system or Glumaceae in the Bentham & Hooker system.
The earliest fossils attributed to the Poales date to the late Cretaceous period about 66 million years ago, though some studies suggest the origin of the group may extend to nearly 115 million years ago in South America. The earliest known fossils include pollen and fruits; the phylogenetic position of Poales within the commelinids was difficult to resolve, but an analysis using complete chloroplast DNA found support for Poales as sister group of Commelinales plus Zingiberales. Major lineages within the Poales have been referred to as bromeliad, xyrid and restiid clades. A phylogenetic analysis resolved most relationships within the order but found weak support for the monophyly of the cyperid clade; the relationship between Centrolepidaceae and Restoniaceae within the restiid clade remains unclear. The four most species-rich families in the order are: Poaceae: 12,070 species Cyperaceae: 5,500 species Bromeliaceae: 3,170 species Eriocaulaceae: 1,150 speciesDiversity of Poales The Poales are the most economically important order of monocots and the most important order of plants in general.
Within the order, by far the most important family economically is the family of grasses, which includes the starch staples barley, millet and wheat as well as bamboos, a few "seasonings" like sugarcane and lemongrass. Graminoids the grasses, are dominant in open habitats like prairie/steppe and savannah and thus form a large proportion of the forage of grazing livestock. Due to pastoral nostalgia or a desire for open areas for play, they dominate most Western yards as lawns, which consume vast sums of money in upkeep. Many Bromeliaceae are used as ornamental plants. Many wetland species of sedges, rushes and cattails are important habitat plants for waterfowl, are used in weaving chair seats, were important pre-agricultural food sources for man. Two sedges and water chestnut are still at least locally important wetland starchy root crops. Bremer, K. "Gondwanan Evolution of the Grass Alliance of Families". Evolution. 56: 1374–1387. Doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01451.x. Judd, W. S. C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue.
Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 276–292. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. Linder, H. Peter. "Evolutionary History of the Poales". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 36: 107–124. Doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.135635. Small, J. K.. Flora of the Southeastern United States, 48. New York, United States NCBI Taxonomy Browser APWeb
Eriophorum angustifolium known as common cottongrass or common cottonsedge, is a species of flowering plant in the sedge family Cyperaceae. Native to North America, North Asia, Northern Europe, it grows on peat or acidic soils, in open wetland, heath or moorland, it begins to flower in April or May and, after fertilisation in early summer, the small, unremarkable brown and green flowers develop distinctive white bristle-like seed-heads that resemble tufts of cotton. Eriophorum angustifolium is a hardy, rhizomatous, perennial sedge, able to endure in a variety of environments in the temperate and arctic regions of Earth. Unlike Gossypium, the genus from which cotton is derived, the bristles which grow on E. angustifolium are unsuited to textile manufacturing. In Northern Europe, they were used as a substitute in the production of paper, candle-wicks, wound-dressings; the indigenous peoples of North America use the plant in cooking and in the treatment of digestive problems. Following a vote in 2002, Plantlife International designated E. angustifolium the County Flower of Greater Manchester, as part of its British County Flowers campaign.
In the wild, Eriophorum angustifolium is a creeping rhizomatous perennial sedge, with an abundance of unbranched, translucent pink roots. Grown, it has a tall, erect stem shaped like a narrow cylinder or triangular prism. Reports of the plant's height vary. Up to seven green and brown aerial peduncles and chaffs 4–10 millimetres in size, protrude from umbels at the top of the stem from which achenes are produced after fertilisation, each with a single pappus. Eriophorum angustifolium is described as "a rather dull plant" in winter and spring, but "simply breathtaking" in summer and autumn, when 1–7 conspicuous inflorescences – composed of hundreds of white pappi comparable to cotton, tassels, and/or bristles – stand out against drab surroundings. Eriophorum angustifolium differs from other species within the genus Eriophorum in its habitat and morphology, its multiple flower heads and growth from rhizomes distinguish it from E. vaginatum, which has a single flower head and grows from dense tussocks.
Although E. latifolium has 2–12 flower heads, it has laxly caespitose growth, its pappi are forked. The smooth peduncles and preference for acidic soil pH distinguishes E. angustifolium from E. gracile, which grows in swamp with a neutral pH and has scabrid peduncles. Eriophorum angustifolium is native to the Northern Hemisphere, distributed across Eurasia, North America and the British Isles, where there is open bog, heath and moorland, with standing water and calcareous peat or acidic soil, it can survive in the Subarctic and Arctic, is found in Alaska and Greenland as far north as 83° N. The British botanist William Turner Thiselton-Dyer recorded E. angustifolium in the South African Republic in 1898. In North America, Eriophorum angustifolium is found in the north from Alaska through Manitoba and the Canadian Prairies to Newfoundland and Labrador, down the Pacific Northwest and the state of Washington, across the Midwestern United States through Michigan and Iowa, down the Eastern Seaboard as far south-east as New York and New Jersey, reaching as far south-west as New Mexico.
In Eurasia, E. angustifolium is distributed throughout the Caucasus, European Russia and North Asia, including Siberia and the Kamchatka Peninsula, south-east to Manchuria and Korea. It grows throughout continental Europe, with the exception of those parts within the Mediterranean Basin, growing in Scandinavia in the north, as far south as the Norte Region of Portugal and the Pierian Mountains of Greece. Eriophorum angustifolium is the most common of the four native species of Eriophorum in the British Isles, has been recorded as having existed in all vice-counties, thriving well in Ireland and northern and western regions of Great Britain, but less so in southern and eastern areas. In the mires of Northern Ireland and the South Pennines, it considered a ruderal and keystone species, because it can colonise and repair damaged or eroded peat, encourage the re-vegetation of its surroundings, retain sediment and its landscape to serve as a carbon sink. In central and southern counties of England, the species is rare or absent, was "completely destroyed" in Cambridgeshire, The Broads, The Fens and other parts of the East of England by human activities such as land reclamation.
Within the British Isles, E. angustifolium thrives at a range of altitudes from sea-level fens and lowland meadows, to exposed upland moors when provided with a habitat of acid bog or waterlogged heath. It has an altitudinal limit of 1,100 metres above sea level, reaching 854 metres in the Wicklow Mountains of Ireland, 1,060 metres in the Scottish Highlands. Eriophorum angustifolium is a hardy, rhizomatous, perennial plant, meaning that it is resilient to cold and freezing climatic conditions, dies back at the end of its growing season, has creeping rootstalks, lives for over two years, it grows vigorously from seed over a period of 2–5 years, thrives well in freshly disturbed, cut or er
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In eudicotyledons, pith is located in the center of the stem. In monocotyledons, it extends into flowering stems and roots; the pith is encircled by a ring of xylem. While new pith growth is white or pale in colour, as the tissue ages it darkens to a deeper brown color. In trees pith is present in young growth, but in the trunk and older branches the pith gets replaced - in great part - by xylem. In some plants, the pith in the middle of the stem may dry out and disintegrate, resulting in a hollow stem. A few plants, such as walnuts, have distinctive chambered pith with numerous short cavities; the cells in the peripheral parts of the pith may, in some plants, develop to be different from cells in the rest of the pith. This layer of cells is called the perimedullary region of the pithamus. An example of this can be observed in a species of ivy.
The term pith is used to refer to the pale, spongy inner layer of the rind, more properly called mesocarp or albedo, of citrus fruits and other hesperidia. The word comes from the Old English word piþa, meaning substance, akin to Middle Dutch pitt, meaning the pit of a fruit; the pith of the sola or other similar plants is used to make the pith helmet. The pith of the sago palm, although toxic to animals in its raw form, is an important human food source in Melanesia and Micronesia by virtue of its starch content and its availability. There is a simple process of starch extraction from sago pith that leaches away a sufficient amount of the toxins and thus only the starch component is consumed. Current processes for starch extraction are only about 50% efficient, with the other half remaining in residual pith waste; the form of the starch after processing is similar to tapioca
Eriophorum scheuchzeri is a species of flowering plant in the sedge family known by the common names Scheuchzer's cottongrass and white cottongrass. It has a arctic circumboreal distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, it can be found in Alaska, across Canada, in the Arctic islands, Greenland and across Eurasia. Disjunct occurrences exist in the Rocky Mountains, in the high mountains of southern Europe and on Mount Daisetsu in Japan and some other Asian mountains; this species is a perennial herb producing colonies via its rhizomes. The thin stems may reach 70 cm tall, but they are much shorter; the rolled leaf blades are up to 12 cm long. Leaves at the top of the stem have no blades, just black-tipped sheaths; the inflorescence is a solitary flower head with wispy, bright white, red-tinged, or silvery bristles up to 3 cm long. This plant can be found at sea level in northern parts of its range and at over 4,000 m in elevation farther south, it is a helophyte. It is restricted to wet habitat types, grows in marshes and wet meadows, by ponds and lakes, on riverbanks, in moist and wet gravel and sand substrates.
It lines the edges of standing water bodies associated with mosses and other sedges, such as Carex aquatilis. Native and indigenous peoples have long been familiar with its uses; the Inuit have at least three names for Scheuchzer's cottongrass: pualunnguat, meaning "imitation mittens". It has been used as lamp wicks, boot insoles, swabs; the cottony flowers have been used as dressings to absorb wound drainage. The plant is edible and sweet-tasting; this plant is consumed by muskoxen. Waterfowl feed on the seeds
Some types of pillows include throw pillows and decorative pillows. Pillows that aid sleeping are a form of bedding that supports the neck. Other types of pillows are designed to support the body when sitting. Decorative pillows used on beds, couches or chairs are referred to as cushions. In contemporary western culture, pillows consist of a plain or patterned fabric envelope which contains a soft stuffing synthetic and standardized in sizes and shape. Pillows have been made of a variety of natural materials and many cultures continue to use pillows made from natural materials; the word pillow comes from Old English pyle and from Latin pulvinus. The first known use of the word pillow was before the 12th century. Though the exact origin is unknown, use of pillows evolved in animals well into prehistory, the earliest examples including reptiles and mammals resting their heads on themselves, one another, to support the head and neck. Animals, including humans, evolved use of inanimate objects in their nests out of wood and stone as pillows.
Since domestication, many animals have learned to make use of human-made pillows and cushions, as well as to rest on members of own and other species, for this purpose. Sometime between 5 and 23 million years ago tree dwelling great apes began building sleeping platforms, including wooden pillows, to improve their sleep. According to studies on chimpanzees that sleep up to eight to nine hours a night using selected ironwood pillows, sturdy pillows enabled great apes to escape being hunted by night predators and not fall out of the trees while asleep, it is that this was necessitated by the evolution of large, energy consuming brains. Though it may have led to longer periods of REM sleep, that in turn increased their cognitive capacity; the earliest recorded use of the modern human device dates back to the civilizations of Mesopotamia around 7,000 BC. During this time, only the wealthy used pillows; the number of pillows symbolized status so the more pillows one owned the more affluence. Pillows have long been produced around the world in order to help solve the reoccurring problem of neck and shoulder pain while sleeping.
Besides for comfort, the pillow was used for keeping bugs and insects out of people's hair, mouth and ears while sleeping. Pillow use has been associated with the mummies and tombs of ancient Egypt during the 11th dynasty, dating to 2055–1985 B. C. Ancient Egyptian pillows were wooden or stone headrests; these pillows were used by placing them under the heads of the deceased because the head of a human was considered to be the essence of life and sacred. The ancient Egyptians used these wooden or stone pillows in order to provide support to a corpse’s head, uphold body vigor, keep blood circulating, keep demons away; the Romans and Greeks of ancient Europe mastered the creation of the softer type pillow. These pillows were stuffed with reeds and straw in order to make them softer and more comfortable. Only upper-class people owned these softer pillows. People in ancient Europe started to use pillows when going to church in order to kneel on while praying and to place holy books on; this is a tradition.
In addition, the Romans and Greeks used their pillows by placing them under the head of those deceased just like the ancient Egyptians did. Chinese pillows were traditionally solid, though sometimes used with a softer fabric over them. Over many Chinese dynasties, pillows were made from a wide range of materials including bamboo, porcelain and bronze. Ceramic pillows became the most popular; the use of the ceramic pillow first appeared in the Sui Dynasty between 581 and 618 while mass production appeared in the Tang Dynasty between 618 and 907. The Chinese decorated their pillows by making them different shapes and by painting pictures of animals and plants on them. One common type of pottery used was Cizhou ware. Chinese ceramic pillows reached their peak in terms of production and use during the Song and Yuan dynasties between the 10th and 14th century, but phased out during the Ming and Qing dynasties between 1368 and 1911 with the emergence of better pillow making materials. Pillows consist of a filler material enclosed in shell.
Covers are made of cloth, such as silk, known as the pillow pillow slip. Some pillows have a fancier cover called a sham, closed on all sides and has a slit in the back through which the pillow is placed. Rectangular standard bed pillow cases do not have zippers, but instead, have one side open all the time. A zippered pillow protector is placed around standard pillows with the case in turn covering the protector. Fillers are chosen on the basis of comfort, cost and to a lesser extent for ethical and health reasons; the most common synthetic fillers are foam, synthetic plastic fibers and viscoelastic foam and latex. Synthetic fillers are more common as they are comfortable and retain their form longer. Natural fillers have been used since antiquity; the most common are feathers, or down, cotton, buckwheat. Materials have included straw, wood or stone. Feathers and down are the most comfortable and common. Down has been known to be plucked from live geese. There are hypoal
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Flora of China
The flora of China is diverse. More than 30,000 plant species are native to China, representing nearly one-eighth of the world's total plant species, including thousands found nowhere else on Earth. China contains a variety of forest types. Both northeast and northwest reaches contain mountains and cold coniferous forests, supporting animal species which include moose and Asiatic black bear, along with some 120 types of birds. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo as an understorey, replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew. Subtropical forests, which dominate central and southern China, support an astounding 146,000 species of flora. Tropical rainforest and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China; the flora of China has an online database which gives both its taxonomy. Media related to Flora of China at Wikimedia Commons eflora: Flora of China