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Eris (mythology)

Eris is the Greek goddess of strife and discord. Her Roman equivalent is Discordia, which means "discord". Eris's Greek opposite is Harmonia. Homer equated her with the war-goddess Enyo; the dwarf planet Eris is named after the goddess. She had no temples in ancient Greece, functions as a personification, as which she appears in Homer and many works. Eris is of uncertain etymology. R. S. P. Beekes suggested a Pre-Greek origin. In Hesiod's Works and Days 11–24, two different goddesses named Eris are distinguished: In Hesiod's Theogony, the daughter of Night, is less kindly spoken of as she brings forth other personifications as her children: And hateful Eris bore painful Ponos and Limos and the tearful Algea, Makhai and Androktasiai; the other Strife is she who appears in Homer's Iliad Book IV. She hurled down bitterness between both sides as she walked through the onslaught making men's pain heavier, she has a son whom she named Strife. Enyo is mentioned in Book 5, Zeus sends Strife to rouse the Achaeans in Book 11, of the same work.

The most famous tale of Eris recounts her initiating the Trojan War by causing the Judgement of Paris. The goddesses Hera and Aphrodite had been invited along with the rest of Olympus to the forced wedding of Peleus and Thetis, who would become the parents of Achilles, but Eris had been snubbed because of her troublemaking inclinations, she therefore tossed into the party the Apple of Discord, a golden apple inscribed Ancient Greek: τῇ καλλίστῃ, romanized: tē kallistē – "For the most beautiful one", or "To the Fairest One" – provoking the goddesses to begin quarreling about the appropriate recipient. The hapless Paris, Prince of Troy, was appointed to select the fairest by Zeus; the goddesses stripped naked to try to win Paris's decision, attempted to bribe him. Hera offered political power. While Greek culture placed a greater emphasis on prowess and power, Paris chose to award the apple to Aphrodite, thereby dooming his city, destroyed in the war that ensued. In Nonnus's Dionysiaca, 2.356, when Typhon prepares to battle with Zeus: Eris was Typhon's escort in the melée, Nike led Zeus to battle.

Another story of Eris includes Hera, the love of Polytekhnos and Aedon. They claimed to love each other more than Zeus were in love; this angered Hera, so she sent Eris to wreak discord upon them. Polytekhnos was finishing off a chariot board, Aedon a web she had been weaving. Eris said to them, "Whosoever finishes thine task last shall have to present the other with a female servant!" Aedon won. But Polytekhnos was not happy by his defeat, so he came to Khelidon, Aedon's sister, raped her, he disguised her as a slave, presenting her to Aedon. When Aedon discovered this was indeed her sister, she chopped up Polytekhnos's son and fed him to Polytekhnos; the gods were not pleased, so they turned them all into birds. Eris has been adopted as the patron deity of the modern Discordian religion, begun in the late 1950s by Gregory Hill and Kerry Wendell Thornley under the pen names of "Malaclypse the Younger" and "Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst"; the Discordian version of Eris is lighter in comparison to the rather malevolent Graeco-Roman original, wherein she is depicted as a positive force of chaotic creation.

A quote from the Principia Discordia, the first holy book of Discordianism, attempts to clear up the matter: One day Mal-2 consulted his Pineal Gland and asked Eris if She created all of those terrible things. She told him that She had always liked the Old Greeks, but that they cannot be trusted with historic matters. "They were," She added, "victims of indigestion, you know." Suffice it to say that Eris is not hateful or malicious. But she is mischievous, does get a little bitchy at times; the story of Eris being snubbed and indirectly starting the Trojan War is recorded in the Principia, is referred to as the Original Snub. The Principia Discordia states that her parents may be as described in Greek legend, or that she may be the daughter of Void, she is the Goddess of Disorder and Being, whereas her sister Aneris is the goddess of Order and Non-Being. Their brother is Spirituality. Discordian Eris is looked upon as a foil to the preoccupation of western philosophy in attempting find order in the chaos of reality, in prescribing order to be synonymous with truth.

Discordian Eris teaches us that the only truth is chaos, that order and disorder are temporary filters applied to the lenses we view the chaos through. This is known as the Aneris

Sergeant York (horse)

Sergeant York is a horse owned by the United States Army. An American Standardbred, Sergeant York was foaled in the early 1990s and reared as a racehorse in New York under the name Allaboard Jules. During his racing career, he won five of the 23 races in which he participated at tracks in New Jersey and Connecticut. In 1997 Allaboard Jules entered military service and was renamed Sergeant York, in honor of Alvin York, he has, since that time, been posted to the Military District of Washington as part of the United States Army Caisson Platoon of the 3rd Infantry Regiment where he serves as a caparisoned horse. Sergeant York filled this role, among other occasions, at the state funeral of Ronald Reagan

Samir Khalil Samir

Samir Khalil Samir, is an Egyptian Jesuit priest, Islamic scholar and Catholic theologian. A professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute, at the Centre Sèvres, at St Joseph University, a visiting professor at many academic institutions, he is the author of over 80 books in Arabic and French, more than 1,500 articles on various topics: Christian Arab heritage, Christianity in the Middle East and relations between Christians and Muslims. He is founder of two religious Collections, co-editor of the "Coptic Encyclopedia" and co-director of the magazine "Parole de l’Orient", he serves on various publications editorial boards, comments on important events in the Middle East and the Muslim world in the online magazine “AsiaNews”. Samir Khalil Samir, is born Samir Khalil Kosseim on January 10, 1938 in Cairo to Khalil Geryes Kosseim and Gabrielle Henri Boulad, his siblings are Alex Kosseim of US and Rafic Kosseim of Mont Royal, Canada. On October 26, 1955, at the age of 18, he entered the Jesuit order.

After two years of Jesuit religious formation at Aix-en-Provence, he pursued many fields of studies in Europe: theology, Islamology, Arabic literature, Christianity in the Arab world. He specialized in Christian Arabic studies, with a doctorate on the Christian Arabic philosopher Abū Zakariyyā Yaḥyā Ibn'Adī al-Takrītī. On July 6, 1968, he was moved to Egypt. There, he opened 20 schools for disadvantaged children, founded the Christian Arab Research Center in Cairo, that collects ancient books and Christian Arabic manuscripts; the Center was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1971 and was reopened in 1974. In 1975, Samir was appointed professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute, teaching there for over 39 years, advising numerous doctoral students in the field of Arab Christianity. Attendance at the rich libraries of Europe allowed him to gather, in microfilm format, a large collection of manuscripts of Christian Arab authors. In October 1986, he moved to Lebanon where he taught Catholic theology and Islam at Saint Joseph University, at the Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, at the Orthodox University of Balamand, at the National Protestant College of Lebanon.

In 1986, while in Lebanon, he founded the Research Institute CEDRAC, which houses and documents the Christian Arabic heritage of the Middle East. In 2018, he returned to Egypt, to continue the work he started 50 years earlier at the Christian Arab Research Center in Cairo. Christian Arabic Apologetics during the Abbasid Period by Samir Khalil, Jorgen S Nilesen Brill Cento domande sull´islam. Intervista a Samir Khalil Samir, a cura di Giorgio Paolucci e Camille Eid, ISBN 88-211-6462-4. Rôle culturel des chrétiens dans le monde coll. Cahiers de l´Orient chrétien 1, Samir Khalil Samir, OCLC 800460050. Cien preguntas sobre el islam, Una entrevista a Samir Khalil Samir, realizada por Giorgio Paolucci y Camille Eid, Madrid: Ediciones Encuentro, 2003, 223 pages = ISBN 84-7490-689-X, he made many contributions to the Coptic Encyclopedia. Studies on the Christian Arabic Heritage: In Honour of Father Prof Dr Samir Khalil Samir SJ at the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday by R. Y. Ebied, Peeters "Der Friedensplan für den Nahen Osten von Samir Khalil Samir": L'hebdomadaire italien « L'Espresso », 28.

July 2006 "Le plan de paix en dix points du Vatican", Hervé Yannou « Le Figaro », 30. August 2006. Alexander von Humboldt Forschungspreis, 2005 Vétéran de la Culture au Liban et dans le Monde Arabe, 2007 CEDRAC official site Bibliography On Pope Benedict and Islam Award: Vétéran de la Culture au Liban et dans le Monde Arabe

Rannerdale Knotts

Rannerdale Knotts is a fell in the Lake District of Cumbria, England. Rising from the Buttermere valley, it is one of the smaller Cumbrian hills and is overlooked by a number of surrounding fells, such as Grasmoor, Whiteless Pike and, across Crummock Water and the High Stile ridge. Rannerdale Knotts is said to be the site of a battle between the native Cumbrians and Norsemen and the invading Normans in the late 11th or early 12th century; the North Western Fells occupy the area between the rivers Derwent and Cocker, a broadly oval swathe of hilly country, elongated on a north-south axis. Two roads cross from east to west; the central sector, rising between Whinlatter Pass and Newlands Pass, includes Whiteless Pike. The highest ground in the North Western Fells is an east-west ridge in this central sector, beginning with Grasmoor above Crummock Water and gradually descending eastwards over Crag Hill, Scar Crags and Causey Pike. Grasmoor has the greatest elevation, it sends out a subsidiary ridge to the south west, stepping down over Wandope and Whiteless Pike toward Buttermere village.

Just above the village this ridge turns north west and rises to the summit of Rannerdale Knotts. The sharp angle in the ridge is marked by a depression at 950 ft, beyond which the ground climbs for around a mile toward the top; this section of the fell is named Low Bank on Ordnance Survey maps and is clad in bracken. The final section bears a series of rocky knolls, still rising north westward. A tumbling descent of crag and scree follows as the end of the ridge drops steeply to the valley floor, halfway along the shore of Crummock Water. Rannerdale farm lies below this terminal face; the south western side of Rannerdale Knotts is bounded first by Mill Beck, running through Buttermere village, by Crummock Water. The north eastern flank falls to a feeder of Rannerdale Beck. High Rannerdale lies within the angle of the ridge between Whiteless Pike and Rannerdale Knotts, Rannerdale proper being a triangular patch of pasture constrained by Rannerdale Knotts and Crummock Water; the summit area shows outcropping of the Kirkstile Formation.

These Ordovician rocks, typical of the Skiddaw massif, are composed of laminated mudstone and siltstone. Low Bank lies across the Causey Pike Fault and is part of the Buttermere Formation, an olistostrome of disrupted sheared and folded mudstone and sandstone. There are two minor intrusions of basalt running across the ridgeline. There is a trial level in the northern crags, above Hause Point on the Crummock Water road; the opening is about 5 ft square but the level extends only a little way into the fell-side. The object appears to have been lead-bearing galena; the small tidy summit on the highest rock knoll bears a cairn. The view is limited by the circle of higher fells, but the vista of Buttermere backed by Great Gable is excellent. Crummock Water can be brought into view by taking a few paces westward. Rannerdale Knotts is ascended from Buttermere, making use of the good path going up Whiteless Pike, before turning west north-west along Low Bank at the col at 950 feet. There is a more direct ascent up the west face of the fell from Hause Point at Rannerdale, accessed from the B5289 road on the eastern shore of Crummock Water.

A larger circuit of Rannerdale can be made, taking in Grasmoor, Crag Hill, Whiteless Pike and Rannerdale Knotts. Local historian and publican Nicholas Size published a historical novel in 1930 called The Secret Valley, which tells the story of how this area resisted the Norman invaders in the 50 years after the 1066 Norman invasion. According to Size, the Norman army was ambushed and defeated by the native Britons and Norsemen at the Battle of Rannerdale; the battle is thought to have taken place in the side valley of Rannerdale, which runs east of the summit of the fell, west of Whiteless Pike and south of Grasmoor. Bluebells grow in profusion in this valley in May. According to local folklore, the bluebells are said to have sprung from the spilt blood of the slain Norman warriors. A Norman army under the command of Ranulf Meschin, Earl of Carlisle, advanced south from Cockermouth; the local warriors were commanded by the Earl Boethar, who succeeded in drawing the Normans into the side valley of Rannerdale routed them with a surprise attack from above and behind.

In Size's version, Ranulf Meschin escaped and lived in disgrace until he succeeded a relative as Earl of Chester in 1120. Little historical evidence is available to support Size's version of the story, a romanticised tale of the last stand of the native Britons against the invading force; the Buttermere area does not appear in the Domesday Book, which indicates that this part of Cumbria was not under Norman control in 1086. The central area of the Lake District is known to have been populated by the earlier Norse invaders in the early 10th century, dale is etymologically Norse. Cumbria was ostensibly part of Scotland, until seized by the forces of William Rufus in 1092, following a dispute with Scottish king Malcolm III, himself killed a year at the Battle of Alnwick. William Rufus gave Norman nobleman Ranulph les Meschines lands in Cumbria following this conquest of the area; when Ranulph les Meschines became Earl of Chester, his estates were returned to the Crown. Around 1120, Henry I of England gave the Barony of Copeland to Ranulph's brother William les Meschines, who settled at initiated the construction of the castle at Egremont on Cumbria's western coast.

Size himself died aged 86, having negotiated fier

Ala-Arriba! (film)

Ala-Arriba! is a 1942 Portuguese romantic docufiction set in Póvoa de Varzim, a traditional Portuguese fishing town. Dealing with ethnographic matters, it may be considered as an ethnofiction; the film was directed by Leitão de Barros, stars real fishermen as themselves in order to give a realistic view over traditions and social behaviours of the community. Focusing the cultural context, it continuously shifts from documentary to drama, by means of a fictional narrative. Contemporary to Robert Flaherty, Barros is with him one of the first filmmakers to explore docufiction and ethnofiction as forms of dramatic narrative, it premiered at São Luis Theatre in Lisbon. It focuses on maritime tragedy of the town and a forbidden love between Julha and João Moço, from different fisher castes, in a community where mixed-caste marriages were not allowed and dating without parent's assent was seen as a disgrace to the family, not only in respect to women, but men; the script of Ala-Arriba! was written by the prestigious Alfredo Cortez, based on the book O Poveiro by António dos Santos Graça, focusing the cultural aspects of the town.

The film was financed by SPN of the Ministério das Obras Públicas during the Estado Novo period. The town was seen, as an example of Portuguese culture. Venice Film Festival - Award The Biennale Cup NOTE: Ala-Arriba! was the first Portuguese film to win at this festival an international award Docufiction List of docufiction films Ethnofiction Ala-Arriba! on IMDb

Andrew Croft

Colonel Noel Andrew Cotton Croft, was a member of the Special Operations Executive in World War II, with operations in Norway and Corsica, as well as military attaché to Sweden, an explorer, holding the longest self-sustaining journey in the Guinness Book of Records for more than 60 years, Commandant of the Cadet Corps of the Metropolitan Police Service. Noel Andrew Croft was born on 30 November 1906, St Andrews Day, in Stevenage in Hertfordshire where his father, was the local vicar. After two prep schools, he attended Lancing College, before becoming one of the founding pupils at Stowe School, going up to Christ Church, Oxford in 1925. Croft participated in several Arctic expeditions. In 1934, along with Lieutenant A. S. T. Godfrey Lieutenant Arthur Godfrey of the Royal Engineers and Martin Lindsay, Croft participated in the 1934 British Trans-Greenland Expedition which mapped the Crown Prince Frederick Range as the expedition photographer and dog-handler. To do so, he learned to be an expert dog-driver.

He served as the second-in-command of the Oxford University Arctic Expedition, 1935–36, under A. R. Glen, a glaciologist; the expedition, under the auspices of the Oxford University Exploration Club, was a fourteen-month-long scientific survey of North-East Land. He was a recipient of the Polar Medal in 1942 and of the Royal Geographical Society's Back Award in 1947. During World War II Croft served with the British Army in Finland and Sweden before returning to active service with No. 14 Commando. He served with a Special Forces unit behind enemy lines in Tunisia, was given an independent command in the Special Operations Executive to operate small motor boats out of Calvi in Northern Corsica. Covert missions were carried out to the Italian and French coasts, where secret agents and equipment were landed and picked up. In 1944, he was parachuted into Southern France to organise the French Resistance there, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order on 15 March 1945. Following the end of the war he was granted a regular commission on 21 May 1949, backdated to his original commissioning.

On 24 July 1952, he married the widow of an Irish Guards officer. He stepped down with his leader, Eric Shipton, from the 1953 Everest Expedition which summitted the mountain that year. In 1960, Croft became the first Commandant of the Metropolitan Police's Hendon Police College, was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1970 New Year Honours for his successful development of the Corps of Cadets. In 1968, he served as a member of the organising committee for an Arctic exploration expedition led by Wally Herbert. A member of the expedition, Allan Gill, suffered a serious lower back injury requiring his evacuation. Polar Exploration: Epics of the Twentieth Century A Talent for Adventure; the Self-Publishing Association, 1991 The Andrew Croft Memorial Fund