Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, expanded into present-day Alsace, northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German language in those regions, by the eighth century named Alamannia. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were Christianized during the seventh century; the Lex Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the eighth century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was nominal. After an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility and installed Frankish dukes. During the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire, the Alemannic counts became independent, a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance.
The chief family in Alamannia was that of the counts of Raetia Curiensis, who were sometimes called margraves, one of whom, Burchard II, established the Duchy of Swabia, recognized by Henry the Fowler in 919 and became a stem duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. The area settled by the Alemanni corresponds to the area where Alemannic German dialects remain spoken, including German Swabia and Baden, French Alsace, German-speaking Switzerland and Austrian Vorarlberg; the French language name of Germany, Allemagne, is derived from their name, from Old French aleman, from French loaned into a number of other languages. The Spanish name for Germany is Alemania, Welsh is Yr Almaen. According to Gaius Asinius Quadratus, the name Alamanni means "all men", it indicates. The Romans and the Greeks called them as such mentioned; this derivation was accepted by Edward Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and by the anonymous contributor of notes assembled from the papers of Nicolas Fréret, published in 1753.
This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the name. An alternative suggestion proposes derivation from *alah "sanctuary". Walafrid Strabo in the 9th century remarked, in discussing the people of Switzerland and the surrounding regions, that only foreigners called them the Alemanni, but that they gave themselves the name of Suebi; the Suebi are given the alternative name of Ziuwari in an Old High German gloss, interpreted by Jacob Grimm as Martem colentes. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213. At that time, they dwelt in the basin of the Main, to the south of the Chatti. Cassius Dio portrays the Alemanni as victims of this treacherous emperor, they had asked for his help, according to Dio, but instead he colonized their country, changed their place names, executed their warriors under a pretext of coming to their aid. When he became ill, the Alemanni claimed to have put a hex on him. Caracalla, tried to counter this influence by invoking his ancestral spirits.
In retribution, Caracalla led the Legio II Traiana Fortis against the Alemanni, who lost and were pacified for a time. The legion was as a result honored with the name Germanica." The fourth-century fictional Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Caracalla, relates that Caracalla assumed the name Alemannicus,"at which Helvius Pertinax jested that he should be called Geticus Maximus," because in the year before he had murdered his brother, Geta. Through much of his short reign, Caracalla was known for unpredictable and arbitrary operations launched by surprise after a pretext of peace negotiations. If he had any reasons of state for such actions, they remained unknown to his contemporaries. Whether or not the Alemanni had been neutral, they were further influenced by Caracalla to become thereafter notoriously implacable enemies of Rome; this mutually antagonistic relationship is the reason why the Roman writers persisted in calling the Alemanni barbari," meaning "savages." The archaeology, shows that they were Romanized, lived in Roman-style houses and used Roman artifacts, the Alemannic women having adopted the Roman fashion of the tunica earlier than the men.
Most of the Alemanni were at the time, in fact, resident in or close to the borders of Germania Superior. Although Dio is the earliest writer to mention them, Ammianus Marcellinus used the name to refer to Germans on the Limes Germanicus in the time of Trajan's governorship of the province shortly after it was formed, around 98-99 AD. At that time, the entire frontier was being fortified for the first time. Trees from the earliest fortifications found in Germania Inferior are dated by dendrochronology to 99-100 AD. Ammianus relates that much the Emperor Julian undertook a punitive expedition against the Alemanni, who by were in Alsace, crossed the Main, entering the forest, where the trails were blocked by felled trees; as winter was upon them, they reoccupied a "fortification, founded on the soil of the Alemanni that Trajan wished to be called with his own name". In this context, the use of Alemanni is an anachronism, but it reveals that Ammianus believed they were the same people, consistent with the location of the Alemanni of Caracalla's campaigns.
Germania by Tacitus in Chapter 42 states that the Hermunduri were a tribe located in the region that became
Erlenbach im Simmental
Erlenbach im Simmental is a municipality in the district of Niedersimmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Erlenbach im Simmental is first mentioned in 1180-81 as Arlunbach; the oldest trace of humans in the area is the Paleolithic Chilchlihöhle cave. Neolithic remains have been discovered at Branteschopf Schwynbalm. Other prehistoric traces include the Bronze Age and Roman era artifacts at Balzenberg and Unterklusi and a horde of Roman coins at Stockhorn. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region remained inhabited; the earthen fortification at Chastel dates to the Middle Ages. By the High Middle Ages there were at least three castles or forts in the modern municipality, though only ruins remain; the Freiherr von Erlenbach first appears in records in 1133. When the Erlenbach family died out, their lands passed through another noble family before ending up with the Freiherr von Brandis in 1368. Beginning in the 14th century, the Landsgemeinde, the direct democratic assembly, of the surrounding communities met in Erlenbach.
In 1393, 1429 and 1445 the villagers bought their obligation to pay taxes and serve in corvée labor away from the Freiherr von Brandis. When the city of Bern acquired the villages from the Freiherr in 1439, they reconfirmed the villages' rights. Beginning in the 16th century they began to raise cattle, keeping them in the valleys for winter before moving them to spring pastures in the mountains. Over the following years, Erlenbach became a major cattle and cheese exporter. A number of local residents built large chalets in the village. In 1765, much of the village was destroyed in a fire, though it was rebuilt. Following the 1798 French invasion, Erlenbach im Simmental became part of the Helvetic Republic district of Niedersimmental in the Canton of Oberland. In 1803, with the Act of Mediation, it rejoined the Canton of Bern. In the 19th century, the Simmentalstrasse connected the municipality with the rest of the country. Traffic increased when the Spiez-Zweisimmen railroad opened a station at Ringoldingen in 1902.
With the road and railroad, the population grew and businesses and tourism grew in Erlenbach. In the 1970s, a number of new housing developments grew up above the village. One of the largest developed in Latterbach near the highway on ramp at Wimmis. Erlenbach is home to a secondary school and a district nursing home. In 1987 the Agenstein House, built in 1766, became the Niedersimmental Region Museum; the village church of St. Michael was first mentioned in 1228, it was built in the 11th century on the site of an early medieval church. The interior was decorated with murals during 14th centuries. However, many of the murals were redone in the 15th century. In 1330, the patronage rights over the church were donated to Interlaken Abbey; when Bern accepted the Protestant Reformation in 1528, the Abbey was secularized and the church came under Bernese authority. In the years before Bern accepted the Reformation, the priest at Erlenbach, Peter Kunz, was preaching the Reformation in the village, he became the pastor of the Cathedral in Bern.
Erlenbach im Simmental has an area of 36.69 km2. As of 2012, a total of 18.56 km2 or 50.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 13.93 km2 or 37.9% is forested. The rest of the municipality is 1.27 km2 or 3.5% is settled, 0.32 km2 or 0.9% is either rivers or lakes and 2.6 km2 or 7.1% is unproductive land. During the same year and buildings made up 1.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.4%. A total of 32.3% of the total land area is forested and 5.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 16.2% is pasturage and 33.3% is used for alpine pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 0.6 % is in lakes and 0.3 % streams. Of the unproductive areas, 3.3 % is unproductive 3.7 % is too rocky for vegetation. The municipality includes the farming settlements of Erlenbach and Ringoldingen in the valley. On a terrace above the valley are the Bäuerten of Balzenberg, Eschlen and Allmenden. Above them are alpine meadows and mountains. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved.
On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Frutigen-Niedersimmental. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent a Castle embatteled Gules. Erlenbach im Simmental has a population of 1,733; as of 2010, 5.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -0.9%. Migration accounted for -1.2%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.2%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Serbo-Croatian is the third. There are 1 person who speaks Romansh; as of 2008, the population was 50.9 % female. The population was made up of 50 non-Swiss men. There were 37 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 707 or about 39.2% were born in Erlenbach im Simmental and lived there in 2000. There were 737 or 40.9% who were born in the same canton, while 177 or 9.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 94 or 5.2% were born outside of Switzerland.
As of 2011, children and teenagers make up 20% of the population, while adults make up 60.1% and seniors make up 19.9%. As of 2000, there were 747
The Zürich S-Bahn system is a network of rail lines, incrementally expanded to cover the ZVV area, which comprises the entire canton of Zürich and portions of neighbouring cantons, with a few lines extending into or crossing the territory of southern Germany. The network is one of many commuter rail operations in German speaking countries to be described as an S-Bahn; the entire ZVV S-Bahn network went into operation in May 1990, although many of the lines were in operation. Unusual among rapid transit services, the Zürich S-Bahn provides first class commuter travel. Before the construction of the Zürich S-Bahn, most trains to Zürich terminated at Zürich Hauptbahnhof, apart from the Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn lines which terminated at Zürich Selnau. Built as a west-facing terminus, the Hauptbahnhof acted as a terminus for trains coming from all directions, it was connected to lines to the north and northeast via the Wipkingen Tunnel and Zürich Oerlikon railway station. The Hauptbahnhof was connected via the Letten Tunnel to the Lake Zürich right-bank railway line to the southeast.
This line stopped at Stadelhofen station at the opposite side of the city centre, before passing through the single track tunnel to Letten station turning 180 degrees to reach the Hauptbahnhof. This line travelled 5 km to cover the 1.5 km distance between the Hauptbahnhof. The first step in developing Zürich's rail system which led to the establishment of the S-Bahn was the establishment of the so-called Gold Coast Express on 26 May 1968 between Zürich Stadelhofen and Rapperswil via Meilen along the wealthy north shore of Lake Zürich, popularly known as the Gold Coast; this development came about because, after World War II, there was a rapid expansion of commuting to Zürich from the former wine-growing villages along the railway line, which opened in 1894. As a result, commuters complained that the trains were overcrowded and delayed; the canton of Zürich began to develop a project to improve the railway in the 1950s. Because it was not used by either long-distance passenger or freight trains, improvements in local services were possible.
Double track sections were built between Kuesnacht and Herrliberg and between Stäfa and Uerikon, along with new stations. The main problem was finance. Development of the line would only serve local interests and would not lead to increased revenue for Swiss Federal Railways. At the time the canton and cities affected could not fund improvements to an SFR line, so the law was changed to allow local contributions; the new Gold Coast Express service operated a regular schedule every half-hour, with the total journey time for the distance of 36 kilometres reduced from the previous 60 to 40 minutes. The most striking feature of the improved railway was the three-car claret-coloured RABDe 12/12 electric multiple units; these had good acceleration and braking performance and became known as "Mirages", after the jet fighters. The modern features of the Mirages included automatically closing doors, which allowed short stops at stations and a reduction in travel time. On 30 May 1959 some voters put two proposals to the Zürich City Council.
The first would have allocated CHF 200,000 for a study on the construction of a two-line U-bahn with lines from Enge to Kloten and from Altstetten to Tiefenbrunnen. The second motion proposed the establishment of a company to operate a Zürich U-Bahn; the city had considered such a proposal and opposed it, on the basis that Zürich was not big enough for an underground railway, it would cost too much. In a referendum on 14 February 1960, 69.8% of voters voted "no" to the proposal. Following further work and the enactment of a new transport act, the regional public transport authorities presented a new proposal for a combined regional U-Bahn and S-Bahn system, with the latter being a railway network centred on a tunnel under the city centre, which would connect to existing suburban railway lines. From Zürich Airport, an U-Bahn line would run via Glattbrugg, Hirschenwiesen, Central, Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Altstetten to Dietikon. Much of the line would have run above ground; the second part of the proposal was the "Zürichberg network", a line from Zürich Hauptbahnhof via a new tunnel under the Zürichberg to Dietlikon to the northeast.
The proposed construction of an underground station in Museumstrasse on the north side of the Hauptbahnhof was intended to ease the pressure on the Hauptbahnhof. On 20 May 1973 this proposal was rejected in a referendum, with the "no" vote as high as in the previous referendum. At the referendum, little opposition had been expressed against the proposed S-Bahn lines. Rail is a major element in Zürich's public transport system, its upgrade required close collaboration between the Canton of Zürich and Swiss Federal Railways, the owner of most of the railways; the SBB CFF FFS had insufficient resources for a substantial upgrade of commuter services. On the other hand, the canton of Zürich could not fund an alternative transport network; the first step towards cooperation came in 1978 with the establishment of a Transport Fund providing CHF 40 million annually for urban transport. The routes of today's S-Bahn were established in a debate in the cantonal Council on 19 June 1978. Alternative "eastern" and "western" options were discussed.
Under the western option the northern end of the central tunn
The S16 is a regional railway service of the S-Bahn Zürich on the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network, is one of the network's services providing service within the canton of Zürich. S 16 Zürich Flughafen – Zürich HB – Herrliberg-Feldmeilen The service links Zürich Airport to the north of Zürich, Herrliberg-Feldmeilen, on north shore of Lake Zürich to the east of Zürich; the service runs via Zürich Oerlikon, Zurich Hauptbahnhof and Zürich Stadelhofen, over the Lake Zürich right-bank railway line to its terminus. At the southern end of the service, the S16 is extended to Meilen in the evenings; the following stations are served: Zürich Airport Zürich Oerlikon Zürich Hardbrücke Zürich Hauptbahnhof Zürich Stadelhofen Zürich Tiefenbrunnen Zollikon Küsnacht Goldbach Küsnacht ZH Erlenbach ZH Winkel am Zürichsee Herrliberg-Feldmeilen Meilen All services are operated by RABe 514 class multiple unit trains. The normal frequency is one train every 30 minutes. A journey between Zürich Airport and Herrliberg-Feldmeilen takes 34 minutes, with an additional 7 minutes when extended to Meilen.
Prior to a change in late 2015, the S16 extended beyond Zürich Airport to Effretikon, with alternate trains extended to Thayngen, in the canton of Schaffhausen, running via Winterthur Hauptbahnhof and Schaffhausen. In 2005, service over this stretch of the route was transferred to the S24 service, the S16 cut back to the airport. Rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website: Routes & zones
Einsiedeln Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in the village of Einsiedeln in the canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The abbey is dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits, the title being derived from the circumstances of its foundation, for the first inhabitant of the region was Saint Meinrad, a hermit, it is a territorial abbey and, not part of a diocese, subject to a bishop. It has been a major resting point on the Way of St. James for centuries. Meinrad was educated at the abbey school on Reichenau Island, in Lake Constance, under his kinsmen, Abbots Hatto and Erlebald, where he became a monk and was ordained a priest. After some years at Reichenau, at a dependent priory on Lake Zurich, he embraced an eremitical life and established his hermitage on the slopes of the mountain of Etzel, he died on January 21, 861, at the hands of two robbers who thought that the hermit had some precious treasures, but during the next 80 years the place was never without one or more hermits emulating Meinrad's example.
One of them, named Eberhard Provost of Strassburg, erected in 934 a monastery and church there, of which he became first abbot. The church was miraculously consecrated, so the legend runs, in 948, by Christ himself assisted by the Four Evangelists, St. Peter, St. Gregory the Great; this event was investigated and confirmed by Pope Leo VIII and subsequently ratified by many of his successors, the last ratification being by Pope Pius VI in 1793, who confirmed the acts of all his predecessors. In 965 Gregory, the third Abbot of Einsiedeln, was made a prince of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Otto I, his successors continued to enjoy the same dignity up to the cessation of the empire in the beginning of the 19th century. In 1274 the abbey, with its dependencies, was created an independent principality by Rudolf I of Germany, over which the abbot exercised temporal as well as spiritual jurisdiction, it remained independent until the year of the French invasion. It is still a territorial abbey, meaning that it is located in a territory, not part of any diocese which the abbot governs "as its proper pastor" with the same authority as a diocesan bishop.
For the learning and piety of its monks, Einsiedeln has been famous for a thousand years, many saints and scholars have lived within its walls. The study of letters and music have flourished there, the abbey has contributed to the glory of the Benedictine Order, it is true that discipline declined somewhat in the fifteenth century and the rule became relaxed, but Ludovicus II, a monk of St. Gall, Abbot of Einsiedeln 1526-44, succeeded in restoring the stricter observance. In the 16th century the religious disturbances caused by the spread of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland were a source of trouble for some time. Zwingli himself was at Einsiedeln for a while, used the opportunity for protesting against the famous pilgrimages, but the storm passed over and the abbey was left in peace. Abbot Augustine I was the leader of the movement which resulted in the erection of the Swiss Congregation of the Order of St. Benedict in 1602, he did much for the establishment of unrelaxed observance in the abbey and for the promotion of a high standard of scholarship and learning amongst his monks.
The pilgrimages, just mentioned, which have never ceased since the days of St Meinrad, have tended to make Einsiedeln the rival of Rome, the Holy House of Loreto and Santiago de Compostela, serving as a major stopping point on the Way of St. James leading there. Pilgrimages constitute one of the features; the pilgrims number around one million, from all parts of Catholic Europe or further. The statue of Our Lady from the 15th century, enthroned in the little chapel erected by Eberhard, is the object of their devotion, it is the subject of the earliest preserved print of pilgrimage, by the Master E. S. in 1466. The chapel stands within the great abbey church, in much the same way as the Holy House at Loreto is encased in a marble shrine and is elaborately decorated. September 14 and October 13 are the chief pilgrimage days, the former being the anniversary of the miraculous consecration of Eberhard's basilica and the latter that of the translation of St Meinrad's relics from Reichenau Island to Einsiedeln in 1039.
The millennium of St Meinrad was kept there with great splendour in 1861 as well as that of the Benedictine monastery in 1934. The great church has been many times rebuilt, the last time by Abbot Maurus between the years 1704 and 1719; the last big renovation ended after more than twenty years in 1997. The library contains many priceless manuscripts; the work of the monks is divided chiefly between prayer and study. At pilgrimage times the number of confessions heard is large. In 2013 the community numbered 60 monks. Attached to the abbey are a seminary and a college for about 360 pupils who are taught by the monks, who provide spiritual direction for six convents of Religious Sisters. In 1854, when the monastery was again facing suppression, a colony was sent to the United States from Einsiedeln to minister to the local German-speaking population and to develop a place of refuge, if needed; the delegation started a new foundation, now St. Meinrad Archabbey in St. Meinrad, which became part of the Swiss-American Congregation formed in 1881.
As of 01 April 2018, the Swiss-American Congregation consists of 14 monasteries from Canada to Guatemala, five of which were founded from St. Meinrad Archabbey and its daughter houses. One of the abbey's apostolates is a school for the seventh to twelfth grades which has existed in its present form since 1848, it is the con
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons