Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the coast of the Bay of 20 km from the French border; the capital city of Gipuzkoa, the municipality's population is 186,095 as of 2015, with its metropolitan area reaching 436,500 in 2010. Locals call themselves donostiarra, both in Basque; the main economic activities are commerce and tourism, it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Spain. Despite the city’s small size, events such as the San Sebastián International Film Festival have given it an international dimension. San Sebastián, along with Wrocław, was the European Capital of Culture in 2016. In spite of appearances, both the Basque form Donostia and the Spanish form San Sebastián have the same meaning of Saint Sebastian; the dona/done/doni element in Basque place-names is derived from Latin domine. There are two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Basque name: one says it was *Done Sebastiáne > Donasaastiai > Donasastia > Donastia > Donostia, the other one says it was *Done Sebastiane > *Done Sebastiae > *Done Sebastie > *Donesebastia > *Donasastia > *Donastia > Donostia.
The city is located in the north of the Basque Autonomous Community, on the southern coast of the Bay of Biscay. San Sebastián's three picturesque beaches, Concha and Zurriola, make it a popular resort; the town is surrounded by accessible hilly areas: Urgull, Mount Ulia, Mount Adarra and Igeldo. The city sits at the mouth of the River Urumea, Donostia was built to a large extent on the river's wetlands over the last two centuries. In fact, the city centre and the districts of Amara Berri and Riberas de Loiola lie on the former bed of the river, diverted to its current canalized course in the first half of the 20th century. San Sebastián features an oceanic climate with cool winters. Like many cities with this climate, San Sebastián experiences cloudy or overcast conditions for the majority of the year with some precipitation; the city averages 1,650 mm of precipitation annually, evenly spread throughout the year. However, the city is somewhat drier and noticeably sunnier in the summer months, experiencing on average 100 mm of precipitation during those months.
Average temperatures range from 8.9 °C in January to 21.5 °C in August. The first evidence of human stationary presence in the current city is the settlement of Ametzagaña, between South Intxaurrondo and Astigarraga; the unearthed remains, such as carved stone used as knives to cut animal skin, date from 24,000 to 22,000 BC. The open-air findings of the Upper Paleolithic have revealed that the settlers were hunters and Homo sapiens, besides pointing to a much colder climate at the time. San Sebastián is thought to have been in the territory of the Varduli in Roman times. 10 km east of the current city lay the Basque Roman town of Oiasso, for a long time wrongly identified with San Sebastián. After a long period of silence in evidence, in 1014 the monastery of St. Sebastián with its apple orchards, located in the term of Hernani, is donated to the Abbey of Leire by Sancho III of Pamplona. By 1181, the city is chartered by king Sancho VI of Pamplona on the site of Izurum, having jurisdiction over all the territory between the rivers Oria and Bidasoa.
In 1200, the city was conquered by Castile, whose king Alfonso VIII, confirmed its charter, but the Kingdom of Navarre was deprived of its main direct access out to the sea. As soon as 1204, the city nucleus at the foot of Urgull started to be populated with Gascon-speaking colonizers from Bayonne and beyond, who left an important imprint in the city's identity in the centuries to come. In 1265, the use of the city as a seaport is granted to Navarre as part of a wedding pact; the large quantity of Gascons inhabiting the town favoured the development of trade with other European ports and Gascony. The city steered clear of the destructive War of the Bands in Gipuzkoa, the only town in doing so in that territory. In fact, the town only joined Gipuzkoa in 1459. Up to the 16th century, Donostia remained out of wars, but by the beginning of the 15th century, a line of walls of simple construction is attested encircling the town; the last chapter of the town in the Middle Ages was brought about by a fire that devastated Donostia in 1489.
After burning to the ground, the town began a new renaissance by building up with stone instead of bare timber. The advent of the Modern Age brought a period of war for the city. New state boundaries were drawn; the town provided critical naval help to Emperor Charles V during the siege of Hondarribia, which earned the town the titles "Muy Noble y Muy Leal", recorded on its coat of arms. The town aided the monarch by sending a party to the Battle of Noain and providing help to quash the Revolt of the Comuneros in 1521. After these events, who had played a leading role in the political and economic life of the town since its foundation, began to be excluded from influential public positions by means of a string of regional sentences uphe
Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Zaldibar is an elizate and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. Zaldibar is part of the comarca of Durangaldea and has a population of 3,062 inhabitants as of 2014 and according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Zaldibar can be translated from Basque from zaldi and ibar; the coat of arms of the town includes a horse. Zaldívar is the name in Spanish. However, the town was named Zaldua or Zaldúa until 1932. Zaldua is translated from Basque to Spanish as "el soto", which might be referred to a sotobosque, Spanish word for understory. "Valley of the Soto" is another possible origin of the current name. Zaldua is considered an archaism and it is not used, being since 1980 Zaldibar the official name of the municipality; the elizate of Zaldua, today Zaldibar, was part of the ancient merindad of Durango and had voice and right to vote in the Juntas of Guerendiaga, where it occupied the seat number seven. As it is common with the elizates, the original date of founding is unknown.
The tradition tells that the Navarre king Sancho II of Pamplona lived ten years in one of the towers of Zaldibar as a prisoner. The owners of the forementioned tower controlled several territories of. There are historical data; the church was reconstructed in 1778 from previous damage. The municipality of Zaldibar is located in the southeastern part of the comarca of Durangaldea and the province of Biscay, it borders at south with the municipality of Elorrio, at west with Berriz, at north with Mallabia and Ermua and at east with the province of Gipuzkoa. The main river of the town is the Zalduerreka, which joins the Ibaizabal river in Abadiño; the river is joined by several small streams as the Agirre-Sakona. The oriental part of the municipality is crossed by the Ego river, which joins the Deba river in Eibar; the main road communication of Zaldibar is the N-634. The AP-8 highway crosses the municipality but cannot be accessed from it. Both roads connect Zaldibar with the province of Gipuzkoa. Zaldibar has a station of the narrow-gauge regional railways, which connects the town with other major municipalities and cities like Bilbao, Amorebieta-Etxano, Eibar and Hendaye.
Durangaldea Biscay ZALDIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Durangaldea is a comarca of Biscay located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is one of the seven regions that compose the province of Biscay; the capital city of Durangaldea is Durango. Durangaldea is located at the southeast of the province of Biscay, limiting with the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Álava, it spans the border with the province of Álava in the south. Its total extension is 240,13 km². Most of the towns that compose the comarca are located on a great valley formed by the Ibaizabal river, that crosses it from east to west. Otxandio is the only town, not part of the valley. Durangaldea was during the Middle Ages a district apart from Biscay and a dependency of Navarre, but was conquered by Castile in 1200, it remained separate from Biscay until 1630, it held its own compilation of laws, with its regional council joining in Gerediaga, Abadiño. Its lords founded four chartered towns, namely Ermua, Elorrio and Otxandio. Durangaldea is divided into twelve municipalities, being Durango the capital city.
The municipalities that compose the comarca are the same ones that made the merindad of Durango, the previous administrative division. Ermua and Mallabia belong to the province of Biscay, but are not part of Durangaldea, being part of other comarca, part of Gipuzkoa; the economy of Durangaldea is industrial, although the primary sector is important. It is the second most important sector of the economy in the region after the industry; the animal husbandry is specially important, as well as the wood production. The minery is an important section of the economy being produced limestone and marble. Mines of iron and copper have been exploited; the siderurgy has been one of the most developed type of industries in Durangaldea. Besides it, other industries like paper producers or tool producers exist. Durangaldea is connected to the three Basque provinces by roads, Álava in the south by the BI-623 and Bilbao and Donostia by the road N-634; the Cantabric Highway crosses the comarca, can be accessed from Durango and connects the city with Bilbao and the French border.
EuskoTren operates in the region, offering commuter rail services. The train line connects with Bilbao and other comarcas of the province and with Gipuzkoa. EuskoTren has train stations in Abadiño, Amorebieta-Etxano, Berriz and Zaldibar; the bus company BizkaiBus operates in the region, connecting all the municipalities with others on different comarcas. Lord of Biscay Durango, Biscay Comarcas of Spain
Spanish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the Spaniards are a nation, promotes the cultural unity of the Spanish. In a general sense, it comprises political and social movements inspired by a love for Spanish culture, history, a sense of pride in Spain and its people. Spanish nationalists reject other nationalist movements within Spain Catalan and Basque nationalism. Other forms of Spanish nationalism have included pan-Hispanism. Spanish nationalism has its origins in Castilian-based culture, its development runs parallel to that of the state-building process carried out by the Spanish monarchy, to the surge in patriotic sentiment in the landlocked territories galvanized by the Reconquista — a period that began in what would become the Kingdom of Castile and ended in the final conquest of Granada in 1492. This explains. Hence, Spanish nationalism is a historical corollary or synecdochal evolution of an expansionist phase in Castilian nationalism, much like the process by which early English nationalism came to define all of British nationalism, or by which Latin and Sabine political identity came to assimilate all other ethnicities in the Italian Peninsula, sometimes forcefully, into becoming a single national entity.
In spite of the early Castilian genesis of Spanish nationalism, it must be emphasized that more recent stages of Castilian nationalism are sometimes indifferent or inimical to Spanish unionism. In many Western European nation-states, the shaping of an authoritarian monarchy, like those of the late Middle Ages, prompted a parallel secular development of the state and nation; this occurred in Spain under the Spanish Monarchy's successive territorial conformations. Like many nations before it, Spanish national identity and territorial dynamic gave rise to different outcomes; as a result of how the institutions responded to the changing economic and social dynamic, the idea of nationalism did not flourish into its contemporary frame until the Old Regime had succumbed. At the time, the clearest identification factor that existed throughout this ethnic-religious period in Spain was the form of "Old Christian" status. By the end of this period at the 18th century, the linguistic identification factor had revolved around the Castilian with new institutions such as the Spanish Royal Academy.
Spanish nationalism emerged with liberalism, during the Spanish War of Independence against Napoleon I of France. Since 1808 we speak of nationalism in Spain: ethnic patriotism became national, at least among the elite; this was unmistakably the work of liberals. The modernized elites used the occasion to try to impose a program of political changes, their method was to launch the revolutionary idea of the nation as the holder of sovereignty. This idea of sovereignty is believed to have mobilized the Spanish victoriously against a foreign army and against collaborators of José Bonaparte, regarded as non-Spanish; the Spanish liberals turned their victory on the battlefield to an feverish identity of patriotism and the defense of liberty: as the Asturian deputy Agustín Argüelles when he presented the Constitution of 1812, "Spaniards, you now have a homeland." José Álvarez Junco Since Spanish nationalism has changed in meaning and its ideological and political proposals. The Carlism, a defensive movement of the Old Regime, did not regard the adjective "national" with any esteem and considered it a term used only by liberals.
However, what shaped Spanish nationalism came in the twentieth century from the frustration of the disaster of 1898, called regenerationism. It assimilated from movements opposite one another such as the ruling bourbon-family dynasty, the republican opposition and the military influence of the 1917 crisis and dictatorships of Miguel Primo de Rivera and Francisco Franco. Under the movement of panhispanism, which refers to the movement focused on the unity of Hispanic-American nations, whose origins are rooted during the period of Spanish colonization and imperialism, refers in this case to the movement that emerged after the crisis of 1898. Panhispanism was influenced by the regenerationism movement and the Generation of'98, whose authors came from the Spanish periphery and agreed to consider Castile the representation of "Spanish"; these philosophers and authors, like Ramiro de Maeztu, Ramiro Ledesma and Onésimo Redondo, founders of the JONS, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange, expressed a generation frustrated with Spanish society and politics at the time.
During this period, this form of nationalism incorporated a traditionalist component that could be traced back to a century old belief of traditional monarchy or Catholic monarchy. It is not lay nor secular, but Roman Catholic, which would define in Francoist Spain the term, National Catholicism. Spanish liberal philosopher and essayist José Ortega y Gasset defined Spain as an "enthusing project for a life in common. Meanwhile, the Fascist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera preferred the definition of a "unity of destiny in the universal" and defended a return to the traditional and spiritual values of Imperial Spain; the idea of empire