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Ernest Shackleton

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was an Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Shackleton's first experience of the polar regions was as third officer on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition of 1901–1904, from which he was sent home early on health grounds, after he and his companions Scott and Edward Adrian Wilson set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S. During the Nimrod expedition of 1907–1909, he and three companions established a new record Farthest South latitude at 88°S, only 97 geographical miles from the South Pole, the largest advance to the pole in exploration history. Members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano. For these achievements, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home. After the race to the South Pole ended in December 1911, with Roald Amundsen's conquest, Shackleton turned his attention to the crossing of Antarctica from sea to sea, via the pole.

To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. Disaster struck this expedition when its ship, became trapped in pack ice and was crushed before the shore parties could be landed; the crew escaped by camping on the sea ice until it disintegrated by launching the lifeboats to reach Elephant Island and South Georgia Island, a stormy ocean voyage of 720 nautical miles and Shackleton's most famous exploit. In 1921, he returned to the Antarctic with the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition, but died of a heart attack while his ship was moored in South Georgia. At his wife's request, he was buried there. Away from his expeditions, Shackleton's life was restless and unfulfilled. In his search for rapid pathways to wealth and security, he launched business ventures which failed to prosper, he died in debt. Upon his death, he was lauded in the press but was thereafter forgotten, while the heroic reputation of his rival Scott was sustained for many decades.

In the 20th century, Shackleton was "rediscovered". He became a role model for leadership as one who, in extreme circumstances, kept his team together in a survival story described by cultural historian Stephanie Barczewski as "incredible". In his 1956 address to the British Science Association, Sir Raymond Priestley, one of his contemporaries, said "Scott for scientific method, Amundsen for speed and efficiency but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for Shackleton", paraphrasing what Apsley Cherry-Garrard had written in a preface to The Worst Journey in the World. In 2002, Shackleton was voted eleventh in a BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874, in County Kildare, Ireland, his father, Henry Shackleton, tried to enter the army, but his poor health prevented him from doing so. He became a farmer instead; the Shackleton family are of English origin from Yorkshire. Abraham Shackleton, an English Quaker, moved to Ireland in 1726 and started a school at Ballitore, County Kildare.

Shackleton's mother, Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan, was descended from the Fitzmaurice family. Ernest was the first of two sons. In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, moving his family to the city. Four years the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London; this was in search of better professional prospects for the newly qualified doctor, but another factor may have been unease about their Anglo-Irish ancestry, following the assassination by Irish nationalists of Lord Frederick Cavendish, the British Secretary for Ireland, in 1882. However, Shackleton took lifelong pride in his Irish roots, declared, "I am an Irishman". From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure, he was schooled by a governess until the age of eleven, when he began at Fir Lodge Preparatory School in West Hill, Dulwich, in southeast London. At the age of thirteen, he entered Dulwich College.

The young Shackleton did not distinguish himself as a scholar, was said to be "bored" by his studies. He was quoted as saying: "I never learned much geography at school... Literature, consisted in the dissection, the parsing, the analysing of certain passages from our great poets and prose-writers... teachers should be careful not to spoil taste for poetry for all time by making it a task and an imposition." In his final term at the school he was still able to achieve fifth place in his class of thirty-one. Shackleton's restlessness at school was such that he was allowed to go to sea; the options available were a Royal Navy cadetship at Britannia. The third option was chosen, his father was able to secure him a berth with the North Western Shipping Company, aboard the square-rigged sailing ship Hoghton Tower. During the following four years at sea, Shackleton learned his trade, visiting the far corners of the earth and forming acquaintances with a variety of people from many walks of life, learning to be at home with all kinds of men.

In August 1894, he passed his examination for second mate and accepted a post as third officer on a tramp steamer of

Twenty-One Demands

The Twenty-One Demands were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on 8 January 1915. The demands would extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy, were opposed by Britain and the United States. In the final settlement Japan gained a little but lost a great deal of prestige and trust in Britain and the US; the Chinese public responded with a spontaneous nationwide boycott of Japanese goods. Britain no longer trusted Japan as a partner. With the First World War underway, Japan's position was strong and Britain's was weak. Britain forced Japan to drop the fifth set of demands that would have given Japan a large measure of control over the entire Chinese economy and ended the Open Door Policy. Japan and China reached a series of agreements which ratified the first four sets of goals on 25 May 1915. Japan had gained a large sphere of influence in northern China and Manchuria through its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, had thus joined the ranks of the European imperialist powers in their scramble to establish political and economic domination over Imperial China under the Qing dynasty.

With the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, the establishment of the new Republic of China, Japan saw an opportunity to further expand its position in China. The German Empire was in control of the Shandong province as part of the Kiautschou Bay concession since 1898. With the onset of the First World War, Japan declared war against Germany on 23 August 1914, secured victory by 7 November 1914 after the conclusion of the Siege of Tsingtao. Japan, under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu and Foreign Minister Katō Takaaki, drafted the initial list of Twenty-One Demands, which were reviewed by the genrō and Emperor Taishō, approved by the Diet; this list was presented to Yuan Shikai on January 18, 1915, with warnings of dire consequences if China were to reject them. The Twenty One Demands were divided into five groups: Group 1 confirmed Japan's recent seizure of German ports and operations in Shandong Province, expanded Japan's sphere of influence over the railways and major cities of the province.

Group 2 pertained to Japan's South Manchuria Railway Zone, extending the leasehold over the territory for 99 years, expanding Japan's sphere of influence in southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, to include rights of settlement and extraterritoriality, appointment of financial and administrative officials to the government and priority for Japanese investments in those areas. Japan demanded access to Inner Mongolia for raw materials, as a manufacturing site, as a strategic buffer against Russian encroachment in Korea. Group 3 gave Japan metallurgical complex in central China. Group 4 barred China from giving any further coastal or island concessions to foreign powers. Group 5 was the most aggressive. China was to hire Japanese advisors who could take effective control of China's police. Japan would be empowered to build three major railways, Buddhist temples and schools. Japan would gain effective control of Fujian, across the Taiwan Strait from Taiwan, ceded to Japan in 1895. Knowing the negative reaction "Group 5" would cause, Japan tried to keep its contents secret.

The Chinese government attempted to stall for as long as possible and leaked the full contents of the Twenty-One Demands to European powers in the hope that due to a perceived threat to their own political and economic spheres of interest, they would help contain Japan. After China rejected Japan's revised proposal on 26 April 1915, the genrō intervened and deleted ‘Group 5’ from the document, as these had proved to be the most objectionable to the Chinese government. A reduced set of "Thirteen Demands" was transmitted on May 7 in the form of an ultimatum, with a two-day deadline for response. Yuan Shikai, competing with other local warlords to become the ruler of all China, was not in a position to risk war with Japan, accepted appeasement, a tactic followed by his successors; the final form of the treaty was signed by both parties on May 25, 1915. Katō Takaaki publicly admitted that the ultimatum was invited by Yuan to save face with the Chinese people in conceding to the Demands. American Minister Paul Reinsch reported to the US State Department that the Chinese were surprised at the leniency of the ultimatum, as it demanded much less than they had committed themselves to concede.

The results of the revised final version of the Twenty-One Demands were far more negative for Japan than positive. Without "Group 5", the new treaty gave Japan little that it did not have in China. On the other hand, the United States expressed negative reactions to Japan's rejection of the Open Door Policy. In the Bryan Note issued by Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan on 13 March 1915, the U. S. while affirming Japan's "special interests" in Manchuria and Shandong, expressed concern over further encroachments to Chinese sovereignty. Great Britain, Japan's closest ally, expressed concern over what was perceived as Japan's overbearing, bullying approach to diplomacy, the British Foreign Office in particular was unhappy with Japanese attempts to establish what would be a Japanese protectorate over all of China. Afterwards, J

2018 Consumers Energy 400

The 2018 Consumers Energy 400 is a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race held on August 12, 2018 at Michigan International Speedway in Brooklyn, Michigan. Contested over 200 laps on the two-mile D-shaped oval, it is the 23rd race of the 2018 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series season. Michigan International Speedway is a two-mile moderate-banked D-shaped speedway located off U. S. Highway 12 on more than 1,400 acres four miles south of the village of Brooklyn, in the scenic Irish Hills area of southeastern Michigan; the track is used for NASCAR events. It is sometimes known as a "sister track" to Texas World Speedway, was used as the basis of Auto Club Speedway; the track is owned by International Speedway Corporation. Michigan International Speedway is recognized as one of motorsports' premier facilities because of its wide racing surface and high banking. Michigan is the fastest track in NASCAR due to its sweeping corners and long straightaways. Denny Hamlin was the fastest in the first practice session with a time of 35.603 seconds and a speed of 202.230 mph.

Denny Hamlin scored the pole for the race with a speed of 202.794 mph. Reed Sorenson practiced and qualified the No. 15 for Ross Chastain, in Ohio for the Xfinity Series race. Erik Jones was the fastest in the second practice session with a time of 35.973 seconds and a speed of 200.150 mph. Joey Logano was the fastest in the final practice session with a time of 36.441 seconds and a speed of 197.580 mph. Stage 1 Laps: 60 Stage 2 Laps: 60 Stage 3 Laps: 80 Lead changes: 9 among different drivers Cautions/Laps: 8 for 37 Red flags: 0 Time of race: 2 hours, 50 minutes and 51 seconds Average speed: 140.474 miles per hour NBC Sports covered the race on the television side. Rick Allen, Jeff Burton, Steve Letarte and two-time Michigan winner, Dale Earnhardt Jr. had the call in the booth for the race. Dave Burns, Marty Snider and Kelli Stavast reported from pit lane during the race. Motor Racing Network had the radio call for the race, simulcast on Sirius XM NASCAR Radio