The Cockcroft–Walton generator, or multiplier, is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input. It was named after the British and Irish physicists John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton, who in 1932 used this circuit design to power their particle accelerator, performing the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history, they used this voltage multiplier cascade for most of their research, which in 1951 won them the Nobel Prize in Physics for "Transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles". The circuit was discovered by Heinrich Greinacher, a Swiss physicist. For this reason, this doubler cascade is sometimes referred to as the Greinacher multiplier. Cockcroft–Walton circuits are still used in particle accelerators, they are used in everyday electronic devices that require high voltages, such as X-ray machines, television sets, microwave ovens and photocopiers. The CW is a voltage multiplier that converts AC or pulsing DC electrical power from a low voltage level to a higher DC voltage level.
It is made up of a voltage multiplier ladder network of capacitors and diodes to generate high voltages. Unlike transformers, this method eliminates the requirement for the heavy core and the bulk of insulation/potting required. Using only capacitors and diodes, these voltage multipliers can step up low voltages to high values, while at the same time being far lighter and cheaper than transformers; the biggest advantage of such circuits is that the voltage across each stage of the cascade is equal to only twice the peak input voltage in a half-wave rectifier. In a full-wave rectifier it is three times the input voltage, it has the advantage of requiring low-cost components and being easy to insulate. One can tap the output from any stage, like in a multitapped transformer. To understand the circuit operation, see the diagram of the two-stage version at right. Assume the circuit is powered by an alternating voltage Vi with a peak value of Vp, the capacitors are uncharged. After the input voltage is turned on When the input voltage Vi reaches its negative peak −Vp, current flows through diode D1 to charge capacitor C1 to a voltage of Vp.
When Vi reverses polarity and reaches its positive peak +Vp, it adds to the capacitor's voltage to produce a voltage of 2Vp on C1s righthand plate. Since D1 is reverse-biased, current flows from C1 through diode D2, charging capacitor C2 to a voltage of 2Vp; when Vi reverses polarity again, current from C2 flows through diode D3, charging capacitor C3 to a voltage of 2Vp. When Vi reverses polarity again, current from C3 flows through diode D4, charging capacitor C4 to a voltage of 2Vp. With each change in input polarity, current flows up the "stack" of capacitors through the diodes, until they are all charged. All the capacitors are charged to a voltage of 2Vp, except for C1, charged to Vp; the key to the voltage multiplication is that while the capacitors are charged in parallel, they are connected to the load in series. Since C2 and C4 are in series between the output and ground, the total output voltage is Vo = 4Vp; this circuit can be extended to any number of stages. The no-load output voltage is twice the peak input voltage multiplied by the number of stages N or equivalently the peak-to-peak input voltage swing times the number of stages V o = 2 N V p = N V pp, The number of stages is equal to the number of capacitors in series between the output and ground.
One way to look at the circuit is that it functions as a charge "pump", pumping electric charge in one direction, up the stack of capacitors. The CW circuit, along with other similar capacitor circuits, is called charge pump. For substantial loads, the charge on the capacitors is depleted, the output voltage drops according to the output current divided by the capacitance. In practice, the CW has a number of drawbacks; as the number of stages is increased, the voltages of the higher stages begin to "sag" due to the electrical impedance of the capacitors in the lower stages. And, when supplying an output current, the voltage ripple increases as the number of stages is increased. For these reasons, CW multipliers with large number of stages are used only where low output current is required; the sag can be reduced by increasing the capacitance in the lower stages, the ripple can by reduced by increasing the frequency of the input and by using a square waveform. By driving the CW from a high-frequency source, such as an inverter, or a combination of an inverter and HV transformer, the overall physical size and weight of the CW power supply can be reduced.
CW multipliers are used to develop higher voltages for low-current applications, such as bias voltages ranging from tens or hundreds of volts to millions of volts for high-energy physics experiments or lightning safety testing. CW multipliers are found, with a higher number of stages, in laser systems, high-voltage power supplies, X-ray systems, LCD backlighting, traveling-wave tube amplifiers, ion pumps, electrostatic systems, air ionisers, particle accelerators, copy machines, scientific instrumentation, television sets and cathode ray tubes, electroshock weapons, bug zappers and many other applications that use high-voltage DC. A similar circuit is the Marx generator, which has a similar "ladder" struct
County Tyrone is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland and one of the thirty-two counties on the island of Ireland. It is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture. Adjoined to the south-west shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,155 km2 and has a population of about 177,986; the county derives its name and general geographic location from Tyrone, a Gaelic kingdom under the O'Neill dynasty which existed until the 17th century. The name Tyrone is derived from Irish Tír Eoghain, meaning'land of Eoghan', the name given to the conquests made by the Cenél nEógain from the provinces of Airgíalla and Ulaid, it was anglicised as Tirowen or Tyrowen, which are closer to the Irish pronunciation. Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, comprised part of modern-day County Londonderry east of the River Foyle; the majority of County Londonderry was carved out of Tyrone between 1610–1620 when that land went to the Guilds of London to set up profit making schemes based on natural resources located there.
Tyrone was the traditional stronghold of the various O'Neill clans and families, the strongest of the Gaelic Irish families in Ulster, surviving into the seventeenth century. The ancient principality of Tír Eoghain, the inheritance of the O'Neills, included the whole of the present counties of Tyrone and Londonderry, the four baronies of West Inishowen, East Inishowen, Raphoe North and Raphoe South in County Donegal. In 1608 during O'Doherty's Rebellion areas of the country were plundered and burnt by the forces of Sir Cahir O'Doherty following his destruction of Derry. However, O'Doherty's men avoided the estates of the fled Earl of Tyrone around Dungannon, fearing Tyrone's anger if he returned from his exile. With an area of 3,155 square kilometres, Tyrone is the largest county in Northern Ireland; the flat peatlands of East Tyrone border the shoreline of the largest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, rising across to the more mountainous terrain in the west of the county, the area surrounding the Sperrin Mountains, the highest point being Sawel Mountain at a height of 678 m.
The length of the county, from the mouth of the River Blackwater at Lough Neagh to the western point near Carrickaduff hill is 55 miles. The breadth, from the southern corner, southeast of Fivemiletown, to the northeastern corner near Meenard Mountain is 37.5 miles. Annaghone lays claim to be the geographical centre of Northern Ireland. Tyrone is connected by land to the county of Fermanagh to the southwest. Across Lough Neagh to the east, it borders County Antrim, it is the eighth largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties by tenth largest by population. It is the second largest of Ulster's nine traditional counties by area and fourth largest by population, it is one of four counties in Northern Ireland which has a majority of the population from a Catholic community background, according to the 2011 census. In 1900 County Tyrone had a population of 197,719, while in 2011 it was 177,986. Omagh Cookstown Dungannon Strabane Coalisland Castlederg Ardboe Carrickmore Dromore Fintona Fivemiletown Killyclogher Moy Newtownstewart Sion Mills Baronies Clogher Dungannon Lower Dungannon Middle Dungannon Upper Omagh East Omagh West Strabane Lower Strabane UpperParishes Townlands There is the possibility of the line being reopened to Dungannon railway station from Portadown.
The major sports in Tyrone are association football, rugby union and cricket. Gaelic football is more played than hurling in Tyrone; the Tyrone GAA football side has had considerable success since 2000, winning three All Ireland titles. They have won fifteen Ulster titles and two National League titles. Association football has a large following in Tyrone. Omagh Town F. C. were members of the Irish Football League. Dungannon Swifts F. C. compete in the NIFL Premiership - the top division. Other teams include NIFL Championship side Dergview F. C.. Rugby union is popular in the county. Dungannon RFC plays in the All-Ireland League. Other teams include Omagh RFC, Clogher Valley RFC, Cookstown RFC and Strabane RFC. International Cricket is played on the Bready Cricket Club Ground, owned by Bready Cricket Club, it is Ireland's fourth venue for International Cricket hosting its first International Cricket match when Ireland played against Scotland in a series of T20I matches in June 2015. It was selected. Abbeys and priories in Northern Ireland High Sheriff of Tyrone List of civil parishes of County Tyrone List of places in County Tyrone List of townlands in County Tyrone Lord Lieutenant of Tyrone Ulster American Folk Park The Moorlough Shore Joost, Augusteijn.
The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909–48. Co. Tyrone. ISBN 978-1-84682-069-4. McNeill, I.. The Flora of County Tyrone. National Museums of
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. Unlike fluorescence, a phosphorescent material does not re-emit the radiation it absorbs; the slower time scales of the re-emission are associated with "forbidden" energy state transitions in quantum mechanics. As these transitions occur slowly in certain materials, absorbed radiation is re-emitted at a lower intensity for up to several hours after the original excitation. Everyday examples of phosphorescent materials are the glow-in-the-dark toys, stickers and clock dials that glow after being charged with a bright light such as in any normal reading or room light; the glow fades out, sometimes within a few minutes or up to a few hours in a dark room. The study of phosphorescent materials led to the discovery of radioactivity in 1896. In simple terms, phosphorescence is a process in which energy absorbed by a substance is released slowly in the form of light; this is in some cases the mechanism used for "glow-in-the-dark" materials which are "charged" by exposure to light.
Unlike the swift reactions in fluorescence, such as those seen in a common fluorescent tube, phosphorescent materials "store" absorbed energy for a longer time, as the processes required to re-emit energy occur less often. Most photoluminescent events, in which a chemical substrate absorbs and re-emits a photon of light, are fast, in the order of 10 nanoseconds. Light is absorbed and emitted at these fast time scales in cases where the energy of the photons involved matches the available energy states and allowed transitions of the substrate. In the special case of phosphorescence, the electron which absorbed the photon undergoes an unusual intersystem crossing into an energy state of higher spin multiplicity a triplet state; as a result, the excited electron can become trapped in the triplet state with only "forbidden" transitions available to return to the lower energy singlet state. These transitions, although "forbidden", will still occur in quantum mechanics but are kinetically unfavored and thus progress at slower time scales.
Most phosphorescent compounds are still fast emitters, with triplet lifetimes on the order of milliseconds. However, some compounds have triplet lifetimes up to minutes or hours, allowing these substances to store light energy in the form of slowly degrading excited electron states. If the phosphorescent quantum yield is high, these substances will release significant amounts of light over long time scales, creating so-called "glow-in-the-dark" materials. S 0 + h ν → S 1 → T 1 → S 0 + h ν ′ where S is a singlet and T a triplet whose subscripts denote states. Transitions can occur to higher energy levels, but the first excited state is denoted for simplicity; some examples of glow-in-the-dark materials do not glow by phosphorescence. For example, glow sticks glow due to a chemiluminescent process, mistaken for phosphorescence. In chemiluminescence, an excited state is created via a chemical reaction; the light emission tracks the kinetic progress of the underlying chemical reaction. The excited state will transfer to a dye molecule known as a sensitizer or fluorophor, subsequently fluoresce back to the ground state.
Common pigments used in phosphorescent materials include strontium aluminate. Use of zinc sulfide for safety related products dates back to the 1930s. However, the development of strontium aluminate, with a luminance 10 times greater than zinc sulfide, has relegated most zinc sulfide based products to the novelty category. Strontium aluminate based pigments are now used in exit signs, pathway marking, other safety related signage. Phosphorescent pigments – zinc sulfide vs. strontium aluminate Phosphorescent Luminous gemstones Luminous paint Microsphere Persistent luminescence Phosphor Phosphoroscope Tritium
Abbeyside is an area in County Waterford, Ireland. It lies on the east bank of the Colligan River. MacGrath's Castle was a notable landmark in Abbeyside, overlooking Dungarvan Harbour, until it collapsed in January 1916, it was situated at Friar's Walk near the Augustinian abbey. It was a typical tower-house of two of them supported by stone vaults; the MacGrath family is said to have built it, it is called MacCragh's Castle in the Civil Survey of 1654. By the mid-18th century the castle retained its roof. Following the collapse, fragments of the walls remained up until the early 1960s, but these were removed and now there are no remains visible above ground; the local GAA club is Abbeyside/Ballinacourty GAA. The club competes in both senior codes in the county; the village has a local soccer team, Abbeyside AFC which in recent years has gone into decline after a period of success from 1987 to 2003. The club based in a large urban area have no schoolboy football team; this marks a break of tradition stretching back 35 years.
Children from the area now play their football with the more progressive clubs of Ballinroad and Dungarvan. Stage 2 of the 1998 Tour de France passed through Abbeyside. Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton, noted Physicist and Nobel Laureate was born in Abbeyside. Walton was famous for his work with John Cockcroft on the splitting of the atom; the "Walton Causeway Park" in Abbeyside was dedicated in his honour. Walton himself attended the ceremony in 1989. After his death, a plaque was placed on the site of his birthplace in Abbeyside. Louis Claude Purser, a noted classical scholar was born here. Sarah Purser, a celebrated portrait painter was raised in Abbeyside. Abbeyside Heritage Archive
Deans Grange Cemetery
Deans Grange Cemetery is situated in the suburban area of Deansgrange in the Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown part of the former County Dublin, Ireland. Since it first opened in 1865, over 150,000 people have been buried there, it is, together with Glasnevin and Mount Jerome, one of the largest cemeteries in the Dublin area, occupying 70 acres. The Burial Act of 1855 resulted in the closure of many of the older churchyards in Dublin and surrounds due to overcrowding; this drove the need to find new lands for cemeteries. The initial cemetery consisted of just 8 acres bought by the Rathdown Union from Rev. John Beatty; the price agreed. A committee was formed to run the new cemetery and on 20 November 1861 Sir George Hobson, chairman of the Guardians of the Rural Districts of the Union, signed the deeds establishing the new cemetery; the new committee set about appointing Matthew Betham as the chairman and Joseph Cope as the office clerk of admin duties and building the new cemetery. The cemetery was laid out with just two sections, North for Catholic and South for Protestant religions as well as separate chapels for both.
It consisted of a Gate Lodge and yew trees lining the main walkways. The buildings were constructed by Matthew Gahan, whose name can be seen on the metal doors to the vaults under each chapel, it was 1865 when the cemetery took its first burial on 28 January 1865 of Anastasia Carey, buried near the Catholic chapel. There were four grave types. 1st Class located adjacent to the main pathways and considered the most prominent and most expensive. 2nd Class located expensive. 3rd Class surrounded by other plots. Failure to pay resulted in the grave reverting to the Burial Board for reuse. 4th Class on loan and reverted to the Burial board for reuse after a number of years. Since the opening of the cemetery two sections were added, South West and West, the North section was extended. From the 1930s more land was bought and new sections were created and named after different saints bringing the total number of sections to 16. In 1984 a sister cemetery was opened south of Shankill village called Shanganagh Cemetery and occupying 50 acres.
By the late 1980s the cemetery was running out of space and it was decided to stop selling new grave spaces. However, recent proposals around 2008 will see a small number of improvements and spaces made available; the gate lodge was lived in by the registrar until the late 1990s. Today Dean's Grange Cemetery is administered by Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council. Interred in the cemetery are people from notable events in Irish history; the 15 local men of the Kingstown Lifeboat Disaster in 1895 who crewed a rescue boat involved in an attempt to rescue the Palme. The Angels plot used from 1905 to 1989 to bury children, it is reckoned. Cemetery staff renovated the plot around 2008. During the 1916 rising, the cemetery saw the burial of about 50 people connected to the rising, they were either Irish republican volunteers or United Kingdom soldiers. There is a plot with 6 people buried and the rest are buried by their respective families. RMS Leinster was torpedoed by a German submarine 12 miles from Dún Laoghaire in 1918.
Eleven known victims are buried in the cemetery. United Kingdom armed services casualties of the 1916 rising and the Leinster sinking are among the 75 Commonwealth service personnel of World War I who are buried in this cemetery, as are 27 from World War II, whose graves are registered and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Interred at Deans Grange: Todd Andrews, Irish republican political and military activist civil servant Louie Bennett, trade unionist and writer Richard Irvine Best, Celtic scholar Francis Browning and President of the Irish Rugby Football Union Joseph Campbell, poet Kathleen Clarke, Irish republican Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil TD and Senator and widow of the Irish revolutionary Thomas J. Clarke John A. Costello and Fine Gael politician. Rickard Deasy, lawyer. Seán Lemass and Fianna Fáil politician Kathleen Lynn, member of the Irish Citizen Army and TD for the Dublin County constituency Donagh MacDonagh and judge John McCormack, tenor.
George Gamow, born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Soviet-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He was an early developer of Lemaître's Big Bang theory, he discovered a theoretical explanation of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis and Big Bang nucleosynthesis, molecular genetics. In his middle and late career, Gamow directed much of his attention to teaching and wrote popular books on science, including One Two Three... Infinity and the Mr Tompkins... series of books. Some of his books are still in print more than a half-century after their original publication. Gamow was born in Odessa, Russian Empire, his father taught Russian language and literature in high school, his mother taught geography and history at a school for girls. In addition to Russian, Gamow learned to German from a tutor. Gamow learned fluent English in his college years and later. Most of his early publications were in German or Russian, but he switched to writing in English for both technical papers and for the lay audience.
He was educated at the Institute of Physics and Mathematics in Odessa and at the University of Leningrad. Gamow studied under Alexander Friedmann for some time in Leningrad, until Friedmann's early death in 1925, he had to change dissertation advisors. At the University, Gamow made friends with three other students of theoretical physics, Lev Landau, Dmitri Ivanenko, Matvey Bronshtein; the four formed a group known as the Three Musketeers, which met to discuss and analyze the ground-breaking papers on quantum mechanics published during those years. He used the same phrase to describe the Alpher and Gamow group. On graduation, he worked on quantum theory in Göttingen, where his research into the atomic nucleus provided the basis for his doctorate, he worked at the Theoretical Physics Institute of the University of Copenhagen from 1928 to 1931, with a break to work with Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. He continued to study the atomic nucleus, but worked on stellar physics with Robert Atkinson and Fritz Houtermans.
In 1931, Gamow was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR at age 28 – one of the youngest in the history of this organization. During the period 1931–1933, Gamow worked in the Physical Department of the Radium Institute headed by Vitaly Khlopin. Europe's first cyclotron was designed under the guidance and direct participation of Igor Kurchatov, Lev Mysovskii and Gamow. In 1932, Gamow and Mysovskii submitted a draft design for consideration by the Academic Council of the Radium Institute, which approved it; the cyclotron was not completed until 1937. In the early 20th century, radioactive materials were known to have characteristic exponential decay rates, or half-lives. At the same time, radiation emissions were known to have certain characteristic energies. By 1928, Gamow in Göttingen had solved the theory of the alpha decay of a nucleus via tunnelling, with mathematical help from Nikolai Kochin; the problem was solved independently by Ronald W. Gurney and Edward U.
Condon. Gurney and Condon did not, achieve the quantitative results achieved by Gamow. Classically, the particle is confined to the nucleus because of the high energy requirement to escape the strong nuclear potential well. Classically, it takes an enormous amount of energy to pull apart the nucleus, an event that would not occur spontaneously. In quantum mechanics, there is a probability the particle can "tunnel through" the wall of the potential well and escape. Gamow solved a model potential for the nucleus and derived from first principles a relationship between the half-life of the alpha-decay event process and the energy of the emission, discovered empirically and was known as the Geiger–Nuttall law; some years the name Gamow factor or Gamow–Sommerfeld factor was applied to the probability of incoming nuclear particles tunnelling through the electrostatic Coulomb barrier and undergoing nuclear reactions. Gamow worked at a number of Soviet establishments before deciding to flee the Soviet Union because of increased oppression.
In 1931, he was denied permission to attend a scientific conference in Italy. In 1931, he married Lyubov Vokhmintseva, another physicist in Soviet Union, whom he nicknamed "Rho" after the Greek letter. Gamow and his new wife spent much of the next two years trying to leave the Soviet Union, with or without official permission. Niels Bohr and other friends invited Gamow to visit during this period, but Gamow could not get permission to leave. Gamow said that his first two attempts to defect with his wife were in 1932 and involved trying to kayak: first a planned 250-kilometer paddle over the Black Sea to Turkey, another attempt from Murmansk to Norway. Poor weather foiled both attempts. In 1933, Gamow was granted permission to attend the 7th Solvay Conference on physics, in Brussels, he insisted on having his wife accompany him saying that he would not go alone. The Soviet authorities relented and issued passports for the couple; the two attended and arranged to extend their stay, with the help of Marie Curie and other physicists.
Over the next year, Gamow obtained temporary work at the Curie Institute, University of London, the University of Michigan. In 1934, Gamow and his wife moved to the United States, he became a professor
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe