Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are incorporated into intelligence collection and dissemination. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, other broader areas of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, during a war itself. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services.
The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training. Intelligence operations are carried out throughout the hierarchy of military activity. Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, political assessments, military capabilities and intentions of foreign nations; such intelligence may be scientific, tactical, diplomatic or sociological, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography and industrial capacities. Operational intelligence is focused on denial of intelligence at operational tiers; the operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. The term operation intelligence is sometimes used to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets.
Operational intelligence is concerned with identifying, targeting and intervening in criminal activity. Tactical intelligence is focused on support to operations at the tactical level and would be attached to the battlegroup. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities; these patrols are debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans; the military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. Information requirements may be related to terrain and impact on vehicle or personnel movement, disposition of hostile forces, sentiments of the local population and capabilities of the hostile order of battle. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge.
Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement; the analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. This process is described as Intelligence Requirement Management; the process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis and dissemination. In the United Kingdom these are known as direction, collection and dissemination. In the U. S. military, Joint Publication 2-0 states: "The six categories of intelligence operations are: planning and direction. Many of the most important facts may be gathered from public sources; this form of information collection is known as open-source intelligence. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are important to military commanders, this information is public.
It is however imperative that the collector of information understands that what is collected is "information", does not become intelligence until after an analyst has evaluated and verified this information. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, tactics, personalities of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis; the tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are public, their speeds and ranges can be reasonably estimated by experts just from photographs. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are very valuable to planning, are habitually collected in an intelligence library. A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Photointerpreters maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories.
Most intelligence services support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Since maps have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government; some historic counterintelligence services in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or p
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Stowe is a town in Lamoille County, United States. The population was 4,314 at the 2010 census; the town lies on Vermont Route 108, locally known as the Mountain Road. It is nicknamed'The Ski Capital of the East' and is home to Stowe Mountain Resort, a ski facility with terrain on Mount Mansfield and Spruce Peak. Stowe was chartered June 1763 by Royal Governor Benning Wentworth of the New Hampshire colony. Vermont did not become a U. S. state until 28 years in 1791. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 72.7 square miles, of which 72.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square mile is water. By area, it is the second-largest town in the state of Vermont after Chittenden in Rutland County. Stowe lies in a broad, fertile valley between Mount Mansfield and other peaks of the Green Mountains to the west, the Worcester Range to the east; the Little River with its main east and west branches and various tributaries, flows southward and, above the Village of Waterbury Center, empties into the large reservoir created by the flood control dam.
From there the Little River flows southward and empties into the westward flowing Winooski River west of Waterbury Center. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,339 people, 1,905 households, 1,129 families residing in the town; the population density was 59.7 people per square mile. There were 2,728 housing units at an average density of 37.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.51% White, 0.28% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 1,905 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. There has been some manufacturing in Stowe, such as the Tubbs Snowshoe factory, but they closed in 2009 and moved their manufacturing overseas; the median income for a household in the town was $52,378, the median income for a family was $64,700. Males had a median income of $37,788 versus $31,689 for females; the per capita income for the town was $35,474. About 3.7% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over. The median house value was $412,183 in 2012. Trapp Family Lodge Vermont Ski and Snowboard Museum Stowe Mountain Resort - Stowe,'The Ski Capitol of the East', has long been known for its winter recreation, its ski area was purchased by Vail Resorts in 2017 for $41 million dollars. It has 117 ski runs spread over Mount Mansfield and Spruce Peak, boasts 13 different lifts.
Stowe Recreation Path - a recreation trail that runs 5.3 miles, was completed in 1989 at a total cost of $680,000. The path stretches from the Village downtown all the way to the TopNotch Lodge, it has received several honors. Cady Hill Forest in the heart of Stowe Village was conserved by the Stowe Land Trust in 2012 and transferred to the Town of Stowe, it offers more than 11 miles of hiking and mountain bike trails, with an access point off of Route 108. The Stowe Mountain Bike Club is responsible for maintaining the trail network. HGTV's 2011 Dream Home is located in Stowe. There are three public schools in town: Stowe Elementary School, Stowe Middle School, Stowe High School; the North American Hockey Academy is located in Stowe. The Mount Mansfield Winter Academy with a focus on snow sport athletes. Stowe Land Trust has conserved 30 properties and over 3,500 acres, many of which are available to the public. One is Wiessner Woods, conserved by the trust in 1992 through a donation from the Wiessner family.
The Stowe Reporter, covering local politics, business and personalities, has been the weekly newspaper of record for the town of Stowe since its founding in 1958. Radio station WCVT. Jake Burton Carpenter, CEO of Burton Snowboards Rusty DeWees, comedian and writer Joseph Dutton, worked as a missionary with Father Damien William "Billy" Kidd, first American man to earn an Olympic medal in alpine skiing Joe Kirkwood, Sr. golfer Graham Mink, former right wing for the Washington Capitals, now playing for Dornbirner EC of the Austrian Hockey League Tiger Shaw, Olympics alpine ski racer and President of U. S. S. A Joseph Skinger, artisan Ken Squier, Lap-by-Lap commentator for NASCAR Maria von Trapp, matriarch of the Trapp Family Singers Ty Walker, youngest member of the 2014 US Olympic Slopestyle Snowboard team Fritz Wiessner, pioneer of free climbing Stowe travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Stowe, Vermont at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz
Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz is an international boarding school in Zuoz, near St. Moritz in Switzerland, it is located in the upper part of the alpine village in the area of Surmulins. The school was founded in 1904 by five Engadinern as "Institute Engiadina" and had 22 students housed, cared for by two teachers and one director. Today there are around 300, including 220 in the boarding school; the boarders are coming from over 30 countries, such as Italy, Russia and the U. S. Founded in 1904 Lyceum Alpinum is one of the oldest private boarding schools in Switzerland, it is located 1750m above sea level on the Swiss Alps of Zuoz, near the alpine village of St. Moritz, Switzerland; the school was founded by a group of locals from the Engadine as an institution for ailing boys, whose parents were spending their vacation in St. Moritz, so that they could benefit from the mountain air and did not fall behind in any of their subjects, it was at the time called the "Institut Engiadina", had 22 students in its first year.
Back it was run by a director and two teachers. However, it soon developed into a fully-fledged secondary school for boys on girls were admitted and the school attained its international reputation, it is attended by 100 day pupils from the region. The pupils are between 21 years old, it is known for its cultural diversity and extensive sports programme. Most from Switzerland, Russia and Austria. Students at the school can study for internationally recognised higher education entrance qualifications. On offer are the Swiss Matura, the German Abitur and in English, the International Baccalaureate. About three hundred students between 12 and 18 years of age from around the world follow programmes leading to the International Baccalaureate Diploma, the Swiss Matura or the bilingual Swiss Matura and German Abitur. Tolerance, fair play and respect for community values are at the heart of a Lyceum education; the Lyceum campus overlooking the village of Zuoz covers 130,000 m2 and encompasses 12 buildings, sports fields, ice rinks, tennis courts etc.
The schools consists of 5 boarding houses: Grosshaus Kleinhaus Spencer House Chesa Urezza Chesa Arpiglia The school has had its own amateur theatre since 2006. The German-speaking Shakespeare Company performs, amongst other things, plays written by this British dramatist; the English Theatre Company develop their stage plays from scratch themselves and perform only in English. In December 2011 the Zuoz Globe was opened - the only permanent theatre in the Engadine; the Zuoz Club is the alumni organisation related to the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz. It was founded in 1923; the Zuoz Club consists of former students of the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz. Presently, the alumni organisation has 2,200 members in 42 countries and is divided in 18 regional groups worldwide. Ernie Blake, founder of Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico Karlheinz Böhm Götz George Thomas Gold André Gorz Wilfrid Israel Ulrich Körner, member of the Group Executive Board of UBS Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein Anton Piëch Ferdinand Piëch Gunter Sachs Michael White, British theatrical impresario & film producer.
Institut Le Rosey Collège Alpin International Beau Soleil Aiglon College Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg http://www.lyceum-alpinum.ch http://www.graubuendenkultur.ch/de_DE/address/lyceum_alpinum_grosses_haus_und_osttrakt.31783
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Zuoz is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Zuoz is first mentioned about 840 as Zuzes. Zuoz was the political center of the upper Engadin, it was the seat of the local bishop. But, it has long ago been supplanted by other Engadin villages such as St. Samedan. In 1137-39 the village was acquired from the count von Gamertingen by the Bishop of Chur. In 1244 Bishop Volkart appointed Andreas Planta from Zuoz to be the chancellor of the Oberengadin; the Planta family remained in power until 1798. In 1367, Zuoz joined the League of God's House under the leadership of the Amtmann Thomas Planta; the continuing arguments between Zuoz and Samedan led, in 1438, to the division of the court into two parts, the courts of Sur and Suot Funtauna Merla. In 1492, the village bought the Bishop's property and rights to tax in Zuoz. In 1526 the Bishop lost the right to high justice with the Ilanzer articles. In the Swabian War the inhabitants ignited their fields to force the enemy to retreat.
Over the course of the 15th Century, several villages became independent of Zuoz. S-chanf left in 1518, La Punt-Chamues-ch in 1528 and Madulain in 1534. In 1554, Zuoz converted. In 1512, the Three Leagues conquered the Valtellina valley; the improved trade routes and money that this valley brought, led to a golden age in the Engadin valley. During this time in Zuoz. In addition Zuozer students visited foreign schools. After the Bündner Wirren from 1618 to 1639, many residents of the village emigrated seeking jobs in other regions; the loss of the Valtellina valley led to further emigrations and loss of political power. Following the end of the Ancien Régime and creation of the Canton of Raetia in the French controlled Helvetic Republic in 1798, all of Zuoz's privileges and political power vanished, it became a simple farming village. Zuoz still practices ancient traditions; these include San Gian and Chalandamarz Zuoz has an area, as of 2006, of 65.6 km2. Of this area, 49.5 % is used for agricultural purposes.
Of the rest of the land, 1.1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region; the village center is surrounded by new developments. Zuoz has a population of 1,207; as of 2008, 37.0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -5.8%. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 48.3 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Zuoz is. 88 teenagers or 6.5% are 10 to 14, 241 teenagers or 17.8% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 154 people or 11.4 % of the population are between 29 years old. 164 people or 12.1% are 30 to 39, 202 people or 14.9% are 40 to 49, 152 people or 11.2% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 101 people or 7.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 87 people or 6.4% are 70 to 79, there are 34 people or 2.5% who are 80 to 89, there are 2 people or 0.1% who are 90 to 99, 1 person, 100 or more.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SP and the CVP. In Zuoz about 72.5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Zuoz has an unemployment rate of 1.37%. As of 2005, there were 40 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 116 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 15 businesses in this sector. 462 people are employed with 59 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census, 476 or 35.2% are Roman Catholic, while 667 or 49.3% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 36 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 7 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are 14. There are 6 individuals who belong to another church, 107 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 40 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common and Italian being third.
Until the 19th Century, the entire population spoke the Upper-Engadin Romansh dialect of Puter. Due to increasing trade with the outside world, Romansh usage began to decline. In 1880 about 85% spoke Romansh as a first language, while in 1910 and again in 1941 it was only 56%; the public primary school system is Scoula Zuoz. Its two sites are Scoula Primara Zuoz. Scuola Primaria Zuoz has primary levels, da La Plaiv has secondary and realschule classes. Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, a private school, is in Zuoz. Zuoz is an example of a traditional Engadin village, it has many cobblestoned streets, an e
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque known locally as Duke City and abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Mexico and the 32nd-most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 558,545 in 2017. It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which has 910,726 residents as of July 2017. Albuquerque's Metropolitan statistical area is the 60th-largest in the United States; the Albuquerque MSA population includes the cities of Rio Rancho, Placitas, Los Lunas and Bosque Farms, forms part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,171,991 in 2016. The city was named in honor of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, Viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1711; the growing village was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. The Duke's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the province of Badajoz, near the border with Portugal. Albuquerque serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County, is in north-central New Mexico.
The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, the Rio Grande flows through the city. Albuquerque has one of the highest elevations of any major city in the U. S. ranging from 4,900 feet above sea level near the Rio Grande to over 6,700 feet in the foothill areas of Sandia Heights and Glenwood Hills. Albuquerque is home to Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, the University of New Mexico, Central New Mexico Community College, Presbyterian Medical Services, Presbyterian Health Services, the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque Biological Park, the Petroglyph National Monument, the New Mexico Technology Corridor, a concentration of high-tech private companies and government institutions. Albuquerque is the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest gathering of hot-air balloons, taking place every October; the name of the city has its origin through Latin, deriving from albus quercus meaning "white oak".
The name was given in reference to the prevalence of cork oaks in the province of Badajoz, which have white wood when the bark is removed. The first "r" in Alburquerque was dropped due to association with the prominent Portuguese general Alfonso de Albuquerque, whose family title and name originated from the town of Alburquerque in Spain, once a dominion of the kings of Portugal and used the Portuguese variant spelling of its name; the change was in part because citizens found the original name difficult to pronounce. Petroglyphs carved into basalt in the western part of the city bear testimony to an early Native American presence in the area, now preserved in the Petroglyph National Monument; the Tanoan and Keresan peoples had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries before European settlers arrived in what is now Albuquerque. By the 1500s, there were around 20 Tiwa pueblos along a 60-mile stretch of river from present-day Algodones to the Rio Puerco confluence south of Belen. Of these, 12 or 13 were densely clustered near present-day Bernalillo and the remainder were spread out to the south.
Two Tiwa pueblos lie on the outskirts of the present-day city, both of which have been continuously inhabited for many centuries: Sandia Pueblo, founded in the 14th century, the Pueblo of Isleta, for which written records go back to the early 17th century, when it was chosen as the site of the San Agustín de la Isleta Mission, a Catholic mission. The Navajo and Comanche peoples were likely to have set camps in the Albuquerque area, as there is evidence of trade and cultural exchange between the different Native American groups going back centuries before European conquest. Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Villa de Alburquerque. Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real; the town was the sheep-herding center of the West. Spain established a presidio in Albuquerque in 1706. After 1821, Mexico had a military presence there; the town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern: a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, a church.
This central plaza area has been preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural area, center of commerce. It is referred to as "Old Town Albuquerque" or "Old Town", it was sometimes referred to as "La Placita". On the north side of Old Town Plaza is San Felipe de Neri Church. Built in 1793, it is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the city. After the American occupation of New Mexico, Albuquerque had a federal garrison and quartermaster depot, the Post of Albuquerque, from 1846 to 1867. During the Civil War, Albuquerque was occupied in February 1862 by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley, who soon afterward advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. During his retreat from Union troops into Texas he made a stand on April 8, 1862, at Albuquerque and fought the Battle of Albuquerque against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby; this daylong engagement at long range led to few casualties. When the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1880, it bypassed the Plaza, locating the passenger depot and railyards about 2 miles east in what became known as New Albuquerque or New Town.
The railway company bui