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Ernst Bloch

Ernst Bloch was a German Marxist philosopher. Bloch was influenced by Hegel and Karl Marx, as well as by apocalyptic and religious thinkers such as Thomas Müntzer and Jacob Boehme, he established friendships with György Lukács, Bertolt Brecht, Kurt Weill, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch's work focuses on the thesis that in a humanistic world where oppression and exploitation have been eliminated there will always be a revolutionary force. Bloch was born in the son of a Jewish railway-employee. After studying philosophy, he married Else von Stritzky, daughter of a Baltic brewer in 1913, who died in 1921, his second marriage with Linda Oppenheimer lasted only a few years. His third wife was a Polish architect, whom he married in 1934 in Vienna; when the Nazis came to power, they had to flee, first into Switzerland to Austria, France and the United States. In 1948, Bloch was offered the chair of philosophy at the University of Leipzig, he returned to East Germany to take up the position.

In 1955 he was awarded the National Prize of the GDR. In addition, he became a member of the German Academy of Sciences at Berlin, he had more or less become the political philosopher of the GDR. Among his many academic students from this period was his assistant Manfred Buhr, who earned his doctorate with him in 1957, was professor in Greifswald director of the Central Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin and who became a critic of Bloch. However, the Hungarian uprising in 1956 led Bloch to revise his view of the SED regime, whilst retaining his Marxist orientation; because he advocated humanistic ideas of freedom, he was obliged to retire in 1957 for political reasons – not because of his age, 72 years. A number of scientists and students spoke publicly against this forced retirement, among them the renowned professor and colleague Emil Fuchs and his students as well as Fuchs's grandson Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski; when the Berlin Wall was built in 1961, he did not return to the GDR, but went to Tübingen in West Germany, where he received an honorary chair in Philosophy.

He died in Tübingen. Bloch's The Principle of Hope was written during his emigration in the United States, where he lived in New Hampshire before settling in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he wrote the lengthy three-volume work in the reading room of Harvard's Widener Library. Bloch planned to publish it there under the title Dreams of a Better Life; the Principle of Hope tries to provide an encyclopedic account of mankind's and nature's orientation towards a and technologically improved future. Bloch's work became influential in the course of the student protest movements in 1968 and in liberation theology, it is cited as a key influence by Jürgen Moltmann in his Theology of Hope, by Dorothee Sölle, by Ernesto Balducci. Psychoanalyst Joel Kovel has praised Bloch as, "the greatest of modern utopian thinkers". Robert S. Corrington has been influenced by Bloch, though he has tried to adapt Bloch's ideas to serve a liberal rather than a Marxist politics. Bloch's concept of concrete utopias found in The Principle of Hope was used by José Esteban Muñoz to shift the field of performance studies.

This shift allowed for the emergence of utopian performativity and a new wave of performance theorizing as Bloch's formulation of utopia shifted how scholars conceptualize the ontology and the staging of performances as imbued with an enduring indeterminacy, as opposed to dominant performance theories found in the work of Peggy Phelan, who view performance as a life event without reproduction. Geist der Utopie Thomas Müntzer als Theologe der Revolution Spuren Erbschaft dieser Zeit Freiheit und Ordnung Subjekt-Objekt Christian Thomasius Avicenna und die aristotelische Linke Das Prinzip Hoffnung Naturrecht und menschliche Würde Tübinger Einleitung in die Philosophie Religion im Erbe On Karl Marx Herder and Herder, 1971. Atheismus im Christentum Politische Messungen, Vormärz Das Materialismusproblem, seine Geschichte und Substanz Experimentum Mundi. Frage, Kategorien des Herausbringens, PraxisCausality and Finality as Active, Objectifying Categories:Categories of Transmission”. TELOS 21. New York: Telos Press Exilliteratur Werner Raupp: Ernst Bloch, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, Vol. 14, Herzberg: Bautz 1998, Col. 783–810.

Adorno, Theodor W.. "Ernst Bloch's Spuren," Notes to Literature, Volume One, New York, Columbia University Press Dietschy, Beat. Bloch-Wörterbuch: Leitbegriffe der Philosophie Ernst Blochs. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110256710. Retrieved 2018-08-01. Thompson and Slavoj Žižek "The Privatization of Hope: Ernst Bloch and the Future of Utopia". Durham, N

Gagauz alphabet

The modern Gagauz alphabet is a 31-letter Latin-based alphabet modelled on the Turkish alphabet. During Soviet rule, Gagauz's official script was Cyrillic. Gagauz was first written in Greek letters in the late 19th century; the current 31-letter Gagauz alphabet, used for the Gagauz language, is a Latin-based alphabet modelled after the Turkish. It appears that the first alphabet to be used for the language was the Greek alphabet in the late 19th century. For example, orientalist Otto Blau claims that plays of Euripides had been translated into the Gagauz language and had been written with Greek letters. Beginning in 1957, Cyrillic was used up until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1993, the parliament of the Republic of Moldova passed a decision providing for the official adoption of the Latin-based alphabet for the Gagauz language; this was subsequently amended in 1996. The official Gagauz alphabet adopted is modelled after the modern Turkish alphabet, with the addition of three letters: ⟨ä⟩ to represent the sound of, ⟨ê⟩ to represent the sound, which does not exist in Turkish, ⟨ț⟩ or ⟨ţ⟩ to represent the sound as in Romanian.

On the other hand, unlike Crimean Tatar and some other Turkic languages, Gagauz does not have the letter ⟨ğ⟩, which had become silent in the Gagauz language. Note that cedillas should be used instead of commas for Ç, Ş, Ţ for consistency, since C with comma does not exist in Romanian and Turkish uses cedillas for Ç and Ş, although Ț is seen. In their standard order, the letters of the Gagauz alphabet are: A, Ä, B, C, Ç, D, E, Ê, F, G, H, I, İ, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, Ş, T, Ţ, U, Ü, V, Y, Z. Note that dotted and dotless I are separate letters, each with its own uppercase and lowercase form. I is the capital form of ı, İ is the capital form of i; the Gagauz alphabet has no q, w or x. Instead, those characters are transliterated into Gagauz as k, v and ks, respectively

White Coke

White Coke is a nickname for a clear variant of Coca-Cola produced in the 1940s at the request of Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov. Like other clear colas, it was of the same original flavor unchanged by the absence of caramel coloring. Zhukov was introduced to Coca-Cola during, or shortly after, World War II by his counterpart in Western Europe, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Western Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower, a fan of the drink; as Coca-Cola was regarded in the Soviet Union as a symbol of American imperialism, Zhukov was reluctant to be photographed or reported as consuming such a product. According to journalist Tom Standage, Zhukov asked if Coca-Cola could be manufactured and packaged to resemble vodka. Marshal Zhukov made this enquiry through General Mark W. Clark, commander of the US sector of Allied-occupied Austria, who passed the request on to President Harry S. Truman; the President's staff contacted James Farley, chairman of the Board of the Coca-Cola Export Corporation.

At the time, Farley was overseeing the establishment of 38 Coca-Cola plants in Southeast Europe, including Austria. Farley delegated Zhukov's special order to Mladin Zarubica, a technical supervisor for the Coca-Cola Company, sent to Austria in 1946 to supervise establishment of a large bottling plant. Zarubica found a chemist who could remove the coloring from Coca-Cola, thereby granting Marshal Zhukov's wish; the colorless version of Coca-Cola was bottled using straight, clear glass bottles sporting a white cap with a red star in the middle. The bottle and the cap were produced by the Crown Seal Company in Brussels; the first shipment of White Coke consisted of 50 cases. One unusual consequence for the Coca-Cola Company was a relaxation of the regulations imposed by the occupying powers in Austria at the time. Coca-Cola supplies and products were required to transit a Soviet occupation zone while being transported between the Lambach bottling plant and the Vienna warehouse. While all goods entering the Soviet zone took weeks to be cleared by authorities, Coca-Cola shipments were never stopped

Joseph Gillow

Joseph Gillow was an English Roman Catholic antiquary and bio-bibliographer, "the Plutarch of the English Catholics". Born in Frenchwood House, Lancashire, to a recusant English Roman Catholic family able to trace an uninterrupted pedigree back to Conishead Priory in 1325, Gillow was the son of a magistrate, Joseph Gillow, his wife, Jane Haydock, a descendant of Christopher Haydock, a Lancashire politician and a member of another prominent recusant English Roman Catholic family, the Haydocks of Cottam Joseph Gillow was educated at Sedgley Park School, Wolverhampton and St Cuthbert's College, where his brothers and uncles had studied for the priesthood. At Ushaw, Gillow developed an abiding interest in Lancashire Catholicism, resulting in the publication of The Tyldesley Diary in 1873. In 1878 Gillow married Eleanor McKenna, daughter of John McKenna, of Dunham Massey Hall, with whom he had seven children. In marrying into the McKennas, Gillow secured himself a private income which allowed him to pursue his antiquarian interests..

Gillow published various researches into the history of Roman Catholicism in Lancashire, but his greatest achievement was the Biographical and Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics. To fit his material into the five volumes allotted him by his publishers, he needed to abbreviate the volumes. Cardinal Gasquet described the dictionary as a ‘veritable storehouse of information’, until 1986, no index was available. Gillow was appointed honorary recorder of the Catholic Record Society at its foundation in 1904, was a frequent contributor; the Tyldseley Diary, The Haydock Papers St. Thomas Priory: the Story of a Staffordshire Mission Lancashire Recusants A Catalogue of the Martyrs in Englande for Profession of the Catholique Faith since the yeare of Our Lord 1535 Paulyn Gillow Cardinal William Allen Richard Gillow Robert Gillow Brian Gillow Leighton Hall, Lancashire Eulogio Gillow y Zavalza Gillows of Lancaster and London Works by or about Joseph Gillow at Internet Archive Works by or about Joseph Gillow in libraries Works by Joseph Gillow at Open Library

P. G. von Donop

Lieutenant-Colonel Pelham George von Donop was a British Army officer in the Royal Engineers and Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways. He represented the Royal Engineers at association football, appearing in two FA Cup Finals, made two appearances for the England national football team, he was the godfather of the writer Sir P. G. Wodehouse, named Pelham in his honour. Donop was born in Southsea, the eldest of four sons of Commander Edward Pelham Brenton von Donop, RN, he was educated at Royal Somersetshire College, before entering the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in 1869. He represented the academy in the annual cricket match against the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, at Lord's on 23–24 May 1870 and played against the MCC at Lord's a year later, he was commissioned as a lieutenant into the Royal Engineers on 15 December 1871 and the following April was posted to the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, Kent. Donop continued playing cricket while serving with the Royal Engineers: in one match, against the Harlequins at Chatham in June 1884 he scored 91 runs out of his side's total of 224.

Donop played tennis and competed in the 1882 Wimbledon Championships. As well as playing cricket, Donop was soon selected to represent his regiment at football, was in the Royal Engineers' team which reached the 1874 FA Cup Final. In the final, at Kennington Oval on 14 March 1874, Donop played at inside left; the Engineers lost 2–0 to Oxford University. The following year, the Engineers defeated Oxford University in the semi-final to set up a second consecutive appearance in the final, this time against the Old Etonians; the final was played at Kennington Oval on 13 March, with Donop now playing at centre half for the Engineers. The game ended in a goal-less draw. In the replay, at the same venue on 16 March, the Engineers won 2–0. Donop gained two caps for England in friendly matches against Scotland, he made his international debut on 8 March 1873, in the second official match played between the two countries, which England won 4–2. Donop, playing in the centre of the defence, was described as a "stalwart of the Royal Engineers team".

He made his second international appearance two years on 6 March 1875, in a 2–2 draw. Donop continued to represent the Royal Engineers until he was in his mid-thirties: in November 1886, he scored three goals in a match against the Royal Military Academy Donop was promoted to Captain in December 1883. In September 1884, as a member of the Royal Engineers' 8th Railway Corps Company, he was posted to Egypt to take part in the Nile Expedition. While in Sudan, his Company constructed 87.5 miles of railway track, from Sarras to Akasha, to facilitate the transport of provisions and stores to and from the fighting front. He returned from Egypt in June 1886. Between January 1889 and February 1894, he served as Inspector of Submarine Defences at Bombay, where, on 15 March 1890, he married Ethel Farran Orr, the daughter of a Bombay barrister, he was promoted to Major in May 1890 and to Lieutenant-Colonel in December 1897. He continued to play cricket at club level and in January 1890 he made two appearances for G F Vernon's XI in matches against local sides at the Gymkhana Ground, Bombay.

In 1899, Donop left the Royal Engineers to become an Inspecting Officer of Railways for the Board of Trade's Railway Inspectorate. He was promoted to Chief Inspecting Officer in July 1913 and held that position until his retirement in 1916. During his time with the Board of Trade he investigated numerous railway accidents, such as those at Witham, Essex in 1905 and at Ilford, Essex, in 1915, carried out safety inspections of tram services, such as that at Warrington, Lancashire, he is buried in Mortlake. Donop acted as godfather to the writer P. G. Wodehouse, named Pelham in his honour, his youngest brother Stanley served in the Royal Artillery, achieved public recognition when he led a column during the Second Boer War, served as Master-General of the Ordnance and as Colonel Commandant of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, ended his career as Major-General Sir Stanley Brenton von Donop KCB KCMG. Royal Engineers FA Cup Final winner: 1875 FA Cup Final finalist: 1874 Pelham von Donop at England football career Royal Engineers Museum When the Sappers won the FA Cup

Red box (government)

Red boxes, or sometimes ministerial boxes, are a type of despatch boxes produced by Barrow & Gale and are used by ministers in the British government and the British monarch to carry government documents. Similar in appearance to a briefcase, they are used to hold and transport official departmental papers. Red boxes are one modern form of despatch boxes. Despatch boxes of a different design remain in use in the lower house chamber of the British and Australian parliaments. According to HM Treasury: Ministers are permitted to use ordinary lockable briefcases to transport information, classified'Confidential' or below. For information with a higher security level they are required to use dispatch boxes, which offer a higher level of security, which are red. However, a travel version of the box is available in black, which offers the same level of security as a red box, but is designed to be less conspicuous. In practice ministers use despatch boxes for transporting the majority of their documents due to the greater level of security they offer.

These boxes were used by the ministers on a daily basis while in government and thus become an important memory of their time in office, with many opting to buy and keep their red boxes. Many boxes owned and used by famous political figures from British history have been sold at auction; these boxes represent some of the most important possessions of former prime ministers. Margaret Thatcher's ministerial dispatch box was sold at auction by Christie's in 2015 for £242,500. Winston Churchill's red box was sold by Sotheby's in 2014 for £158,500, 25 times the estimated price. Red boxes are gifted to the outgoing President of the United States as an important symbol and reminder of their relationship with the UK government. George Bush received one such box from Tony Blair; the boxes are manufactured by Barrow & Gale or Wickwar & Co to a design that has stayed the same for over a century. The 2–3-kilogram boxes are constructed of slow-grown pine, lined with lead and black satin; the lead lining, retained in modern boxes, was once meant to ensure that the box sank when thrown overboard in the event of capture.

Bomb-proof, they are designed to survive any catastrophe that may befall their owner. Each box takes three days to finish, they are wrapped in leather and employ a bespoke print, applied after curing and staining. Each box embossed in gold print with the royal cypher of the reigning monarch, the title of the owner and recipient of the red box, with the recipient's title given precedence; each is given a unique number to aid identification and control of the contents. Another unique feature of the boxes is the location of the handles on the bottom, opposite the hinges and the handle, so that when placed on a desk, the lock faces the recipient, who has the key and the authority to access the contents of the box; this ensures the box is locked before being carried. There are two given reasons as to why red became the predominant colour of the despatch boxes used in government. One is that Prince Albert is said to have preferred the colour as that used in the arms of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; however it is claimed that the practice began in the late 16th century, when Queen Elizabeth I's representative Francis Throckmorton presented the Spanish ambassador, Bernardino de Mendoza, with a specially constructed red briefcase filled with black puddings.

Today, although'red box' has now come to be synonymous with the despatch boxes, other colours are used, to denote the many different functions of the boxes in Parliament. Black is used for those boxes prepared for government whips and for discretion when boxes are designed for travel. A black box with a red stripe is used for confidential papers only seen by the prime minister, their private secretary, intelligence officials; this box is known as "Old Stripey" due to the red stripe. Permanent secretaries, who are civil servants rather than MPs or Lords, have similar boxes but coloured green; these have the same function as the ministerial red boxes. Barrow and Gale have made available despatch boxes in green for members of parliament. William Hague, while Leader of the Opposition, had a blue box made for him with lettering denoting his office, it is not known. One box cost £865.43 to make in 2010. Between 2002 and 2007 the British government spent £57,260 on new boxes. There is an annual custom of the Chancellor of the Exchequer holding up a red box to the press in Downing Street to symbolise the new budget of the UK government.

Rather than containing the new budget, the red box contains the chancellor's speech and notes. The red box of William Ewart Gladstone, was made by Wickwar & Co for his first budget in 1853. Gladstone served as Chancellor of the Exchequer on four separate occasions and held the post for longer than anyone in the UK's history. Gladstone's red box was used by every subsequent chancellor until 2011, with the exceptions of James Callaghan and Gordon Brown, who had new ones commissioned in 1965 and 1997 respectively: 51 chancellors for over 150 years. Gladstone's budget box was used by Alistair Darling and by George Osborne in June 2010, it was retired due to its fragility. It now resides in the Churchill War Rooms in Whitehall; the budget of the spring of 1868 was infamous for Chancellor George Ward-Hunt opening his dispatch box to find that he had left his speech at home. Since March 2011, a new budget box commissioned by The National Archives has been used. Red boxes are delivered to the British sovereign every