click links in text for more info

Ernst Chladni

Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni was a German physicist and musician. His most important work, for which he is sometimes labeled the father of acoustics, included research on vibrating plates and the calculation of the speed of sound for different gases, he undertook pioneering work in the study of meteorites and is regarded by some as the father of meteoritics. Although Chladni was born in Wittenberg in Saxony, his family originated from Kremnica part of the Kingdom of Hungary and today a mining town in central Slovakia. Chladni has therefore been identified as German and Slovak. Chladni learned men. Chladni's great-grandfather, the Lutheran clergyman Georg Chladni, had left Kremnica in 1673 during the Counter Reformation. Chladni's grandfather, Martin Chladni, was a Lutheran theologian and, in 1710, became professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, he was dean of the theology faculty in 1720–1721 and became the university's rector. Chladni's uncle, Justus Georg Chladni, was a law professor at the university.

Another uncle, Johann Martin Chladni, was a theologian, a historian and a professor at the University of Erlangen and the University of Leipzig. Chladni's father, Ernst Martin Chladni, was a law professor and rector of the University of Wittenberg, he had joined the law faculty there in 1746. Chladni's mother was Johanna Sophia and he was an only child, his father insisted that Chladni become a lawyer. Chladni studied law and philosophy in Wittenberg and Leipzig, obtaining a law degree from the University of Leipzig in 1782; that same year, his father died and he turned to physics in earnest. One of Chladni's best-known achievements was inventing a technique to show the various modes of vibration on a rigid surface, known as Chladni figures due to the various shapes or patterns created by various modes; when resonating, a plate or membrane is divided into regions that vibrate in opposite directions, bounded by lines where no vibration occurs. Chladni repeated the pioneering experiments of Robert Hooke who, on July 8, 1680, had observed the nodal patterns associated with the vibrations of glass plates.

Hooke ran a violin bow along the edge of a plate covered with flour and saw the nodal patterns emerge. Chladni's technique, first published in 1787 in his book Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges, consisted of drawing a bow over a piece of metal whose surface was covered with sand; the plate was bowed until it reached resonance, when the vibration causes the sand to move and concentrate along the nodal lines where the surface is still, outlining the nodal lines. The patterns formed by these lines are. Similar nodal patterns can be found by assembling microscale materials on Faraday waves. Chladni had visited the Paris Academy in 1808 and had demonstrated the vibration patterns before an audience that included not only the leading French scientists but Napoleon himself, Napoleon set a prize for the best mathematical explanation. Sophie Germain's answer, although rejected due to flaws, was the only entry with the correct approach. Variations of this technique are still used in the design and construction of acoustic instruments such as violins and cellos.

Since the 20th century, it has become more common to place a loudspeaker driven by an electronic signal generator over or under the plate to achieve a more accurate adjustable frequency. In quantum mechanics, Chladni figures are known to be related to the solutions of the Schrödinger equation for one-electron atoms, the mathematics describing them was used by Erwin Schrödinger to arrive at the understanding of electron orbitals. Since at least 1738, a musical instrument called a Glasspiel or verrillon, created by filling beer glasses with varying amounts of water, was popular in Europe; the beer glasses were struck by wooden mallets shaped like spoons to produce "church and other solemn music". Benjamin Franklin was sufficiently impressed by a verrillon performance on a visit to London in 1757 that he created his own instrument, the glass armonica, in 1762. Franklin's armonica inspired several other instruments, including two created by Chladni. In 1791, Chladni invented the musical instrument called the euphon, consisting of glass rods of different pitches.

Chladni's euphon is the direct ancestor of the modern day musical instrument known as the Cristal Baschet. Chladni improved on Hooke's "musical cylinder" to produce another instrument, the clavicylinder, in 1799. Chladni travelled throughout Europe with his instruments giving demonstrations. In 1794, Chladni published Über den Ursprung der von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr ähnlicher Eisenmassen und über einige damit in Verbindung stehende Naturerscheinungen in which he proposed that meteorites have an extraterrestrial origin; this was a controversial statement at the time, since meteorites were thought to be of volcanic origin. This book made Chladni one of the founders of modern meteorite research. Chladni was ridiculed for his claims, but his writings sparked a curiosity that led more researchers supporting his theory. In 1795, a large stony meteorite was observed during its fall to Earth at a cottage near Wold Newton in Yorkshire, England and a piece of it, known as the Wold Cottage meteorite, was given to the British chemist Edward Howard who, along with F


Sudhans is one of the major tribes from the districts of Poonch, Sudhanoti and Kotli in Azad Kashmir originating from Pashtun areas. The tribe claims an Afghan ancestry. According to Syed Ali, Sudhans have a Pashtun descent and moved to the Poonch district of Kashmir region some centuries ago. Sudhans from Poonch considered themselves to be SudhozaiPathans. Scholar Iffat Malik of the Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad writes: The Sudhans claim their origin from Afghanistan and they consider themselves to be descendants of a common ancestor Jassi Khan, an Afghan chief and had earned the name of Sudhan as a compliment to his valour as he 500 years or so ago landed in Western parts of Poonch and fought for their existence, but the local people dominated them In this period, they multiplied and emerged into a strong and powerful tribe. According to them, they are same as the Sudhazai tribe of high class Afghans. In social habits and customs they are akin to Sudhazais of Afghanstan. Among Afghans, Sudhazai are a respected clan with long good history behind them.

Sikhs and Dogras had to fight the Sudhans in wars spread over a long time as they had never been reconciled to their rule by them, there was first rebellion in 1837, after Sudhan people went in revolt against Sikh Empire, had captured hills from Sikhs, however Sudhans were defeated by Sikhs but survived as a strong tribe. In 1947, Sudhans were first to challenge Dogras. About 40,000–60,000 Sudhans were recruited and served in the British Indian Army during the First and Second World Wars; the 1911 Census of India documented the Sudhans as being a subcaste tribe of hill Brahmans. The Sudhan tribe has been described as "a main and martial tribe of dissident Poonch" by Christopher Snedden, a political analyst. Sardar Ibrahim Khan, a barrister, politician of the Muslim Conference party, was among the Sudhan people who rose to significance in 1947 as a result of the campaign and rebellion against the Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Khan led a significant faction of the Muslim Conference activists in their demands that Singh should join Pakistan rather than accede to India.

Together with the Muslims from Bagh, it was the Sudhans. The rebels were directed by the Pakistan Army, with the support of Pashtun tribal lashkars sent in from the Khyber and Waziristan tribal agencies, they were able to'liberate' a portion of the state, called Azad Kashmir. Azad Kashmir has been under the control Pakistan since. Together with the Rajputs, it is the Sudhans who dominate the politics of Azad Kashmir in the present day, although the Gujjar community is the largest among the population. Kapur, Manohar Lal. History of Jammu and Kashmir State: The making of the State. Kashmir History Publications. P. 51


Muklishgarh is a rang mahal fort in the foothills of the Himalayas in the Yamunanagar district of Haryana in India. Under Shahjahan, the celebrated Ali Mardan Khan laid down a Rang Mahal named MuKlisgarh, in it built a royal hunting lodge, known as Badshahi Mahal, on the left bank of the Yamuna, to the north–west of the Faizabad pargana; the palace was pleasantly situated opposite to head works of the Delhi Mughal Canal, its portions were standing till the beginning of the present century. To the same nobleman is due the construction of the canal, he is said to have designed the canal, conducted with a considerable knowledge of hydraulics, along the crest of the high ground between Yamuna and Hindan, so as to admit of its water being thrown off on both irrigation purposes. The canal was, little used till afterwards. Property in money and jewels left by the powerful minister, Ali Mardan Khan, at his death was estimated at a sum equal to Rs 18,00,000, it was in this reign that the small mahal of Jahangirabad was separated from Raipur Tatar, about the same time that the latter’s name was altered to Faizabad which became for a while the capital of the sarkar Saharanpur.

Invine, on the authority of ‘Anonymous Fragments’, says that ‘Islam Khan son of Sher Khan Sur, in his days of brief authority, began to build a strong fortress under the name of Pawangarh. It was left unfinished and fell into ruins’.-Later Mughals p. 109. But the name Moklespore, is itself suggestive of its founder. Iradat Khan calls it Daber. Prof. Ganda Singh in his book Life of Banda Singh Bahadur writes on pages 55–56 The fort of Mukhlispur was built by one Mukhlis Khan under instructions from Emperor Shsh Jahan who spent his summer there, it was a strong hill-fort about halfway between the towns of Sadhaura and Nahan, within the boundary of the village of Amuwal, among the steeps of the Himalayas on an elevated summit which could be approached only by craggy rocks and ravines. It was surrounded by two rivulets and Daska-wali Khols or Khuds, which formed only one stream, parting into two to embrace the hillock of the fort; the fort was in a most neglected condition. It was given the new name of Lohgarh or Iron Fort.

Surinder Singh in his book Discovering Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, writes on pages 285–286, Banda Bahadur carried out the repairs to the Mukhlispur fortress and renamed it as Lohgarh. He fortified it by laying 3 to 4 ft high and 50- to 100-ft-long stone walls, 52 in number. Sikh soldiers could stay behind these walls and the Mughal Empire forces trying to reach the fortress and to face their gunshots and arrows about 15 times before they could reach the top. Large-scale troops could not climb and on two occasions when they were able to and large-scale assault is not possible at the Fort, follow Banda Bahadur and his troops up to Lohgarh, the imperial forces lost a large number of soldiers but were not able to catch Banda Bahadur and his men; this small defensive arrangement has been deemed as a capital by a large number of historians form Punjab when the site was hardly about 100 to 200 km from major parts of Punjab and could be visited and examined. The author had the occasion to visit and examine this-the Sadhaura-Lohgarh-Sitaragarh axis-a large number of times in his capacity as convenor for the raising of a suitable memorial by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.

This author is of the opinion that half an acre of land on which Lohgarh has been raised is occupied by medium sixed bavelis. He is of the opinion that Lohgarh was not declared as the capital of the nascent Sikh state because three series of the coins issued by Banda Bahadur from 1710–12 do not carry any name of the city or town after the word zarb meaning minted at. Had it been fixed as a capital, the name of Lohgarh would have come on the coin; the legend after the word zarb, is "place of perfect peace, picture of a beautiful city where the fortunate throne of Khalsa is to be located". Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer in his book Great Sikh General Banda Singh Bahadur, writes on page no 57, the Sikhs had captured the fort of Mukhlisgarh and had established it as capital. Dr. J. S. Grewal in his book ‘The Sikhs of the Punjab’ writes on page no 83, he adopted Mukhlispur, an imperial fort now given the name of Lohgarh, as his capital and struck a new coin in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.

Dr. Khushwant Singh in his book A History of the Sikhs second edition writes on page no 103, Banda was too shrewd to place much reliance on the loyalties of the new converts and he made the old fort of Mukhlisgarh, in the safety of the Himalayas, his headquarters. At Mukhlisgarh, Banda learned that Bahadur Shah, after subjugation of Rajasthan and not to return to Delhi before the monsoons. Banda decided to utilize the opportunity to destroy the remaining vestiges of Mughal rule in northern India. Dr. Hari Ram Gupta in his book ‘ History of the Sikhs, writes on page no 11, he, established his headquarters, in the beginning of February 1710, at Mukhlispur situated in lower Shiwalik hills south of Nahan, about 20 km from Sadhaura, its fort stood on a hill top. Two kuhls or water channels supplied water to it; this fort was put in a state of defence. All the money and costly material acquired in these expeditions were deposited here, he issued orders under his own seal. The name of Mukhlispur was changed to Lohgarh, it became the capital of the first Sikh state.

The contemporary historians were Mughals, therefore they deliberately projected a wrong picture of Lohgarh. Lat

Claudine Schaul

Claudine Schaul is a former tennis player from Luxembourg. Her career-high singles ranking as of January 2016 was world No. 41, achieved on 24 May 2004, No. 71 for doubles achieved on 8 November 2004. Schaul first played for the Luxembourg Fed Cup team in 1998, where she has a W/L record of 39–39, her father and brother introduced her to tennis when she was four years old. A year after turning pro, Schaul made it to the third round of the US Open after upsetting former No. 15 Anna Smashnova 7–6, 6–2 in round 1 as well as beating Samantha Reeves 6–1, 4–6, 6–3 in round 2, before losing her match versus Dinara Safina 4–6, 5–7. In January 2004, Schaul was able to win her first Doubles title in Canberra, partnering Jelena Kostanić Tošić. Shortly after, Schaul made it to the third round of the Australian Open before losing to Alicia Molik; that year in May, Schaul managed to win her first WTA title at Strasbourg, defeating Lindsay Davenport 2–6, 6–0, 6–3 in the final. Due to her strong performances at the Australian Open and the Internationaux de Strasbourg, Schaul was awarded the honour of being the flag bearer for Luxembourg at the opening ceremony of the Summer Olympics in Athens.

At the Olympics, she lost her first-round game 1–6, 1–6 against Daniela Hantuchová. Claudine Schaul at the Women's Tennis Association Claudine Schaul at the International Tennis Federation Claudine Schaul at the Fed Cup

Sam Lafferty

Sam Lafferty is an American professional ice hockey forward playing for the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. He was drafted by the Penguins in the 2014 NHL Entry Draft. Lafferty played college hockey at Brown from 2014 to 2018, he scored his first collegiate goal on January 2015 against Denver. Lafferty was named All-ECAC Third Team in 2016–17, was named Second Team All-Ivy League in 2016–17 and 2017–18, he scored his first collegiate hat-trick on February 2018 against Harvard. On March 7, 2018, Lafferty signed a entry-level contract with the Pittsburgh Penguins. Lafferty made his NHL debut on October 2019, in Pittsburgh's game against the Winnipeg Jets. Lafferty scored his first NHL goal on October 2019 against the Minnesota Wild. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database


Ras Al Khafji or Khafji is a town on the border between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. It lies in; the Japanese-owned Arabian Oil Company Ltd signed a concession agreement with the government of Saudi Arabia in December 1957 and with the government of Kuwait in July 1958 for exploration and development of hydrocarbon reserves in the offshore Neutral Zone. The Arabian Oil Company discovered the Khafji oil field in 1960 and the Hout oil field in 1963, it was only after the discovery of these oil deposits off-shore of Khafji that a permanent demarcation of the neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia was established, with Khafji formally located within Saudi Arabia. However, the agreement concluded that both states would still maintain joint rights to all natural resources within the designated neutral zone. With the termination of the Arabian Oil Company lease to explore and extract within the area, operations within the Khafji Fields reverted to a joint venture between shareholder companies representing both states, with production being split on a 50:50 agreement between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

Khafji's notoriety, however, is owed to the Battle of Khafji, which took place in and around the town in 1991 and marked the high tide of Iraq's advance through Kuwait and into Saudi Arabia. Khafji's first prince was Prince Faisal bin Turki I, eldest grandson of the country's founder Ibn Saud known as King Abdulaziz. Al-Khafji came into existence following the 1960 discovery of the Al-Khafji oil field. Following the start of commercial oil production, the Arabian Oil Company established a residential compound, composed of 73 residential quarters, built on a total area of 3,000,000 square feet, possessing drainage, piped water, cable telephones and a road network; the expansion of oil exploration and drilling in the region led the city to expand keeping pace with a trend witnessed throughout the Kingdom. On January 29, 1991 the Iraqi army invaded Khafji following the invasion and subsequent occupation of Kuwait. Saudi and Coalition forces compelled the Iraqi army to withdraw from the city on the January 31, 1991 as a consequence of the Battle of Khafji.

In 1995, city officials declared the city mine-free. Khafji is located in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Region along the coast of the Persian Gulf; the city is situated at latitude 28-26 N, longitude 48-30 E. It is 10 kilometres south of the Saudi-Kuwaiti border, 130 kilometres south of Kuwait City and 300 kilometres north of Dammam. Khafji has a hot desert climate; the Saudi government, in conjunction with Aramco Gulf Operations Company, is promoting large-scale development projects in Khafji with the goal of transforming it into one of the major cities in the country. According to the Saudi government, Khafji is to be the headquarters of a new natural gas company. A separate government project in Khafji is to promote the city as an international tourist destination; the project would publicize and promote Khafji's beaches on the Persian Gulf during the summer and the temperate weather and desert camping in the winter. The population of Khafji is 120,000. A significant proportion of the population is composed of oil company employees and their families, thus a large proportion of residents came to Khafji from different cities in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait after 1960.

The city lacks institutions offering post secondary education for men. Khafji is home to a female-only college. In January 2009, Muhammed Al-Umair, Director of Colleges in the Eastern Province opened an investigation into the Girls Education College following reports of piles of garbage lying about the college going uncollected for weeks and alleged late-night break ins by Asian workers exploiting the absence of security guards and staff. Students portrayed toilets at the school as unusable, the environment at the school was portrayed as lax to the point of being detrimental to scholastic endeavors; the Girls Education College receives a portion of its funding from Chevron. Until 1969, Khafji was served by the Company Hospital. In 1969, the Ministry of Health funded the construction of an additional two clinics. In 1988, Khafji National Polyclinic was established and turned into hospital by 2004 to be the pioneer in private medical service in the city. In 1996, Al Khafji Joint Operations Hospital opened, has since been expanded.

KJO Hospital used to provide healthcare for 7,000 inpatient and 80,000 outpatient visits per year. Khafji General Hospital- since started by the end of 2005- became the main health institute in Khafji Governorate since it provides the health care for all citizens and eligible residents in all speciality areas -regarding the growing population- and expanding every day replacing the historical role of KJO hospital. Several private hospitals And private polyclinics have been established in Khafji to keep up with the needs of citizens and residents in the city, as well as the citizens of neighboring Kuwait, like Kingdom of medicine, Almanar complex and was most the launch of Alrahmah Medical Complex in 2010; the city is served by King Fahd International Airport, although there is a small airfield in the city owned by Aramco Gulf Operations Company, not open for public use or commercial service. Geographically, located 230 km to the west is the nearest domestic airport offering commercial flights which has limited domestic flights, however no direct road exists which makes driving distance 300 km and