Ernst Jünger was a highly-decorated German soldier and entomologist who became publicly known for his World War I memoir Storm of Steel. The son of a successful businessman and chemist, Jünger rebelled against an affluent upbringing and sought adventure in the Wandervogel, before running away to serve in the French Foreign Legion, an illegal act; because he escaped prosecution in Germany due to his father's efforts, Jünger was able to enlist in the German Army on the outbreak of war. During an ill-fated offensive in 1918 Jünger's World War I career ended with the last and most serious of his many woundings, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite, a rare decoration for one of his rank. In the aftermath of World War II, Jünger was treated with some suspicion as a possible fellow traveller of the Nazis. By the latter stages of the Cold War, his unorthodox writings about the impact of materialism in modern society were seen as conservative rather than radical nationalist, his philosophical works came to be regarded in mainstream German circles.
Jünger ended life as an honoured establishment figure, although critics continued to charge him with the glorification of war as a transcendental experience. Ernst Jünger was born in Heidelberg as the eldest of six children of the chemical engineer Ernst Georg Jünger and of Karoline Lampl. Two of his siblings died as infants, his father acquired some wealth in potash mining. He went to school in Hannover from 1901 to 1905, during 1905 to 1907 to boarding schools in Hanover and Brunswick, he rejoined his family in 1907, in Rehburg, went to school in Wunstorf with his siblings from 1907 to 1912. During this time, he developed his passion for entomology, he spent some time as an exchange student in Buironfosse, Saint-Quentin, France, in September 1909. With his younger brother Friedrich Georg Jünger he joined the Wandervogel movement in 1911, his first poem was published with the Gaublatt für Hannoverland in November 1911. By this time, Jünger had a reputation as a budding bohemian poet. In 1913, Jünger was a student at the Hamelin gymnasium.
In November, he enlisted in the French Foreign Legion for five years. Stationed in a training camp at Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, he deserted and travelled to Morocco, but was captured and returned to camp. Six weeks he was dismissed from the Legion due to the intervention of the German Foreign Office, at the request of his father, on the grounds of being a minor. Jünger was now sent to a boarding school in Hanover, where he was seated next to the future communist leader Werner Scholem. On 1 August 1914, shortly after the start of World War I, Jünger volunteered with the 73rd Infantry Regiment Albrecht von Preussen of the Hannoverian 19th Division and after training was transported to the Champagne front in December, he was wounded for the first time in April 1915. During convalescence, he decided to enlist as an officer aspirant, he was promoted to Lieutenant on 27 November 1915; as platoon leader, he gained a reputation for his combat exploits and initiative in offensive patrolling and reconnaissance.
Near the obliterated remains of the village of Guillemont his platoon took up a front line position in a defile, shelled until it consisted of little more than a dip strewn with the rotting corpses of predecessors. He wrote: As the storm raged around us, I walked up and down my sector; the men had fixed bayonets. They stood rifle in hand, on the front edge of the dip, gazing into the field. Now and by the light of a flare, I saw steel helmet by steel helmet, blade by glinting blade, I was overcome by a feeling of invulnerability. We might be crushed, but we could not be conquered; the platoon was relieved but Jünger was wounded by shrapnel in the rest area of Combles and hospitalized. He was wounded for the third time in November 1916, awarded the Iron Cross First Class in January 1917. In the spring of 1917, he was stationed at Cambrai. Transferred to Langemarck in July, Jünger's actions against the advancing British included forcing retreating soldiers to join his resistance line at gunpoint.
He arranged the evacuation of his brother Friedrich Georg, wounded. In the Battle of Cambrai Jünger sustained two wounds, by a bullet passing through his helmet at the back of the head, another by a shell fragment on the forehead, he was awarded the House Order of Hohenzollern. While advancing to take up positions just before Ludendorff's Operation Michael on 19 March 1918, Jünger was forced to call a halt after the guides lost their way, while bunched together half of his company were lost to a direct hit from artillery. Jünger himself survived, led the survivors as part of a successful advance but was wounded twice towards the end of the action, being shot in the chest and less across the head. After convalescing, he returned to his regiment in June, sharing a widespread feeling that the tide had now turned against Germany and victory was impossible. On 25 August, he was wounded for the seventh and final time near Favreuil, being shot through the chest while leading his company in an advance, overwhelmed by a British counter-attack.
Becoming aware the position he was lying in was falling, Jünger rose, as his lung drained of the blood spurting through the wound, recovered enough to escape in the confused situation. He made his way to a machine-gun post, holding out, where a doctor told him to lie down immediately. Carried to the rear i
Kibwé Johnson is an American Olympic track and field athlete who specializes in the hammer throw. He has represented his country at the World Championships in Athletics three times. Competed in the 2012 London Olympics where he made the final and finished 9th. No American had made the final since 1996. Johnson competed in 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics, he is a three-time medalist at the Pan American Games, having taken silver in 2007 and improved to the gold in 2011, repeated in 2015 in Toronto. He set his personal best of 80.31 meters in 2011. He was the 2011 USA Outdoor Champion in the hammer throw and the 2008 USA Indoor Champion in the weight throw where he recorded the second best mark in US history. Born in San Francisco, he started as a discus thrower, before starting to focus more on the hammer while studying at the University of Georgia. Johnson performed poorly academically and moved to Moorpark Junior College in Moorpark, California before finishing at Ashland University where he graduated and represented them in NCAA Division II competitions.
He competed at the 2004 United States Olympic Trials in both the discus and hammer, placing eighth and 19th respectively. He placed third in the weight throw at the 2005 USA Indoor Track and Field Championships and threw a best of 24.54 meters at the Oiler Open meet – a distance which ranked him as the third best American and eleventh best in the history of the event. A personal record hammer throw of 78.25 m in May saw. He was the runner-up in the weight throw at the 2006 USA Indoors finished in fourth place in the hammer throw at the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships that year. Johnson had his breakthrough season in 2007, he won the discus event at the Mt. SAC Relays came runner-up in the hammer at the 2007 USA Outdoors. Making his international debut at the 2007 Pan American Games, he had a throw of 73.23 m on his final attempt, which brought him the silver medal behind Canada's James Steacy. Johnson was selected to represent the United States at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics, but failed to record a valid throw in the qualifying round.
In spite of this he remained positive about the experience and fellow throwers Tore Gustafsson and Koji Murofushi offered him encouragement and technical advice. In 2008 he won the USA Indoors weight throw title – his first win at national level – but he fouled out at the 2008 Olympic Trials in the season; this frustrating result was the catalyst for his move to train with Dr. Bondarchuk. After missing much of 2009, he returned to form in 2010 as he finished as runner-up in the hammer at the 2010 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships. A personal best throw of 80.31 m at the 2011 USA Outdoors saw Johnson take his first national outdoor title. As national champion, he gained his second opportunity to compete on the global stage at the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, but his best throw of 75.06 m in qualifying was not enough to reach the final. He was chosen to represent his country at the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara. At the competition he improved from his silver in 2007 to take the gold medal with a Pan American Games record mark of 79.63 m, improving Lance Deal's record from 1999.
In the last ten years, Kibwé has won 5 US Championships with 3 runner-up finishes. He competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics. One of the most versatile throwers of all time, he has the unofficial world record for combination of Hammer throw, Indoor weight throw He is coached by former Soviet Olympic champion and coach, Dr. Anatoliy Bondarchuk, he is married to Crystal Smith Johnson, a former Canadian champion and record holder who trained with Bondarchuk. They have two daughters, born on 18 April 2012, September 6, 2015 and reside in Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. Kibwé Johnson at World Athletics Kibwé Johnson at USA Track & Field
The 7th Cruiser Squadron was a blockading force of the Royal Navy during the First World War used to close the English Channel to German traffic. It was employed patrolling an area of the North Sea known as the Broad Fourteens in support of vessels guarding the northern entrance to the Channel; the Squadron had been part of the Third Fleet of the Home Fleets. The squadron came to public attention when on 22 September 1914, three of the cruisers were sunk by one German submarine while on patrol. 1,450 sailors were killed and there was a public outcry at the losses. The incident eroded confidence in the government and damaged the reputation of the Royal Navy, at a time when many countries were still considering which side they might support in the war; the 7th Cruiser Squadron was created at the Nore as part of the reorganisation of the Royal Navy's home fleets which took effect on 1 May 1912. It formed part of the Third Fleet of the Home Fleets and served as a reserve force stationed on the south coast of England.
The squadron was composed of five of the six Cressy-class armoured cruisers, transferred from the 6th Cruiser Squadron of the former divisional structure of the Home Fleets, considered obsolescent despite being fewer than 12 years old. Their status meant that most of the time they were manned by "nucleus crews" an innovation introduced by Admiral John "Jackie" Fisher a few years earlier, their ships' complements of 700 men plus officers were only brought up to full strength for manœuvres or mobilisation. The nucleus crews were expected to keep the ships in a seaworthy condition the rest of the time; the 1913 manœuvres illustrate the system. In June, the command of squadrons was announced by the Admiralty; as a reserve formation, the 7th Cruiser Squadron had no flag officer until 10 June, when Rear-Admiral Gordon Moore—Third Sea Lord—was given the command upon taking leave from the Admiralty. He hoisted his flag in Bacchante on 15 July. All ships of the squadron would have been brought up to strength with men from other parts of the navy and from the Royal Naval Reserve.
The manœuvres took place and on 9 August Rear-Admiral Moore struck his flag and on the 16th the squadron was reduced back to reserve commission. Upon the outbreak of war with Germany in 1914, the Second and Third Fleets of the Royal Navy were combined to form a Channel Fleet; the 7th Cruiser Squadron consisted of Cressy, Bacchante and Hogue. Their task was to patrol the shallow waters of the Dogger Bank and the Broad Fourteens in the North Sea, supported by destroyers of the Harwich Force; the aim was to protect ships carrying supplies between Britain and France against German ships operating from the northern German naval ports. Although the cruisers had been designed for a speed of 21 knots and tear meant they could now only manage 15 knots at most and more only 12 knots. Bad weather sometimes meant that the smaller destroyers could not sail and at such times the cruisers would patrol alone. A continuous patrol was maintained with some ships on station, while others returned to harbour for coal and supplies.
From 26–28 August 1914, the squadron was held in reserve during the operations which led to the Battle of Heligoland Bight. On 21 August, Commodore Roger Keyes—commanding a submarine squadron stationed at Harwich—wrote to his superior Admiral Sir Arthur Leveson warning that in his opinion the ships were at extreme risk of attack and sinking by German ships because of their age and inexperienced crews; the risk to the ships was so severe that they had earned the nickname "the live bait squadron" within the fleet. By 17 September, the note reached the attention of First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill who met with Keyes and Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt—commander of a destroyer squadron operating from Harwich—while travelling to Scapa Flow to visit the Grand Fleet on 18 September. Churchill—in consultation with the First Sea Lord Prince Louis of Battenberg—agreed that the cruisers should be withdrawn and wrote a memo stating: The Bacchantes ought not to continue on this beat; the risks to such ships is not justified by any services.
Vice Admiral Frederick Sturdee—chief of the Admiralty war staff—objected that, while the cruisers should be replaced, no modern ships were available and the older vessels were the only ships that could be used during bad weather. It was therefore agreed between Battenberg and Sturdee to leave them on station until the arrival of new Arethusa-class cruisers being built. At around 06:00 on 22 September, the three cruisers Aboukir and Hogue were steaming, alone, at 10 knots in line ahead; the 7th Cruiser Squadron flagship, their sister ship Euryalus, as well as their light cruiser and destroyer screen, had been forced temporarily to return to base, leaving the three obsolete cruisers on their own. They were spotted by the German submarine U-9, commanded by Lt. Otto Weddigen, they were not zigzagging but all of the ships had lookouts posted to search for periscopes and one gun on each side of each ship was manned. Weddigen closed the range with the unsuspecting British ships. At close range, he fired a torpedo at Aboukir.
The torpedo broke the back of Aboukir and she sank within 20 minutes with the loss of 527 men. The captains of Cressy and Hogue thought Aboukir had struck a floating mine and came forward to assist her. Hogue began to pick up survivors. Weddigen fired two torpedoes into Hogue, mortally wounding her but the submarine surfaced and was fired upon; as Hogue sank, the captain of Cressy, knew that the squadron was being attacked by a submarine and sh