Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born to immigrant parents in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven, he left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher.
In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career, he died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of the 19th century, his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day, he was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz.
Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zukmantel in Austrian Silesia. His father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance, he was appointed schoolmaster two years later. His mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way, and in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments. He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of Lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun, Schub
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it has been part of the newly created municipality of Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973. Dessau is situated on a floodplain; this causes yearly floods. The worst flood took place in the year 2002, when the Waldersee district was nearly flooded; the south of Dessau touches a well-wooded area called Mosigkauer Heide. The highest elevation is a 110 m high former rubbish dump called Scherbelberg in the southwest of Dessau. Dessau is surrounded by numerous parks and palaces that ranks Dessau as one of the greenest towns in Germany. Dessau was first mentioned in 1213, it became an important centre in 1570. Dessau became the capital of this state within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1603 the state was split into four – five – Anhalts, Dessau becoming the capital of the mini-state of Anhalt-Dessau. In 1863 two of the noble lines died out, the Duchy of Anhalt became reunited.
From 1918 to 1945, Dessau was the capital of Free State of Anhalt. Dessau is famous for its college of architecture Bauhaus, it moved here in 1925. Many famous artists were lecturers in Dessau in the following years, among them Walter Gropius, Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky; the Nazis forced the closure of the Bauhaus in Dessau 1932. The town was completely destroyed by Allied air raids in World War II on 7 March 1945, six weeks before American troops occupied the town. Afterwards it was rebuilt with typical GDR concrete slab architecture and became a major industrial centre of East Germany. Since German reunification in 1990 many historic buildings have been restored; the composer Kurt Weill was born in Dessau. Since 1993 the city has hosted an annual Kurt Weill Festival. Dessau was the birthplace of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, a lauded field marshal for the Kingdom of Prussia. In January 2005, Dessau gained notoriety for the mysterious death of a Sierra Leonean convicted drug trafficker and failed asylum seeker Oury Jalloh in his cell at a Dessau police station.
According to local police, drunk and had been tied to his bed because he was volatile and violent, set his own mattress on fire, causing his own death as he burned alive. A number of contradictions and inconsistencies as well as the disappearance of key evidence such as video tapes have led to allegations that the police and maybe the local court may have been involved in Jalloh's death and subsequent cover-up efforts. A local court acquitted officers in 2008. In 2010, however, a higher federal court declared the ruling null and void, ordered a new investigation and trial be launched. Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz, is a World Heritage Site landscape garden, it is an exceptional example of 18th century Age of Enlightenment landscape design in the English style. Dresden Elbe Valley Zoo at Mausoleumspark Wallwitzburg Rondell remains of the City Castle Georgium Palace and Park Kühnau Palace and Park Mosigkau Palace and Park Luisium Palace and Park There are several examples of Bauhaus architecture in Dessau, some of which are part of the Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau World Heritage Site.
This includes the Bauhaus Dessau school building, designed by Walter Gropius, one of the iconic modernist buildings of the 20th century. In addition to the buildings that are part of the World Heritage Site, other notable Bauhaus architecture in Dessau includes: Dessau-Törten Estate, designed by Walter Gropius in 1926-28. Stahlhaus, designed by Georg Muche and Richard Paulick in 1926–27. Fieger Haus, designed by Carl Fieger in 1927; the Kornhaus, a restaurant overlooking the river Elbe designed by Carl Fieger in 1929-30. Arbeitsamt, designed by Walter Gropius in 1928-29, it is now the Dessau-Roßlau Amt für Ordnung und Verkehr. St. Mary's Church St. John's Church Georgenkirche Petruskirche Auferstehungskirche Pauluskirche Christuskirche Propsteikirche St. Peter and Paul Dreieinigkeit St. Josef Townhall, built in 1901 The palaces of Waldersee and Dietrich, today used as libraries General post office New water tower Umweltbundesamt Footbridge crossing the river Mulde Anhalt Theatre including Gregor Seyffert & Compagnie City history museum Anhalt Art Gallery at Georgium Palace with park Mosigkau Palace museum Luisium Castle museum with park Oranienbaum Palace museum with park Museum of Natural- and Prehistory Moses Mendelssohn-Centre Hugo Junkers Technical Museum UCI Cinema Complex Kiez-Cinema Mitteldeutsche Zeitung Wochenspiegel and Supersonntag REGJO leo local Studios of the MDR and SAW local TV Stations: RAN 1 and Offener Kanal Dessau The Dessau tramway network has three lines and is supplemented by numerous bus lines.
Dessau's public transport is operated by Dessauer Verkehrsgesellschaft, which transports around 6 million people each year. Dessau Hauptbahnhof has connections to Magdeburg, Leipzig, Halle and Lutherstadt Wittenberg; the line from Berlin was opened on 1 September 1840. The Dessau-Bitterfeld line was electrified in 1911, the first electrified long-distance railway in
Alma Maria Mahler Gropius Werfel was a Viennese-born composer, author and socialite. At fifteen, she was mentored by Max Burckhard. Musically active from her early years, she was the composer of at least 17 songs for voice and piano. In her early years, she fell in love with composer and conductor Alexander von Zemlinsky, but their relationship did not last long, she became the wife of composer Gustav Mahler, who did not approve of her continuing to compose music. She fell into depression from being artistically stifled. While her marriage was struggling, she had an affair with Walter Gropius. Gustav started to encourage Alma's composing and helped prepare some of her compositions for publication, but died soon after this attempted reconciliation in 1911. Alma married Gropius in 1915 and the couple had a daughter together, Manon Gropius. During her marriage to Gropius, Alma had an affair with Franz Werfel. Alma and Werfel were married after Alma separated from Gropius. In 1938, after the Anschluss and Alma were forced to flee Austria as it was unsafe for Jews.
The couple settled in Los Angeles. In years, her salon became part of the artistic scene, first in Vienna in Los Angeles and in New York. Alma Maria Schindler was born on 31 August 1879 in Vienna, Austria, to the famous landscape painter Emil Jakob Schindler and his wife Anna Sofie, she was brought up in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1889 Crown Prince Rudolf found interest in Emil Jakob Schindler's paintings and commissioned Schindler to take a trip with his family to the Adriatic coast to produce landscape paintings. In 1892 the family traveled to the North Sea island of Sylt where Emil Schindler died. After her father's death, Alma focused on the piano, she studied counterpoint with Josef Labor, a blind organist who introduced her to a "great deal of literature". At fifteen she was attended for only a few months; as she grew older, a case of childhood measles left her with decreased hearing. Max Burckhard, friend of Emil Schindler and director of Vienna's Burgtheater theater, became Alma's mentor.
On Alma's seventeenth birthday, Burckhard gave her two laundry baskets full of books. In 1897, Anna Schindler, Alma's mother, married Emil Schindler's student, they had a daughter together named Maria. Alma met Gustav Klimt through Carl Moll. Moll and Klimt were both founding members of the Vienna Secession, "a group organized for the purpose of breaking with Vienna's tradition-bound Imperial Academy of the visual arts". Klimt fell in love with Alma. While she was interested in Klimt her desire cooled soon after. Klimt and Alma were friends until Klimt's death. In fall 1897, Alma began studying composition with Alexander von Zemlinsky. Zemlinsky and Alma kept their relationship a secret. Alma would tease Zemlinsky about what she thought were his ugly features, saying she could have "ten others" to replace him, she noted that to marry Zemlinsky would mean she would "bring short, degenerate Jew-children into the world". As the relationship grew strained, Zemlinsky visited her less. On 1 November 1901 she attended Zuckerkandls' salon.
In the month of November, while still in a relationship with Zemlinsky, she started an affair with Mahler. By 28 November and Alma were engaged. However, it wasn't until 12 December. On 9 March 1902, she married Gustav Mahler, 19 years her senior and the director of the Vienna Court Opera. With him she had two daughters, Maria Anna, who died of scarlet fever or diphtheria, Anna, who became a sculptor. Gustav was not interested in Alma Mahler's composition. However, it is disputed among scholars whether or not Gustav outright forbade Alma Mahler to compose. Despite this scholarly confusion, she did artistically stifle herself and embraced the role of a loving wife and supporter of Mahler's music. In their marriage, after becoming depressed in the wake of Maria's death, she began an affair with the young architect Walter Gropius, whom she met during a rest at a spa. Gustav sought advice from Sigmund Freud; the 2010 film Mahler on the Couch suggests that Gustav's consultations with Freud might have focused on his curtailing of Alma's musical career as a major marital obstacle, but the actual content of them is not known.
Following the emotional crisis in their marriage after Gustav's discovery of Alma's affair with Gropius, Gustav began to take a serious interest in Alma's musical compositions, regretting his earlier dismissive attitude and taking promotional actions. Gustav re-orchestrated some of her works. Upon his urging, under his guidance, Alma prepared five of her songs for publication. In February 1911, Gustav fell ill with an infection related to a heart defect, diagnosed several years earlier, he died on 18 May. After Gustav's death, Alma did not resume contact with Gropius. Between 1912 and 1914 she had a tumultuous affair with the artist Oskar Kokoschka, who created works inspired by his relationship with her, including his painting The Bride of the Wind. Kokoschka's possessiveness wore on Alma, the emotional vicissitudes of the relationship tired them both. With the coming of World War I, Kokoschka enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian Army. Alma subsequently distanced herself from Kokoschka and res
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual
Anna Justine Mahler was an Austrian sculptor. Born in Vienna, Anna Mahler was the second child of the composer Gustav Mahler and his wife Alma Schindler, they nicknamed her'Gucki' on account of her big blue eyes. Her childhood was spent in the shadow of her mother’s love affairs and famous salon. Anna suffered the loss of her older sister Maria Mahler who died of scarlet fever when Anna was three—and her father, who died when she was six; the aftermath of both tragedies coincided with her mother's love affair with the German architect Walter Gropius and her stormy relationship with the Austrian Expressionist painter Oskar Kokoschka. Alma Mahler's second marriage to Gropius, provided some semblance of family life during Anna’s adolescence—as well as a young half-sister, Manon Gropius. Anna was educated by tutors and enjoyed the attention of her mother's friends, which included many of the important artistic figures in music, the visual arts, literature; as the daughter of the legendary Gustav Mahler, Anna was expected to have a musical career.
However, this never materialized. Rather than becoming a professional musician, Anna fell in love with one. At the age of 16, Anna fell in love with Rupert Koller, they were married on 2 November 1920. Their marriage ended within months. Soon after, Anna moved to Berlin to study art. While there, she fell in love with Ernst Krenek, the composer, asked by Alma to produce a neat copy of two movements from the draft of Mahler’s unfinished Tenth Symphony. Anna married him on 15 January 1924. Like her first marriage, this second marriage failed within months, she left Krenek for good in November 1924. During this time, Krenek was completing his Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 29. The Australian violinist Alma Moodie assisted Krenek with getting financial assistance from her Swiss patron Werner Reinhart, at whose instigation Krenek and Mahler were living in Zürich, and, in gratitude, Krenek dedicated the concerto to Moodie, who premiered it on 5 January 1925, in Dessau. Krenek’s divorce from Anna Mahler became final a few days after the premiere.
Krenek did not attend the premiere, but he did have an affair with Moodie, an affair, described as "short-lived and complicated."Next, Anna married the publisher Paul Zsolnay on 2 December 1929, when she was 25. They had Alma; the couple divorced after five years. Alma fled Nazi Austria after anschluss in March 1938. By April 1939 she was advertising in the newspaper for pupils. On 3 March 1943 she married the conductor Anatole Fistoulari with whom she had another daughter, Marina. After the War, she travelled to California to whom she was still married, she lived there for some years. Anna appeared on "You Bet Your Life, both the 2 January 1952 radio show, the 3 January 1952 TV show, her marriage to Fistoulari was dissolved around 1956. Around 1970 she married her fifth husband, Albrecht Joseph, a Hollywood film editor and writer of screenplays. Mahler once said that she had found true love with her last husband but had left him at the age of seventy-five in order that they might both progress, since they spent too much time looking after each other.
After her mother died in 1964, now financially independent, returned to London for a while before deciding to live in Spoleto in Italy in 1969. In 1988 she died while visiting her daughter Marina there, she is buried at Highgate Cemetery. Anna Mahler's exposure to the visual arts began early, she was a model for her mother-in-law, the painter Broncia Koller-Pinell. After her divorce, Anna studied art and painting on and off in Berlin and Paris throughout the 1920s. At the age of twenty-six, she discovered that sculpture was the medium in which she could best express her creativity. Having taken lessons in sculpting in Vienna in 1930 from Fritz Wotruba, she became an established sculptor there, was awarded the Grand Prix in Paris in 1937; as well as sculpting in stone, Anna Mahler produced bronze heads of many of the musical giants of the 20th century including Arnold Schönberg, Alban Berg, Artur Schnabel, Otto Klemperer, Bruno Walter, Rudolf Serkin and Eileen Joyce. Anna Mahler. Ich bin in mir selbst zu Hause Ed. by Barbara Weidle & Ursula Seeber Anna Mahler tribute website Obituary, The Times, 6 June 1988
Vassar College is a private, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar, it was the second degree-granting institution of higher education for women in the United States following Elmira College, it became coeducational in 1969, now has a gender ratio at the national average. The school is one of the historic Seven Sisters, the first elite female colleges in the U. S. and has a historic relationship with Yale University, which suggested a merger with the college before coeducation at both institutions. The college offers B. A. degrees in more than 50 majors and features a flexible curriculum designed to promote a breadth of studies. Student groups at the college include theater and comedy organizations, acappella groups, club sports teams and service groups, a circus troupe. Vassar College's varsity sports teams, known as the Brewers, play in the NCAA's Division III as members of the Liberty League. Vassar tied for the 11th best liberal arts college in the nation in the 2018 annual ranking of U.
S. News & World Report, with admissions described as "most selective". For the freshman class entering fall 2017, the college had an acceptance rate of 22.8%. The total number of students attending the college is around 2,450; the Vassar campus comprises over 1,000 acres and more than 100 buildings, including two National Historic Landmarks and an additional National Historic Place. A designated arboretum, the campus features more than 200 species of trees, a native plant preserve, a 530-acre ecological preserve. Vassar was founded as a women's school under the name Vassar Female College in 1861, its first president was Milo P. Jewett, but after only a year, its founder, Matthew Vassar, had the word Female cut from the name, prompting some residents of the town of Poughkeepsie, New York to quip that its founder believed it might one day admit male students. The college became coeducational in 1969. Vassar was the second of the Seven Sisters colleges, higher education schools that were strictly for women, sister institutions to the Ivy League.
It was chartered by its namesake, brewer Matthew Vassar, in 1861 in the Hudson Valley, about 70 miles north of New York City. The first person appointed to the Vassar faculty was the astronomer Maria Mitchell, in 1865. Vassar adopted coeducation in 1969; however following World War II, Vassar accepted a small number of male students on the G. I. Bill; because Vassar's charter prohibited male matriculants, the graduates were given diplomas via the University of the State of New York. These were reissued under the Vassar title; the formal decision to become co-ed came after its trustees declined an offer to merge with Yale University, its sibling institution, in the wave of mergers between the all-male colleges of the Ivy League and their Seven Sisters counterparts. In its early years, Vassar was associated with the social elite of the Protestant establishment. E. Digby Baltzell writes that "upper-class WASP families educated their children at colleges such as Harvard, Princeton and Vassar." A select and elite few of Vassar's students were allowed entry into the school's secret society Delta Sigma Rho, started in 1922.
Before becoming President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Trustee. 2,450 students attend Vassar, 98% live on campus. About 60% come from public high schools, 40% come from private schools. Vassar is 56% women and 44% men, at national average for national liberal arts colleges. Students are taught by more than 336 faculty members all holding the doctorate degree or its equivalent; the student-faculty ratio is 8:1, average class size, 17. In recent freshman classes, students of color constituted 32–38% of matriculants. International students from over 60 countries make up 8-10% of the student body. In May 2007, in keeping with its commitment to diverse and equitable education, Vassar returned to a need-blind admissions policy wherein students are admitted by their academic and personal qualities, without regard to financial status. Vassar president Frances D. Fergusson served for two decades, she retired in the spring of 2006, was succeeded by Catharine Bond Hill, former provost at Williams College, who served for 10 years until she departed in 2016.
Hill was replaced by Elizabeth Howe Bradley in 2017. Vassar's campus an arboretum, is 1,000 acres and has more than 100 buildings, ranging in style from Collegiate Gothic to International, with several buildings of architectural interest. At the center of campus stands Main Building, one of the best examples of Second Empire architecture in the United States; when it was opened, Main Building was the largest building in the U. S. in terms of floor space. It housed the entire college, including classrooms, museum and dining halls; the building was designed by Smithsonian architect James Renwick Jr. and was completed in 1865. It was preceded on campus by the original observatory. Both buildings are National Historic Landmarks. Rombout House was purchased by the college in 1915 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Many original brick buildings are scattered throughout the campus, but there are several modern and contemporary structures of architectural interest. Ferry House, a student cooperative, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1951.
Noyes House was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen. A good example of an attempt to use passive solar design can be seen in the Seeley G. Mudd Ch