click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ernst Lubitsch

Ernst Lubitsch was a German-American film director, producer and actor. His urbane comedies of manners gave him the reputation of being Hollywood's most elegant and sophisticated director. Among his best known works are Trouble in Paradise, Design for Living, The Shop Around the Corner, To Be or Not to Be and Heaven Can Wait. In 1946, he received an Honorary Academy Award for his distinguished contributions to the art of the motion picture. Lubitsch was born in 1892 in Berlin, the son of Simon Lubitsch, a tailor, Anna née Lindenstaedt, his family was Ashkenazi Jewish. He turned his back on his father's tailoring business to enter the theater, by 1911 was a member of Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater. In 1913, Lubitsch made his film debut as an actor in The Ideal Wife, he abandoned acting to concentrate on directing. He appeared in thirty films as an actor between 1912 and 1920, his last film appearance as an actor was in the 1920 drama Sumurun, opposite Pola Negri and Paul Wegener, which he directed.

In 1918, he made his mark as a serious director with Die Augen der Mumie Ma. Lubitsch alternated between escapist comedies and large-scale historical dramas, enjoying great international success with both, his reputation as a grand master of world cinema reached a new peak after the release of his spectacles Madame Du Barry and Anna Boleyn. Both of these films found American distributorship by early 1921. They, along with Lubitsch's Carmen were selected by The New York Times on its list of the 15 most important movies of 1921. With glowing reviews under his belt, American money flowing his way, Lubitsch formed his own production company and set to work on the high-budget spectacular The Loves of Pharaoh. Lubitsch sailed to the United States for the first time in December 1921 for what was intended as a lengthy publicity and professional factfinding tour, scheduled to culminate in the February premiere of Pharaoh. However, with World War I still fresh, with a slew of German "New Wave" releases encroaching on American movie workers' livelihoods, Lubitsch was not gladly received.

He cut his trip short after little more than three weeks and returned to Germany. But he had seen enough of the American film industry to know that its resources far outstripped the spartan German companies. Lubitsch left Germany for Hollywood in 1922, contracted as a director by Mary Pickford, he directed Pickford in the film Rosita. A free agent after just one American film, Lubitsch was signed to a remarkable three-year, six-picture contract by Warner Brothers that guaranteed the director his choice of both cast and crew, full editing control over the final cut. Settling in America, Lubitsch established his reputation for sophisticated comedy with such stylish films as The Marriage Circle, Lady Windermere's Fan, So This Is Paris, but his films were only marginally profitable for Warner Brothers, Lubitsch's contract was dissolved by mutual consent, with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount buying out the remainder. His first film for MGM, The Student Prince in Old Heidelberg, lost money; the Patriot, produced by Paramount, earned him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Directing.

Lubitsch seized upon the advent of sound films to direct musicals. With his first sound film, The Love Parade, starring Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald, Lubitsch hit his stride as a maker of worldly musical comedies; the Love Parade, Monte Carlo, The Smiling Lieutenant were hailed by critics as masterpieces of the newly emerging musical genre. Lubitsch served on the faculty of the University of Southern California for a time, his next film was a romantic comedy, written with Trouble in Paradise. Described as "truly amoral" by critic David Thomson, the cynical comedy was popular both with critics and with audiences, but it was a project that could only have been made before the enforcement of the Production Code, after 1935, Trouble in Paradise was withdrawn from circulation. It was not seen again until 1968; the film was never available on videocassette and only became available on DVD in 2003. Writing about Lubitsch's work, critic Michael Wilmington observed: At once elegant and ribald and earthy, urbane and bemused, frivolous yet profound.

They were directed by a man, amused by sex rather than frightened of it – and who taught a whole culture to be amused by it as well. Whether with music, as in MGM's opulent The Merry Widow and Paramount's One Hour with You, or without, as in Design for Living, Lubitsch continued to specialize in comedy, he made only the antiwar Broken Lullaby. In 1935, he was appointed Paramount's production manager, thus becoming the only major Hollywood director to run a large studio. Lubitsch subsequently produced his own films and supervised the production of films of other directors, but Lubitsch had trouble delegating authority, a problem when he was overseeing sixty different films. He was fired after a year on the job, returned to full-time moviemaking. In 1936, he became a naturalize

The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide

The Blood Telegram: Nixon, a Forgotten Genocide is a 2013 book by American journalist and academic Gary J. Bass about The Blood telegram; the Blood Telegram is a state department dissent memo on American policy during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide sent by Archer Blood the American Consul General to Dhaka, East Pakistan. Gary J. Bass is an American journalist, he is international affairs at Princeton University. Following the 1970 General Election in Pakistan held under General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won the election. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was an ethnic Bengali from East Pakistan, a Bengali majority province; the Pakistan Army was composed of recruits from Punjab and other provinces in West Pakistan. On 25 March 1971 the Pakistan Army launched a crackdown on East Pakistan and started the 1971 Bangladesh Genocide. Archer Blood was the U. S. consul general in Dhaka, East Pakistan. The staff at the U. S. consulate in Dhaka were "horrified" by the violence and asked Washington, D.

C. to intervene. Blood described the response from Washington as “deafening” silence. Blood and his staff created a dissent cable, the Blood telegram. Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger did not intervene because they were trying to use Pakistan to open diplomatic relations with China. An excerpt from the telegram, Our government has failed to denounce the suppression of democracy. Our government has failed to denounce atrocities...... Our government has evidenced what many will consider moral bankruptcy... Dexter Filkins wrote in The New York Times and Kissinger spent the decades after leaving office burnishing their images as great statesmen; this book goes a long way in showing. It won the Lionel Gelber Prize in 2014

2014 Austrian Grand Prix

The 2014 Austrian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 22 June 2014 at the Red Bull Ring in Spielberg, Austria. It was the eighth round of the 2014 season and marked the 28th running of the Austrian Grand Prix and the 27th time it had been held as a round of the Formula One World Championship, it was the first Austrian Grand Prix held since 2003. The 71-lap race was won by Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg after starting from third position, his teammate Lewis Hamilton finished second with Valtteri Bottas third for the Williams team. Felipe Massa started the race from his first since the 2008 Brazilian Grand Prix. Massa had one previous participation in an Austrian Grand Prix, back in 2002, while from the last Austrian Grand Prix to be held before 2014, in 2003, only three drivers returned to drive in the 2014 Austrian Grand Prix; the Grand Prix was contested by eleven teams, each of two drivers. The teams known as constructors, were Red Bull Racing, Ferrari, Lotus, McLaren, Force India, Toro Rosso, Williams and Caterham.

Tyre supplier Pirelli brought four different tyre compounds for the race. The drag reduction system had two activation zones for the race. Going into the race, Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg led the Drivers' Championship with 140 points, ahead of teammate Lewis Hamilton on 118 points and Daniel Ricciardo on 79. Fernando Alonso was fourth on. In the Constructors' Championship Mercedes were leading with 258 points and Red Bull were second on 139 points. Ferrari with 87 points and Force India with 77 points contended for third place, with McLaren fifth on 66 points. Mercedes had so far dominated the championship, winning six out of the previous seven races, with Ricciardo winning the Canadian Grand Prix. Championship competitor Kevin Magnussen had gained one second-place finish, while Jenson Button, Sergio Pérez and Alonso had achieved third place podium finishes. Nico Rosberg was the fastest in the first free practice session with a lap time of 1:11.295. Teammate Lewis Hamilton was the fastest in the second free practice session with a lap time of 1:09.542.

Valtteri Bottas was the fastest in the third free practice session with a lap time of 1:09.848. Williams driver Felipe Massa became the first driver other than Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg to claim pole position in 2014 with a Q3 lap time of 1:08.759. He was joined on the front row by teammate Valtteri Bottas. Hamilton failed to post a time in Q3, ending up ninth on the grid after Sergio Pérez's penalty was applied. On his first flying lap in Q3 – having been 0.4 seconds faster than Bottas' provisional pole time of 1:08.846 through the first two sectors – Hamilton ran wide at the final corner and had his lap time deleted for exceeding track limits. On his second and final lap Hamilton spun. Sebastian Vettel failed to reach Q3. At the start, Felipe Massa led the field into the first corner, with Nico Rosberg passing Valtteri Bottas, but being repassed the following straight. Lewis Hamilton gained five places on the first lap, after passing two cars on the run into the first corner and two further cars heading towards turn 2, before taking another spot from Fernando Alonso at turn 7.

As a result, he ended the first lap only one position and 0.9 seconds behind his teammate, despite starting ninth. Sebastian Vettel once again suffered from technical problems, losing drive on the first lap and attempting to retire on lap two. However, his car regained drive and he was able to continue, albeit a lap down. After damaging his front wing halfway through the race, he retired from Red Bull Racing's home Grand Prix on lap 34. At the front, the Mercedes cars were able to pass the Williams cars by stopping earlier and undercutting them during the pitstop phases. Rosberg passed both Williams during the first stops, Hamilton took second position during the second round, despite suffering two slow pit stops. Sergio Pérez once again drove a good race with a different tyre strategy, only running the super soft compound for the last 16 laps and challenging Kevin Magnussen for sixth place, despite starting sixteenth following a grid penalty. For much of the race both Mercedes cars had to manage overheating brake issues.

On lap 55 Hamilton was held up by backmarkers. During the final laps, Hamilton was gaining on teammate Rosberg, despite having lost a total of 1.9 seconds to his teammate through slower pit stops he began the final lap 1.1 seconds behind. However, he was not close enough to his teammate to challenge him and backed off at the end of the lap. Rosberg took the chequered flag for his third win of the season; as a result of the race, Nico Rosberg extended his championship lead to 29 points, the largest it had been all season. Lewis Hamilton admitted he was frustrated by his slow pit stops, but said that second was still a "good result" considering his qualifying position. Fernando Alonso, who managed to finish behind Felipe Massa in the Williams and with a smaller gap to Mercedes than usual described the race as his best of the season so far; the race was a remarkable one for Mercedes Team Principal Toto Wolff, who in being a

Kendama

The kendama is a traditional Japanese skill toy. It consists of a pair of cups and a ball that are all connected together by a string. On one end of the ken is a cup, while the other end of ken is narrowed down, forming a spike that fits into the hole of the tama; the kendama is the Japanese version of the classic cup-and-ball game, is a variant of the French cup-and-ball game bilboquet. Kendama can be held in different grips, the tricks and combinations that can be done are limitless; the principle of these toys are the same: catching one object with another, where both are joined by a string. The origins of kendama are disputed, but it is believed to have originated during the 17th or 18th century. Kendama started to evolutionize when it came to Japan during the Edo period, since the use of the toy has spread throughout the world; the size and materials used to create kendamas now vary as they are offered in jumbo and mini sizes, have been created out plastic and nylon. There are now kendama competitions held in countries all over the world, the biggest competition being the annual Kendama World Cup in Japan.

The kendama comprises the following parts: Main body ken. Spike kensaki. Big cup ōzara. Base cup chūzara. Small cup kozara. Tama tama. Hole ana. String ito. Cup body saradō. Small cup edge kozara no fuchi. Big cup for lunars ōzara no fuchi. Slip-stop or slip grip suberidome. Back end kenjiri. String attachment hole ito toritsuke ana. Bead "Stringing" a kendama is the action of connecting all 3 pieces of the kendama together. To string a kendama together, you need a piece of string; the steps to string a kendama together are: Take one end of the string and put it through the little hole in the tama until the string is coming through the big hole. Put the bead on the end of the string coming out of the ana and tie a knot to lock the bead in. Put the untied end of the string through one of the two holes in the sarado.. Lead the string through the hole in the ken. Tie a knot at that end of the string so the string doesn't slip through the ken piece. Put the sarado down on top of the ken. A video of this process can be found here.

The grip that a person decides to holds a kendama in depends on what trick that person wants to try and perform. Some of these grips include: Ken grip: Hold the ken with all five fingers with the spike pointing upwards and the big cup facing towards your body Sara grip: hold the ken by placing your thumb and index finger below the intersection of the sarado and ken. Sara grip: In addition to the thumb and index finger placement, put your middle and ring finger underneath the small cup or big cup. Tama grip: With your fingertips, hold the ball with the hole facing upwards. Candle grip: Face. Hold the ken with three fingers: index and the thumb; the general concept of kendama is pulling the ken up and balancing the tama somewhere on the ken, or vice versa. There are not any specific rules on. However, bending the knees while playing kendama is a method that experts use. Endless tricks and trick combinations can be made with just ken grip, sara grip, tama grip, candle grip by themselves or together in a combination.

Some examples of tricks in each of these grips are as follows: Spike: This trick involves the hole in the tama and the spike. Hold the ken with the spike pointing straight up Hold the ball with your off hand to ensure the ball is still before starting the motion of this trick Bend your knees Pull the tama up with your entire body Catch the ball in the spike by directing your spike underneath the hole in the tamaSwing Spike: a variation of the Spike. Hold the ken the way you would prepare to do a spike Hold the ball with your opposite hand and bring it back towards your body, keeping the tension in the string Let go of the ball and swing the ball out in front of you Tug the string a bit to make the ball rotate the hole 360° towards yourself Catch the tama on the spike by connecting the spike and the hole together. Around Japan: This trick is a combination of the big cup, small cup, the spike. Pull the ball up into the small cup Hop the ball over to the big cup by rotating your wrist to the right Keep you eye on the hole, hop the ball up onto the spike, connecting the hole and spike togetherNote: The following combination is ok: big cup→small cup→spike.

Note: This trick can be done in sara grip. Around the World: Similar to Around the Block, with the addition of the spike. Follow all the steps from "Around the Block" Keep your eye on the hole, from the bottom cup, hop the ball up and catch the ball by landing the hole on to the spikeBoth of these tricks can be done in "sara grip." Bird: This trick involves the ball, the hole, the spike, the big cup or small cup edge. Hold the ken with the spike facing upwards with the big cup facing towards your body Tilt the kendama away from you Bend your knees, extend them while pulling the ball straight up Balance the hole of the ball on the big cup edge while the ball leans against the spike Mo

Zenith Aircraft Company

Zenith Aircraft Company is in the exclusive business of designing and manufacturing kit aircraft. The independent owned company was formed in 1992 in Mexico, centrally located in the United States, is based in 20,000+ sq.ft. production facilities at Mexico Memorial Airport. Zenith Aircraft Company has acquired the rights to manufacture and market Zenair kit aircraft designs from designer Chris Heintz of Zenair Ltd. Chris Heintz' son Sebastian is listed as the owner of Zenith Aircraft Company. Kit designs manufactured by the company include the original two-seat STOL CH 701, a high-wing all-metal short take-off and landing design, the larger STOL CH 801 four-place aircraft, the STOL CH 750 light sport utility kit airplane, the two-seat CH 650, an all-metal low-wing cruiser. Other than the 801, these designs may be built to meet the FAA's Light-sport Aircraft definition for operation by Sport Pilots. Zenith Aircraft designs may be built from plans-only, selected parts, from complete kits in a few hundred hours.

The company holds two-day hands-on workshops at the factory every month to allow potential builders to gain building experience, tour the factory, go up for a demo flight in the airplane. In February 2014 the company announced that it had shipped 10,000 sets of plans to aircraft builders in over 50 countries. Zenith STOL CH701 Zenith STOL CH 750 Zenith STOL CH 750 Super Duty STOL CH 701 STOL CH 801 ZODIAC Zodiac 601 HD Official website

Shaoguan incident

The Shaoguan incident was a civil disturbance which took place overnight on 25/26 June 2009 in Guangdong province, China. A violent dispute erupted between migrant Uyghurs and Han Chinese workers at a toy factory in Shaoguan as a result of allegations of the sexual assault of a Han Chinese female. Groups of Han Chinese set upon Uyghur co-workers, leading to at least two Uyghurs being violently killed by angry Han Chinese men, some 118 people injured, most of them Uyghurs; the event was cited as the trigger event for July 2009 Ürümqi riots, which ostensibly started as a peaceful street protest demanding official action over the two Uyghurs who died in Shaoguan. Following trials in October 2009, one person was executed and several others sentenced to terms between life imprisonment and five to seven years; the factory where the incident took place is the Xuri Toy Factory, owned by Hong Kong-based Early Light International Ltd. the largest toy manufacturer in the world. The company's Shaoguan factory in the Wujiang district employs some 16,000 workers.

At the behest of the Guangdong authorities, it hired 800 workers from Kashgar, in Xinjiang as part of an ethnic program which relocated 200,000 young Uyghurs since the start of 2008. According to The Guardian, most workers sign a one- to three-year contract travel to factory dormitories in the south. Most of these Uighurs are away from home to work for the first time; the New York Times quoted Xinjiang Daily saying in May that 70 percent of the young Uyghurs had "signed up for employment voluntarily." An official in charge of ethnic and religious affairs in Guangdong said that the province had hired Uighurs, aged from 18 to 29, in May. A small group of Uyghurs arrived on 2 May, workers at the factory remarked that relations between the two groups deteriorated as the number of Uyghurs increased. State media confirmed. China Labor Watch reported that workers at the Shaoguan factory, where the Uyghurs were employed, earned 28 yuan per day compared with 41.3 yuan in its factory in Shenzhen. They noted that rights of workers and Uyghur alike, were violated by verbal abuse from factory supervisors, unpaid overtime, poor dormitory conditions and illegal labour contracts.

Li Qiang, executive director of China Labor Watch said that low pay, long hours and poor working conditions combined with the inability to communicate with their colleagues exacerbated the existing mistrust between the Han and Uyghurs. However, after the incident Guangdong didn't hire Uyghurs anymore, harming the opportunity for Uyghurs to find jobs, enhancing their poverty and strengthening their resentment of Han people. Overnight on 25–26 June, tensions flared at the factory, leading to a full-blown ethnic brawl between Uyghurs and Han Chinese; as a result of the fighting, 2 Uyghurs died and 118 people were injured, 16 of them seriously. Of the injured, 79 were Uyghurs and 39 were Han. 400 police and 50 anti-riot vehicles were mobilised. Official sources state that the rioting began at around 2 a.m. and there were reports that they lasted until at least 4.30 a.m. when police arrived. An initial disturbance was reported at around 11 p.m. when security guards responded to a call for help by a female worker who felt intimidated by several chanting male Uyghurs.

Two dozen Han workers armed with batons and metal rods responded. Uyghurs maintained that the attacks started after the night shift at around 12.30 a.m. when Han mobs stormed into Uyghur dormitories and started indiscriminate and unprovoked beatings. Amateur videos posted online showed brutal attacks, Han chasing Uyghurs through the dorm floors. One man said. Han and Uyghur witnesses interviewed by the foreign press thought the casualties had been understated by the authorities: a Han claimed to have killed seven or eight Uyghurs; the rioting stopped. A policeman explained their delay in arriving at the scene due to difficulties in assembling enough officers; the two dead men were named as Aximujiang Aimaiti and Sadikejiang Kaze, both from Xinjiang. The rioting was sparked by allegations of sexual assault on Han women by Uyghurs, rumours of an incident in which two female Han workers were sexually assaulted by six Uyghur co-workers at the factory, according to Voice of America; the authorities said that the rumours were false, had been initiated by a disgruntled former co-worker.

Xinhua said that a man surnamed Zhu "faked the information to express his discontent" over failing to find new work after quitting his job at the factory. Police said. Shaoguan government spokesman Wang Qinxin, called it "a ordinary incident", which he said had been exaggerated to foment unrest; the Guardian reported that video of the riots and photographs of the victims were circulated on the internet by Uighur exile groups, along with claims that the death toll was under-reported and the police were slow to act. Xinhua reported that Guangdong authorities had arrested two people who are suspected of having spread rumours online which alleged sexual assault of Han women had taken place. In addition, it reported on 7 July 2009 that 13 suspects had been taken into custody following the incident, of